Overview of the Digital Object Architecture (DOA) | ISOC

Overview of the Digital Object Architecture (DOA); an Information Paper, The Internet Society; 2016-10-25; 8 pages; landing.
contributor credit: Chip Sharp, scrivener

Contents

  • Introduction
  • What is the Digital Object Architecture?
  • What is a Handle?
  • Handle Resolution
  • Who Runs the Global Handle System?
  • Examples of systems based on the Digital Object Architecture/Handle System
  • Standards and the Handle System
  • Policy Considerations
  • Trademarks and Service Marks
  • Resourcs

Introduction

<quote>The Digital Object Architecture (DOA) and associated Handle System® originated at the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) in the early 1990’s based on its work on digital libraries under contract for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).1 One of the original motivations for its design was the need to identify and retrieve information over long periods of time (on the order of tens or hundreds of years) so persistence was a critical design requirement. At the time it was developed, the Digital Object Architecture was an attempt to shift from a view of the Internet as organized around a set of hosts and the transport to reach them to a view in which the Internet was organized around the discovery and delivery of information in the form of digital objects.<quote>

Mentions

  • Digital Object Architecture (DOA)
  • associated Handle System®
    Yes, that’s a registration mark, ®.
  • Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
  • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
  • um, like “digital libraries”
  • DONA Foundation
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs)
  • Multi-Primary Administrators (MPAs), manage the partitions of the namespace of the root servers of the top level GHR.
  • Policy Development Process (PDP)

Architecture

Digital Objects
The records, blobs of bits.
Repositories
The containers of records objects.
Handles
The names are global contextually scoped, universal, persistent.
There is a Handle Protocol, in (at least) version v2.1.
Resolution System and Registries
Like DNS, but different; maps “names” to Handles.

  • Global Handle Registry (GHR), is the root server.
  • Local Handle Services (LHS), are the regional delegates.
Handles
The names are, e.g. GUIDs, UUIDs.
  • unique
  • persistent
  • location-agnostic
  • taxonomy-agnostic

Handle

Defined as a string:
prefix “/” identifier
where
prefix is a “like a” reversed FQDN.
identifier is “like a” filename on the FQDN so referenced.
Thus handles are

  • unique
  • persistent
  • location-agnostic
  • taxonomy-agnostic
Example

For the FQDN of the U.S. Library of Congress (LOC)
FQDN: ye-auguste-national-librarye.loc.gov
Handle: gov.loc.ye-auguste-national-librarye

Registrars>

  • Coalition for Handle Services (ETIRI, CDI and CHC)
  • Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC)
  • Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
  • Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung mbH Göttingen (GWDG)/ePIC
  • International DOI Foundation (IDF)

Participants

DOI® System
  • International DOI Foundation (IDF)
    UK, non-profit, 1998
  • Prefix 10
  • Handle semantics is idiosyncratic, known to themselves.
  • Examples
Persistent Identifier Consortium for eResearch (ePIC)
  • [for the benefit of the] European Research Community
  • Prefix 21

Standards

RFC 3650
S. Sun, L. Lannom, B. Boesch. Handle System Overview, RFC 3650, 2003-11.
RFC 3651
S. Sun, Reilly, L. Lannom. Handle System Namespace and Service Definition, RFC 3651, 2003-11.
RFC 3652
S. Sun, S. Reilly, L. Lannom, J. Petrone. Handle System Protocol (ver 2.1) Specification, RFC 3652, 2003-11.
RFC 4452
H. Van de Sompel, T. Hammond, E. Neylon, S. Weibel. The “info” URI Scheme for Information Assets with Identifiers in Public Namespaces, RFC 4452, 2006-04.
ISO 26324:2012
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), “ISO 26324:2012 Information and documentation — Digital object identifier system“, ISO Standard 26324, 2012-06.
ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2005 (R2010)
ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2005 (R2010) Syntax for the Digital Object Identifier. (revised 2010)
X.1255
ITU-T Recommendation X.1255, Framework for discovery of identity management information, ITU-T, 2014

Trademarks and Service Marks

International DOI Foundation, Inc.
DOI, DOI.ORG, “short DOI” are registered service marks of …
DONA Foundation
DONA, GLOBAL HANDLE REGISTRY, HANDLE SYSTEM are registered service marks of…
Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
HANDLE.NET, HDL, HDL.NET, CNRI are registered service marks of …
HDL, HDL.NET are registered trademarks of …
Internet Society
Internet Society is a registered service mark of the …

References

References

  • Documents at the DONA Foundation
  • open-stand.org
  • ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2005 (R2010) Syntax for the Digital Object Identifier. (revised 2010)
  • Corporation for National Research Initiatives, Overview of the Digital Object Architecture, July 28, 2012
  • DONA Foundation. DONA Foundation Statutes. Geneva. 2014.
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO), “ISO 26324:2012 Information and documentation — Digital object identifier system”, ISO Standard 26324, 2012-06.
  • ITU-T Recommendation X.1255, Framework for discovery of identity management information, ITU-T, 2014.
  • R. Kahn, R. Wilensky. “A Framework for Distributed Digital Object Services”, In International Journal of Digital Libraries (2006) 6: 115.
  • Norman, Paskin. The Digital Object Identifier: From Ad Hoc to National to International. In The Critical Component: Standards in the Information Exchange Environment, edited by Todd Carpenter, ALCTS, 2015.
  • Peter J. Denning & Robert E. Kahn, The Long Quest for Universal Information Access. In Communications of the ACM, Vol. 53 No. 12, Pages 34-36.
  • RFC 3650. S. Sun, L. Lannom, B. Boesch. Handle System Overview, IETF, RFC 3650, 2003-11.
  • RFC 3651. S. Sun, S. Reilly, L. Lannom. Handle System Namespace and Service Definition, IETF, RFC 3651, 2003-11.
  • RFC 3652. S. Sun, S. Reilly, L. Lannom. J. Petrone, Handle System Protocol (ver 2.1) Specification, IETF, RFC 3652, 2003-11.
  • RFC 4452. H. Van de Sompel, T. Hammond, E. Neylon, S. Weibel, The “info” URI Scheme for Information Assets with Identifiers in Public Namespaces, IETF, RFC 4452, 2006-04.

Previously filled.

Future Studies (partial) Roundup through 2017-06

Concepts

  • AI <ahem>1970→2004, AI defined as that which computers could not do (FAIL); 2004→2017 AI redefined to that which computers can do (success!)</ahem>
  • Big Data (which is so very big, we are all very impressed down here)
  • The Coming War on General Purpose Computing [Doctorow]
  • Communities of Practice
  • Computers are very delicate
  • Creative Class (Florida)
  • Data (Personal Data) is the New Oil → Oil is the new Oil.
  • Designed in California, Manufatured in China
  • The Disappearing Computer
  • A Failure of Imagination
  • A Failure to Launch
  • Financialization
  • Free Culture → Code is Law (Lessig)
  • Entitlement → Implicit entitlement of The Millennials & The Homelanders (Generation Z)
  • Internet of Thingies (IoT)
    Internet of Unpatchable Toys (IoT)
    Internet of Abandoned Devices
  • Internet Trends → Mary Meeker, the boosterism
  • It Was Ever Thus → plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose
  • Hollowing Out → There is no silicon in Silicon Valley. and there and hasn’t been for over a generation.
  • Innovation Duration
  • Platform Cooperativism
  • Post Open Source (POSS)
  • Regulation → public-private “partnerships,” “government has a role to play,” GDPR
  • Regulation → Net Neutrality
  • Regulation → Internet of Thingies
  • Robots → <gee-whizz!>Drones, Servos, Driverlessness</gee-whizz!>
  • Silicon Valley Culture → techno optimism, techno determinism, against Washington.
  • Stagnation → The Great Stagnation, The Downward Ramp
  • STEM, STEEP → labor shortage, labor economics, immigration
  • Stocks vs Flows (Hagel’s concepts)
  • Surveillance Studies (and the journal)
  • Trust, But Verify
  • West Coast Culture
  • Universal Basic Income (UBI) → To each according to their need.

Exemplars

Trilemma of The Global Scenarios 2025 of Shell Oil (2005)

  • Three Poles
    • Security, Coercion, Regulation
    • Efficiency, Market Incentives
    • Social Cohesion, Justice, Communitarianism (The force of community)
  • Scenarios
    • Low Trust Globalization
    • Flags
    • Open Doors

Separately noted.

Quadratic (ahem, a “Quadrilemma”) of the Internet Futures Scenarios

  • Two Axis, Four Quadrant
  • X-Axis
    • Command & Control
    • Decentralized & Distributed
  • Y-Axis
    • Generative
    • Reductive
  • Scenarios
    • Porous Garden
    • Moats and Drawbridges
    • Common Pool
    • Boutique Networks

Separately noted.

Theories

In Jimi Wales’ Wiki, Encyclopedia Brittanica, etc.

Popularization & Practice

  • Clayton Christianson
    • Disruptive Innovation
    • Innovation to Predict Change
  • Geoffrey Moore.
    • Core vs Context,
    • Chasm,
    • Tornado,
    • Gorilla etc.

Referenced

Noted herein

Categorical

Background

  • Counterfactual Histories, the method of counterfactuals
  • Covering-Law Model
  • Post Open Source (POSS); In Jimi Wales’ Wiki.
  • Ben Ramsey; Post-Open Source; In His Blog; 2016-004-26.
  • Quadrilemma, see Trilemma, see Dilemma
  • Trilemma, In Jimi Wales’ Wiki
    also: uneasy triangle, impossible trinity, and other branded concepts

    • stable price level, full employment, free collective bargaining
    • impossible trinity,
    • fair, free, equal,
    • democracy, national sovereignty, global economic integration

Back References

Looking into the Internet’s Future, Scenarios | Internet Society

Future Internet at the Internet Society.

Scenarios of 2009

Soliciation 2016→2017

Solicitation of input towards a new output revision. Expected 2016-Q4 through 2017-Q2.

Perspectives

Drivers & Areas

Internet Society
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Your Digital Footprint | Internet Society

Your Digital Footprint 2014-01-14.

Digital Footprints: An Internet Society Reference Framework; Internet Society; 2014-01-28; X pages (pdf seems busted); landing.

Tutorials & Slides

Presentations

<iframes huh?=”of the flash demonstrators”>









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Via: backfill