A Tragedy of Manners | Angela Nagle

A Tragedy of Manners; Angela Nagle; In The Baffler; WHEN?
Teaser: Trump and the new age of anti-PC transgression

tl;dr → Manners are a contested space by which actions valorize the hegemonic power valences of the universalist tropes; they are a tussle among the grand ideologues. The author problematizes the domain and limns the transgressive dialogue towards a synthesis which ultimately resulting in the thesis of the conceptual conundrum while at the same time  preserving the original order, thus standing in opposition to itself with both metaphoric as well as rhetorical stances. The lede is buried. To wit:

<quote>The problem in our current, unacknowledged controversy over manners is that while both sides seem to implicitly accept [value] premise, they have directly opposing views of what our system of manners should be doing and what values it should be normalizing.</quote>

Book

Angela Nagle; Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan And Tumblr To Trump And The Alt-Right; Zero Books; 2017-06-30; 136 pages; Amazon:1785355430: Kindle: $10, paper: $16+SHT; previously filled.

Mentions

  • seismic shock, means “big”
  • Donald Trump
  • cultural anxiety, means racism, coded racism, encoded racism, latent racism.
  • ping-pong style search
  • British Burkean conservative Peter Hitchens
  • in Buckleyite fashion
  • Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, 1820.
  • Sittlichkeit
    • a German word (they have words for everythig)
    • an epithet a term of art
    • definition: the ethical life
  • progressives, the good people.
  • the outmoded, prissy-sounding language of manners
  • pride of place
  • the debased rhetoric plotting out
  • metaphorical usage.
  • <quote>the battle over “political correctness”</quote>, a metaporical usage
  • <quote>ongoing war over speech on college campuses</quote>, a metaporical usage
  • <quote>understood through the lens of</quote>, a metaporical usage
  • liberal free speech rights
  • strategic considerations
  • the free speech wars
  • rights under attack from the state
  • <quote>The same basic paradox assails all spheres of political and cultural confrontation</quote>,
    in which “a paradox” does “assail”
  • [They] abjure
    [They] instinctively abjure reckoning
  • The Decivilizing Process
  • gleefully presided over
  • a mass rejection, the mass rejection
  • a liberal sense of
  • political correctness
  • a renegotiation of propriety
  • a pluralist multi-ethnic modern society
  • accommodating
  • admiration
  • transgression
  • straight-talking style.
  • taboo-breaking
  • an unlicensed brand of
  • right-wing cultural subversion, right-wing cultural subversion
  • repressed snobs
  • pearl-clutchers
  • stereotyped view
  • elitist cultural authoritarians—the storm troopers of the liberal language police.
  • renegotiating
  • the very profound question of
  • magnum opus
  • uncomfortable
  • hardy coterie of academic defenders
  • interconnected collective socialization
  • transition into modernity
  • basic lessons
  • collectively negotiated network of self-constraints
  • socialized people into repudiating
  • the governance of public life
  • self-restraint
  • bodily functions
  • the repression of sexual and violent impulses
  • the very fabric of civilization
  • the liberationist ethos of
  • the sixties New Left
  • <quote>the movement spelled a</quote>, a metaphorical usage
  • <quote>a total breakdown of manners and self-restraint in a “permissive society”<quote>, is a hyperbolic usage
  • that critique gained force
    criticism has force, a metaphorical usage, to be sure.
  • wider declensionist narratives
  • neoconservative historian
  • Gertrude Himmelfarb
  • Victorian England
  • to contend that
  • the post-sixties West would be unable to withstand
  • the chaotic force of modernity
  • Western civilization
  • <quote>on the brink of nothing less than total “demoralization,”</quote>, a hyperbolic usage
  • polemicists, Neocon polemicists
  • few dour and cultured leftists, the few
  • Lewis Lapham
  • Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • the youthful adherents
  • Trumpian, the Trumpian right
  • an allied preoccupation
  • civilizational, civilizational collapse
  • the permissive society
  • quasi-Trumpian supporters
  • the anti-PC resistance
  • Camille Paglia
    • is neo-Freudian
    • Sexual Personae
      , a tome
    • is formidable
      she herself, for her own account
  • most ambivalent and qualified arguments
  • the left-leaning [arguments]
  • celebration of decadent culture
  • exponents, [civilization's] key exponents
  • Oscar Wilde
  • <quote>rescued aesthetic insights in the face of<quote>, a mixed metaphorical usage.
  • largely self-administered cultural collapse
  • a related critical register
  • degeneration theory (Degeneration Theory)
  • Max Nordau
  • Oswald Spengler
  • <quote>shape the tone and content of<quote>, a mixed metaphorical usage.
  • a whole new wave of
  • right-wing alternative media.
  • Part and parcel of
  • declensionist revival (on the right)
  • progress, the idea of progress, the very idea of progress.
  • urgency of [Trump’s] appeal
  • mounting conviction
  • the West
  • rapidly degenerating
  • the rubric of, under the rubric of
  • as administered and championed by
  • cultural liberals
  • Circa 2015
  • 4chan’s /pol/ ‘board
  • a meme, the phrase; the widely-shared meme.
  • the meme, the phrase: “Come on it’s (the current year)”
  • naïve progressives
  • John Oliver
  • questioned, [X] questioned, to question
  • the arbitrary insistence
  • <quote>moving forward in time<quote>, a metaphorical usage
  • superior values.
  • More recently [than circa 2015], which would be the twenty months of 2016 & 2017.
  • the meme, the phrase pair:
    • “$DATE1: $statement1” contra “$DATE2: $statement2”
      where $DATE1 + 30 < $DATE2 && value($statement1) > value($statement2)
    • e.g. “1970: ‘I can’t wait for flying cars/space colonies/a cure for cancer’” contra 2017, an image of a man who identifies as a dog or an adult baby.
  • contemporary identity politics, a representation of contemporary identity politics
  • the political message, the political message is clear
  • claim of dichotomy:
    • either progress itself is a myth
    • all of
      • [we have] stopped progressing
      • [we have] started regressing as a civilization
      • [we are] now intractably sinking into a decivilizing process.
  • Question: You Call That Art?
    Answer: what else could it be? The null hypothesis?
  • An audience
    • looser,
    • right-leaning,
    • online,
  • a meme, the critique-of-progress
    • e.g.Cathedral Gothic Art contra Contemporary Art
    • sarcastically caption: e.g. “progress” or “art then . . . art now.”
  • absurdist
  • <quote>knitting with wool from her vagina</quote>, activities attributed to Casey Jenkins
    which begs the question of how wool got in her vagina; would that be a used tampon?. Juvenile, if true.
  • vastly overrated modern art
  • long been a preoccupation
  • almost a cliché
  • the declension narratives
  • the declension narratives of the right (the third? usage).
  • Francis Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live?, 1976
    honorific: <quote>one of the founding texts of the American religious right<quote>
  • a polemic work, a polemic work of art history.
  • the right-leaning suspicion
  • contemporary art
  • the faux-populist refrain, some variant of the faux-populist refrain
  • “my three-year-old could do that”, an epithet.
  • Roger Scruton, an erudite conservative critic
  • “cult of ugliness”, attributed to Roger Scruton.
  • The young subcultural online right
  • <quote>mourns the death of the ideal of beauty as an extension of its critique of progress</quote>, a mixed metaphorical usage.
  • the hordes of online left-baiters
  • judgments of personal beauty, of women.
  • before-and-after cultural documentation; the transition, the purported transition
    • nice, well-adjusted-looking young women
    • and (or)
      • feminism
      • the ravages of studying the social sciences.
  • exemplar, a hated exemplar: Lena Dunham
  • modern cult of ugliness
  • <quote>channeling the latter avant-garde aesthetic sensibilities of shock and transgression.<quote>ongoing an action attributed to of the [members of the] modern cult of ugliness.
  • confrontationally corpulent nudity, an ongoing action attributed to Lena Dunham.
  • outsider art, contra insider art
  • <quote>[The Nazis] waged war on “degenerate art”<quote>, a metaphorical usage; to wit, National Socialist German Workers’ Party waged actual war as well, such war being one the second most famous policy-based activity for which they are known..
  • Weimar avant-garde, the vibrant Weimar avant-garde
    • a crusade
    • years of reactionary writing
    • modern art beiing
      • ugly
      • Jewish
      • destructive to European traditions
  • …affecting a transition from art to Nazi policy to Donald Trump’s stylistic fluorishes, we see what you did there.
  • Trump’s own famous style
  • fanatically mimicked
  • right-wing culture-jammers
  • a certain avant-gardish notoriety
  • <quote>images so stomach-churning and morally repugnant they “can’t be unseen.”<quote>, an epithet, a passive characterization.
  • The new youthful rightist movements
  • the modern aesthetics of shock and transgression
  • the alternation:
    • horrified critics
    • prolific producers
  • <quote>Trumpians [as a self-conscious class] their leader’s id-driven defiance of the harsh constraints imposed by strict liberal etiquette and sexual mores</quote>
  • [the] coarse “pussy grabbing” comments
  • <quote>the general conditions of cultural decline ushered in by the liberalism of the sixties<quote>
  • Trumpians are not rightist trolls; c.f. <quote>To them and to the rightist trolls</quote>
  • Wherein the shock of throwing X is a pushback against Y
  • <quote>the shock of throwing off liberal etiquette is a pushback against the civilizational decline brought on by those Baby Boomers who threw off their own set of constraints.</quote>
  • Baby Boomers
  • the culture of trolling
  • the culture of style-defining spaces
  • 4chan is
    • a culture of trolling
    • a culture of style-defining spaces
  • [such culture] [is only] a franchise of the far right
  • the fetishization of trolling as
    • “counter-hegemonic”
    • taboo-breaking
  • leftish writers; a characterization, an honorific, an epithet.
  • the sixties view
    • is that systems of personal constraints were the cause of society’s ills rather than the cure.
    • is anti-Freudian.
    • is descended from Rousseau.
  • confused, backswitching narratives of cultural decline
  • <quote>the legacy of Elias sheds an invaluable light</quote>, a mixed metaphorical usage.
  • a body of work about the “decivilizing process”
  • something different than
    • the declension narratives of the right
    • the declension narratives of the left
  • something similar to
    • a communitarian sense of society.
  • the definition [f decline]
    • shorter chains of social interdependence
    • a decrease in
      • in taming of aggressiveness
      • mutual identification
      • the gap between child and adult standards
    • a reliance on external constraints to curb
      • violent impulses
      • unruly impulses
    • an increase in
      • the free expression of aggressiveness
  • Cas Wouters
  • the post-sixties management of manners
  • a less morally constrained time
  • <quote>“a highly controlled decontrolling of emotional controls”<quote>, attributed to Cas Wouters [clearly he too, had no editorial supervision].
  • The Shock Doctrine
    as used here used conflates the argument of Naomi Klein with the critical theoretical implications of public and individual reactions to works of ironic performative criticism as “art.”
  • the memes, the memes of the right
    <quote>the irony-drenched “come on, it’s the current year!” memes of the right</quote>
  • the call to action
    the calls to reject modernity,
    <quote>the merely retrograde calls to reject modernity</quote>
  • Robert Hughes diagnosed
    • an active action
    • claimed: art culture lost 1890→1980
      • Ebullience
      • Idealism
      • Confidence
  • The Shock Doctrine is, and was
    • <quote>the trademark culture-seizing ebullience of modern Western art<quote>
    • the “shock of the new”
    • once heralded the future
  • <quote>[the shock doctrine] was <snip/>a central battleground<quote>, a mixed metaphorical usage.
  • thrashing out the meaning of progress
  • Robert Hughes mourned, an action on his part.
  • the modes, the modes of expression,
    <quote>the nasty, negative, and nihilistic modes of expression that today also paradoxically repulses and characterizes the aesthetic sensibilities of the youthful online right, depending on subtler distinctions of whose rules it is transgressing.</quote>
  • Establishment conservatism, as a self-conscious class.
  • the Trumpians, the Trumpians preside
  • a ghost-dance revival of the very recent past
  • “Make America Great Again”
    • a mission
    • a call to action
  • the legions of the alt-right
  • an imminent nightmarish future
  • <quote>a civilization already dropped off the cliff</quote>, a metaphorical usage.
  • “America is already great!”
    • The centrist insistence
    • The stupendously ineffectual rejoinder to Trump trademarked by the Clinton campaign
    • has an alternative
      • is anemic
      • is uninspiring
      • [is] <quote>a strange kind of end-of-history politics that holds GDP and the gradual liberalization of cultural attitudes as the incontrovertible measure of secular millennialism.</quote>
  • secular millennialism, as measured
    <quote>the incontrovertible measure of secular millennialism</quote>
  • generational living standards
  • the technological affluent future
  • claimed: alt-right memes will have [continued] appeal under the conditions specified.
  • …the rhetorical transition, abruptly, back to the subject of manners. We see what you did there.
  • something about manners
  • an extremely fraught renegotiation
  • …the  rhetorical transition, something about McDonald’s corporation and progress and Nazi Germany and Elias’ thought:
    • The corporate slogan
      of McDonalds, the golden arches of McDonalds
      “A modern and progressive burger company.”
    • Norbert Elias
      • a German
      • a Jew
      • fled Nazi Germany
      • mother died in Auschwitz
  • civilization
  • equals restraint
  • a delicate balance
  • atrophies
  • all is lost
  • <quote>We’re now in the midst of an extremely fraught renegotiation of the values expressed in our system of manners.</quote>
  • the controversy [teach the controversy],
    <quote>our current unacknowledged controversy over manners</quote>

Pantheon

  • Peter Hitchens, a British Burkean conservative.
  • James Burke, a theorist.
  • William Buckley, a theorist.
  • Lena Dunham, a performer; was born, lived in New York, her family members work as artists, work in the arts.
  • Norbert Elias, a scrivener; performed landmark research.
  • Sigmund Freud, a theorist.
  • Gertrude Himmelfarb, historicist, a neoconservative
  • Robert Hughes, a theorist, upon the domain of art
  • Casey Jenkins, a performer; (ahem, is female); has a vagina
  • Lewis Lapham, a leftist, by trade; is dour, is cultured.
  • William Gibbon, a scrivener
  • Max Nordau, a theorist; branded: Degeneration Theory.
  • John Oliver, a performer, of satire; is naive, is progressive (good).
  • Camille Paglia, a theorist; is formidable, she, herself.
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau, a theorist.
  • Francis Schaeffer, a theorist.
  • Roger Scruton, a theorist; is conservative, is erudite.
  • Oswald Spengler, a theorist; branded: Degeneration Theory.
  • Donald J. Trump, boffo, a data subject, the data subject.
  • Slavoj Žižek, a philosoph, a Marxist.
  • Oscar Wilde, a practitioner; is an exponent.
  • Cas Wouters, a theorist; following the theory of Norbert Elias.

Referenced

  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, 1820.
  • Norbert Elias, The Civilizing Process, 1939.
  • Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1776.
  • Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, 2007.
  • Camile Paglia, Sexual Personae, 1990.
    honorific: a tome.
  • Francis Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live?, 1976.
    honorific: <quote>one of the founding texts of the American religious right<quote>

Argot

The suitcase words
  • Avant-garde, The Avant-garde
  • Baby Boomers
  • Burkean
  • Buckleyite
  • Declenscionist Narrative
  • Decivilizing Process, The
  • Descent Theory
  • Freudian, neo-Freudian
  • Left
    • New Left
    • The Left
  • Right
    • Alt-Right
    • The Right
  • Sixties, The Sixties
  • Shock Doctrine, The
  • Trumpian
  • West, The West

Previously filled.

A History of the Future | David J. Staley

David J. Staley; A History of the Future; In History and Theory; Theme Issue 41; ISSN: 0018-2656; 2002-12; pages 72-89 (18 pages).

Abstract

Does history have to be only about the past? “History” refers to both a subject matter and a thought process. That thought process involves raising questions, marshalling evidence, discerning patterns in the evidence, writing narratives, and critiquing the narratives written by others. Whatever subject matter they study, all historians employ the thought process of historical thinking.

What if historians were to extend the process of historical thinking into the subject matter domain of the future? Historians would breach one of our profession’s most rigid disciplinary barriers. Very few historians venture predictions about the future, and those who do are viewed with skepticism by the profession at large. On methodological grounds, most historians reject as either impractical, quixotic, hubristic, or dangerous, any effort to examine the past as a way to make predictions about the future.

However, where at one time thinking about the future did mean making a scientifically-based prediction, futurists today are just as likely to think in terms of scenarios.Where a prediction is a definitive statement about what will be, scenarios are heuristic narratives that explore alternative plausibilities of what might be. Scenario writers, like historians, understand that surprise, contingency, and deviations from the trend line are the rule, not the exception; among scenario writers, context matters. The thought process of the scenario method shares many features with historical thinking. With only minimal intellectual adjustment, then, most professionally trained historians possess the necessary skills to write methodologically rigorous “histories of the future.”

Mentions

  • Covering-Law Models
  • Initial Conditions
  • Counterfactual historians
  • Retrodictions (contra predictions)
  • Narrative sentences => refer to at least two time-separated events; give descriptions of the events which could not have been observed at the time [due to anti-causlity]; e.g. The thirty Years War begin in 1618.
  • scenarios
    • prediction, plausibilities, possibilities
    • opportunities for control
  • The Advice Establishment
    • hardening the soft sciences
    • Rand Corporation, US
    • Futuribles, FR; a think tank, Ford Foundation, Bertrand de Jouvenel
  • Scenarios
    • Peter Wack
    • The Shell Method
    • The Intuitive Method
    • <quote>The goal of scenario writing is not to predict the one path the future will follow but to discernthe possible states toward which the future might be “attracted.”</quote> [page 79]
      • “what if …”
      • [what would you have to believe if ...]
    • <quote>Each version of the future has its own “logics,” “the plot which ties togetherthe elements of the system.”</quote>
    • Three alternates [the tri-lemma concept]
  • A postmodernist approach
    • Wagar
    • the past is just as inaccessible as the future.
    • <quote>Wagar believes historians are empowered to write stories about the future using scenario thinking as a license to avoid making definitive predictions — in the same way postmodernism has freed them from searching for the inaccessible objective truth of the past.</quote> [page 82]
  • Immanuel Wallerstein’s world systems theory
  • <quote>Evidence makes counterfactuals”practicable”and future scenarios “futurible.”</quote> [page 86]
  • thick descriptions; of anthropological methods.
  • <quote>the scenarios historians write would need to be synchronic narratives, rather than the diachronic narratives we usually prefer.</quote> [page 87]
  • structure vs [temporal] ordering

Who

  • Hannah Arendt
  • Michael Biddiss
  • Marc Bloch
  • Fernand Braudel
  • Thomas J. Chermack
  • Paul Costello
  • Arthur Danto
  • Max Dublin
  • Richard J. Evans
  • Niall Ferguson
  • James Gleick
  • Raymond Grew
  • Thane Gustafson
  • Geoffrey Hawthorn
  • Hegel
  • Robert Heilbroner
  • Edward J. Honton
  • Neil Howe
  • Bertrand de Jouvenel
  • Herman Kahn
  • Susan A. Lynham
  • Gordon Leff
  • Antonio Martelli
  • Marx
  • Ernest May
  • William McNeill
  • Matthew Melko
  • Stephen M. Millett,
  • Richard Neustadt
  • Karl Popper
  • Kevin Reilly
  • Nicholas Rescher
  • Wendy E. A. Ruona
  • Marshall Sahlins
  • T. Irene Sanders
  • Arthur Schlesinger
  • Arthur Schlesinger Jr.
  • Hagen Schulze
  • Michael Stanford
  • Leften Stavrianos
  • William Strauss
  • Toynbee
  • Peter Schwartz
  • William A. Sherden
  • Spengler
  • Stephen Vaughan
  • Vico
  • Pierre Wack
  • W. Warren Wagar
  • Immanuel Wallerstein
  • Hayden White
  • Sam Wineburg
  • Daniel Yergin

Referenced

  • National Standards for History; 2002.
  • Sam Wineburg; Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past; Temple University Press; 2001.
  • Robert Heilbroner; The Future as History; Grove Press; 1959.
  • Arthur Schlesinger; The Cycles of American History; 1986; Mariner Books; 1999.
  • William Strauss, Neil Howe; The Fourth Turning: What the Cycles of History Tell Us About America’s Next Rendezvous with Destiny; Broadway Books; 1997; ; noted herein.
  • William Strauss, Neil Howe; Generations: The History of America’s Future 1584 to 2069; Quill; 1991; noted herein.
  • Matthew Melko; The Perils of Macrohistorical Studies; In World History Bulletin, Issue 17; 2001-Fall; pages 27-32 (6 pages); noted herein.
  • Raymond Grew; “Review Essay on Paul Costello, World Historians and Their Goals: Twentieth-Century Answers to Modernism”; In History and Theory; Volume 34; 1995; pages 371-394.
  • Michael Biddiss, “History as Destiny: Gobineau, H. S. Chamberlain and Spengler”; In Transactions of the Royal Historical Society; Volume 7; 1997; pages 73-100.
  • Max Dublin; Futurehype: The Tyranny of Prophecy; Dutton; 1991.
  • Gordon Leff; “The Past and the New,” in The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History; Stephen Vaughn, editor; University of Georgia Press; 1985.
  • Karl Popper; “Prediction and Prophecy in the Social Sciences”; In Conjectures and Refutations;  Routledge and Kegan Paul; 1963.
  • Karl Popper; The Poverty of Historicism; Routledge; 1957.
  • Arthur C. Danto, Narration and Knowledge; Columbia University Press; 1968, 1985.
  • Robert Heilbroner; Visions of the Future: The Distant Past, Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow; New York Public Library and Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Bertrand de Jouvenel; The Art of Conjecture; Basic Books; 1967.
  • Nicholas Rescher; Predicting the Future: An Introduction to the Theory of Forecasting; State University of New York Press; 1998.
  • William A. Sherden; The Fortune Sellers: The Big Business of Buying and
    Selling Predictions; John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1998.
  • James Gleick; Chaos: The Making of a New Science; Viking; 1987.
  • Stephen M. Millett, Edward J. Honton; A Manager’s Guide to Technology Forecasting and Strategy Analysis Methods; Battelle Press, 1991.
  • T. Irene Sanders; Strategic Thinking and the New Science: Planning in the Midst of Chaos, Complexity,and Change; The Free Press; 1998.
  • Herman Kahn; The Year 2000: A Framework for Speculation on the Next Thirty-Three Years; The Macmillan Company, 1967.
  • Pierre Wack, “Scenarios: Uncharted Waters Ahead”; In Harvard Business Review; Volume 63; 1985;, pages 72-79,
  • Pierre Wack; “Scenarios:Shooting the Rapids”; In Harvard Business Review; Volume 63; 1985; pages 139-150.
  • Stephen M. Millett; History of Business Scenarios (busted link)
  • Thomas J. Chermack, Susan A. Lynham, Wendy E. A. Ruona; “A Review of Scenario Planning Literature”; In Futures Research Quarterly; Volume 17; 2001-Summer; pages 7-31.
  • Antonio Martelli, “Scenario Building and Scenario Planning: State of the Art and Prospects of Evolution”; In Futures Research Quarterly; Volume 17; 2001-Summer; pages 57-74.
  • Peter Schwartz; The Art of the Long View: Planning for the Future in an Uncertain World; Currency/Doubleday; 1991.
  • Innovators of Digital Economy Alternatives (IDEA).
    • http://edie.cprost.sfu.ca/~idea/scen2.html (ibidem.)
    • http://edie.cprost.sfu.ca/~idea/scen3.html (ibidem.)
  • W. Warren Wagar; “Past and Future”; In American Behavioral Scientist; Volume 42; 1998-11/1998-12.
  • Daniel Yergin, Thane Gustafson; Russia 2010, and What It Means for the Rest of the World; Vintage Books; 1995.
  • W. Warren Wagar; Short History of the Future; University of Chicago Press; 1999.
  • “Tomorrow and Tomorrow andTomorrow”; staff; In Technology Review; Volume 96; 1993-04; pages 50-59.
  • David J. Staley; “Japan’s Uncertain Future: Key Trends and Scenarios”; In The Futurist; Volume 26; 2002-03/2002-04; pages 48-53.
  • Michael Stanford; The Nature of Historical Knowledge; Blackwell; 1986.
  • Richard J. Evans; In Defense of History; W. W. Norton; 1999.
  • William H. McNeill; Mythistory and Other Essays; University of Chicago Press,; 1986.
  • Niall Ferguson; VirtualHistory: Alternatives and Counterfactuals; Basic Books,
    1997.
  • Geoffrey Hawthorn; Plausible Worlds: Possibility and Understanding in History and the Social Sciences; Cambridge University Press; 1991.
  • Hagen Schulze; Germany: A New History; Harvard University Press; 1998.
  • Richard E. Neustadt, Ernest R. May; Thinking in Time: The Uses of History by Decision-Makers; The Free Press; 1986.
  • Marshall Sahlins; Islands of History; University of Chicago Press; 1985.
  • Fernand Braudel; On History; University of Chicago Press; 1980.
  • Douglas Hofstadter; Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern; Basic Books; 1985.
  • David J. Staley; “Realistic and Responsible Imagination: Ordering the Past to Envision the Future of Technology”; In Futures Research Quarterly; Volume 14; 1998-Fall; pages 29-39.

Via: backfill