Defending Internet Freedom through Decentralization: Back to the Future? | Barabas, Narula, Zuckerman

Chelsea Barabas, Neha Narula, Ethan Zuckerman; Defending Internet Freedom through Decentralization: Back to the Future?;a book?; The Center for Civic Media & The Digital Currency Initiative; MIT Media Lab; 2017; 113 pages.

tl;dr → theoretical; witnessing.  You tell it, you tell the story!  Mentions Bitcoin on page 2; uses the word “hegemon” on page 14.  Offers a cook’s tour of the boosterist community and their projects: Freedom Box, Diaspora, Mastodon, Blockstack, Interplanetary File System (IPFS), Solid, Appcoins, Steemit.

Table of Contents

  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
    • The Rise of the Centralized Web
    • Risks Posed by the Centralized Web
    • Structural Interventions as a Possible Solution
  • Section II: Federation
    • Freedom Box
    • Diaspora
    • Mastodon
  • Section III: Open Protocols
    • Authentication
    • Blockstack
    • Interoperability
    • IPFS
    • Solid
  • Section IV: Appcoins
    • Steemit
  • Conclusion

Recommendations

  • Wait and see, only time will tell.
    <quote>A precondition for the success of these distributed
    platforms is a shift towards user-controlled data,</quote>
  • Fund the projects (the best-of-breed exemplars, below, and more)
    e.g. Let’s Encrypt.
  • The fascination, gee whiz!; it’s simply phenomenal!
    Use Appcoins

    • circumvent Venture Capital funding.
    • business model: unspecified, but definitely “not advertising”
  • A fool and his money are soon parted:
    • <quote>However, this space also has a lot of potential for scams, and it might be unreasonable to expect users to manage a financial stake in many different networks.</quote>

Mentions

  • Bitcoin
  • Facebook
  • Reddit
  • Let’s Encrypt
  • Appcoins
  • Digitial Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Gopher
  • Archie
  • Wide Area Information Server (WAIS)
  • John Perry Barlow
    A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace
  • Fred Turner
    ambiguous reference

  • World Wide Web (WWW)
  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • “lock the web open”, attributed to Brewster Kayle.
  • Peer-to-Peer
  • cypherpunk worldview
  • Diffie-Hellman key exchange
  • Bitcoin
  • ledger
  • accounts
  • Hyper-Text Transport Protocol (HTTP)
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • <quote>Distributed, peer-to-peer protocols like HTTP and SMTP</quote>
    um, what?
  • Millennials
  • Baby Boomers
  • Google competitors
    • Baidu,
    • Yahoo,
    • Microsoft,
    • Yandex.
    • hey … what about DuckDuckGo?
  • Twitter
  • Arab Spring
  • Tunisia
  • Baltimore
  • BitTorrent
  • YouTube
  • WhatsApp
  • software stack
  • surveillance
  • decryption keys
  • Thailand
  • Thai Royal Family
  • “lock

Exemplars

Good

  • Freedom Box
  • Diaspora
  • Mastodon
  • Blockstack
  • Interplanetary File System (IPFS)
  • Solid
  • Appcoins
  • Steemit

Bad

  • Facebook
  • Google
  • Reddit
  • Twitter
  • WhatsApp
  • YouTube

Concerns

  • User and developer adoption
  • Security
  • Monetization and incentives

Risks

Elaborated in the Introduction

  1. Top-down, Direct Censorship
  2. Something. Couldn’t identify what it was. His second point, and surely they had one…

Characterizations

Honorifics

  • decentralized
  • good old days of unmediated publishing
  • critical safeguard for user privacy
  • mainstream
  • “disrupt” this new class of power elites

Epithets

  • mega-platform
  • centralized
  • third-party intermediaries
  • marginalized voices
  • for-profit
  • today’s online hegemons.

Who

  • John Perry Barlow, theorist.
  • Philando Castile, executed by police, on live TV.
  • David Chaum, polymath.
  • Fred Turner, Harry and Norman Chandler Professor of Communication
    Department Chair, Stanford University.
  • Frederick Jackson Turner, Wisconsin, Harvard, 1861→1932.
  • Mark Zuckerbirg, CEO, Facebook

References

There are 201 references, presented inline, as footnotes, in the style of a legal tract.

They are <omitted/> herein.

Previously filled.

The Rise of the Platform Enterprise: A Global Survey | Center for Global Enterprise

Peter C. Evans, Anabelle Gawer; The Rise of the Platform Enterprise: A Global Survey; The Emerging Platform Economy, Series No. 1; The Center for Global Enterprise (CGE); 2016-01; 30 pages; previously filled.

The Center for Global Enterprise
200 Park Ave., Suite 1700
New York, NY 10166
USA

Scope

<quote>Given the close proximity, cities around the San Francisco Bay Area include, Cupertino, Los Gatos, Menlo Park, Mountain View, Oakland, Palo Alto, Redwood City, San Jose, Santa Clara and Sunnyvale.</quote>

Referenced

  • “The rise of the sharing economy: On the Internet, everything is for hire,” staff, In The Economist, 2013-March-09.
  • The companies are Microsoft, Google, Apple, Intel, Amazon, Yahoo!, Facebook, eBay and Salesforce. The patent data is from “2014 Top Patent Owners,” Intellectual Property Owners Association, 2015-06.
  • Unicorns, CB Insights, 2015-06
  • David S. Evans, “Attention to Rivalry among Online Platforms and Its Implications for Antitrust Analysis”, Coase-Sandor Institute for Law & Economics Working Paper No. 627, 2013.
  • Pierre Collin, Nicolas Colin. “Task Force on Taxation of the Digital Economy.” Report to the French Minister for the Economy and Finance, the Minister for Industrial Recovery, Minister Delegate for the Budget and the Minister Delegate for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, Innovation and the Digital Economy, 2013.
  • “Startups Scramble to Define ‘Employee’,” Greg Bensinger, In Wall Street Journal (WSJ), 2015-07-30;
  • Annabelle Gawer, Michael Cusumano, Platform Leadership: How Intel, Microsoft and Cisco Drive Industry Innovation, In Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA, 2002.
  • Annabelle Gawer (Ed.), Platforms, Markets and Innovation, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2009.
  • David S. Evans, Andrei Hagiu, Richard Schmalensee, Invisible Engines: How Software Platforms Drive Innovation and Transform Industries, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2006.
  • Jean-Claude Rochet, Jean Tirole, “Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets”, In Journal of the European Economic Association 1, no. 4, 2003, pp. 990-1029.
  • Geoffrey Parker, Marshall Van Alstyne, “Two-Sided Network Effect: A Theory of Information Product Design,” In Management Science; 51, no. 10, 2005;
  • Mark Armstrong, “Competition in Two-Sided Market”, In RAND Journal of Economics; 2006, p. 66
  • David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee, “Markets with Two-Sided Platforms,” In Issues in Competition Law and Policy (ABA section of antitrust law) 1, 2008. p. 667.
  • Brad Stone, The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon, Random House, 2013, p. 126.
  • Annabelle Gawer, Michael Cusumano. “Industry Platforms and Ecosystem Innovation.” In Journal of Product Innovation Management 31 no. 3, 2014, pp. 417-433.
  • Kevin Boudreau, Andrei Hagiu, “Platform Rules: Multi-sided Platforms as Regulators,” in A. Gawer (Ed.), Platforms, Markets and Innovation, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, Mass, 2009, pp. 163–191.
  • The Emerging Platform Economy, The Center for Global Enterprise
  • Quid Web Intelligence
  • Private Company Financing Data Sources, CB Insights
  • Trading Platforms, Thomson-Reuters-Eikon
  • Platform Strategy Research Symposium, Questrom School of Business, Boston, 2015-07-09.
  • CJ Arlotta, SAP Global Partner Summit 2015: ‘Value Drives Volume,’ Talkin’Cloud, 2015-05-04.
  • Marco Ceccagnoli, Chris Forman, Peng Huang, D. J. Wu. “CO-CREATION of value in a platform ecosystem: The case of enterprise software.” In IS Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2012.
  • Naspers Group Profile
  • Rocket Internet;
    Mission Statement: “Our Mission: To Become the World’s Largest Internet Platform Outside the United States and China”
  • Entrepreneur in Residence Program, Rocket Internet
  • Andrew Karpie,The Future of Talent Acquisition in the Emerging Platform Economy, The Research Platform, a blog, 2015-09-23.
  • “Dallas-based Teladoc launches successful IPO,” Jim Landers, In Dallas Morning News, 2015-07-01.
  • “Johnson Controls opens energy-efficiency app marketplace,” Jennifer Kho, In GreenBiz, 2012-11-13.
  • “Daimler acquires transportation apps RideScout and myTaxi,” Katie Fehrenbacher, In Gigaom, 2014-09-03.
  • Rajiv Leventhal, “Walgreens, MDLIVE announce expansion of telehealth platform,” In Healthcare Informatics, 2015-06-19.
  • “How Arivind Sivaramakrishnan is driving the digital agenda at Apollo Hospitals,” Sneha Jha, In The Economic Times India ETCIO.Com, 2015-05-18.
  • Apollo Hospitals launches Ask Apollo – a first of its kind medical platform in the country for remote patient care press release, Apollo Hospitals, 2015-10-19.
  • Dean Quinn, “Tizen: The operating system that could thwart Android?” In Techradar, 2014-01-21.
  • Geoffrey Parker, Marshall Van Alstyne, Sangeet Paul Choudary, Platform Revolution, How Networked Markets are Transforming the Economy, W. W. Norton & Co. forthcoming.
  • Baruch Lev, Suresh Radhakrishnan, Peter C. Evans, “Organizational Capital: A CEOs Guide to Measuring and Managing Enterprise Intangibles”, The Center for Global Enterprise, New York, NY, 2016-01.
  • Play a Game, Get a Date: The social apps taking China by Storm, Peter Schadbolt, In CNN, 2014-09-16.
  • “Four reasons why Google bought Waze”, Peter Cohan, In Forbes, 2013-06-11.
  • “Google’s Competition is Amazon, Not Apple,” George Baroudi, In InformationWeek, 2014-01-24.
  • “Google’s ‘Rivalry’ with Amazon? It’s Complicated,” Seth Fiegerman, Mashable, 2014-10-14.
  • “Amazon to Stop Selling Apple TV and Chromecast”, David Streitfeld, Katie Benner, In The New York Times (NYT), 2015-10-01.
  • “Insurance Bureau of Canada Pushing to Get Uber Drivers Covered,” Sean Silcoff, Jacqueline Nelson, In The Globe and Mail, 2015-10-13.
  • Günther H. Oettinger, “A Digital Single Market: The Key to Europe’s Industrial Leadership in the Digital Economy,” speech at ICT2015, 2015-10-20.
  • Annabelle Gawer, “What Managers Need to Know about Platforms”, In European Business Review, 2011-Fall.

Promotions

Tech and Media Outlook 2016 | Activate

Tech and Media Outlook 2015; Activate at WSJD Live Conference; 2015-10-20; 137 slides; landing.


slides


Mentions

  • boosterism: <quote>CAGR based on values prior to rounding.</quote>, slide 2.

Listicle

Substantially, the table of contents.

  1. The average american spends more time on tech & media than work or sleep
  2. Messaging will blow past social networks as the dominant media activity
  3. The next big winners in streaming audio are already (quietly) here
  4. The long-awaited cord cutting moment is still far off
  5. There is a “cable killer” coming, but it won’t look like you expect
  6. E-sports & wagering will change the game in gaming
  7. Good luck getting rich in the app store!
  8. These companies are grabbing all the money in consumer tech & media
  9. One simple way to predict what tech & media players will do next to compete

1. Attention

  • The product is attention, the purpose of media is the capturing of attention.
  • Minutes-per-Visitor per Month
    • Pandora → 1,200 min/month
    • Facebook → 1,200 min/month
    • Google → 700 min/month
    • Netflix → 500 min/month
    • YouTube → 400 min/month
    • All Those Messaging Apps → 300 min/month
      • Twitch
      • Kik
      • Snapchat
      • Something else with a ping cloud smudge logo
    • Yahoo → 300 min/month
    • Instagram → 200 min/month
    • The Linkbaiters, Old-Line East Coast Media, eCommerce → 0 min/month (rounding error)
  • Bubble economics, “billion dollar businesses” capturing seconds-per-month
    • HelloFresh
    • Vice
    • ZocDoc
    • BuzzFeed
    • Shazam
    • Vox
  • Categories
    • Video
    • Audio
    • Social Media
    • Gaming (actual games, not <euphemism>gambling</euphemism>)
  • Something about multitasking.

Claims

  • Because of overlaps, there are 31:28 hours:minutes of manageable attention per day.
  • Half is spent on media-type activities.
  • Selectivity is high on MAU basis
    • 79% of time on 5 apps out of 27 available.
    • 44% on 5 websites out of 96 available.
    • 100% on 18 channels out of 194 available.

2. Messaging

  • Cultures
    • WhatsApp
    • Facebook Messenger
    • WeChat
    • Instagram
    • Snapchat
    • Pinterest
  • Categories
    • Social Messaging
    • Social Network
    • Hybrid: Social Messaging & Social Network (either, or both)
  • Minutes-per-Week per Month
    • Facebook → 300 min/week
    • Tumblr → 230 min/week
    • Talk → 220 min/week
    • WhatsApp → 175 min/week
    • Pinterest → 140 min/week
    • Instagram → 140 min/week
    • Kik → 80 min/week
    • Something with a purple phone icon → 80 min/week
    • WeChat → 80 min/week
    • LINE → 30 min/week
    • Something with a blue chat bubble and an horizontal lightning bolt → 10 min/week.
  • Messaging competes with telecom-served Short Message System (SMS)
    • Driven by pricing: 63x more expensive abroad than US.
    • Very expensive in the U.S. (for what one gets).
    • Messaging apps are flat-fee or $0.
  • Messaging apps turn into a “platform”
    Features

    • Business storefronts (bot-based businesses)
    • Chat (of course)
    • Channels (television-style bespoke content)
    • Games
    • Music
    • Local commerce
    • Payments
    • Search
    • Taxi
    • Television (replaying broadcast television)
    • Virtual Assistant
  • Revenue Models, slide 34
    • Ads
    • Stickers
    • Games
    • Taxi
    • Payments
    • App Store
    • Music
    • TV
    • Subscription Fees
    • eCommerce
    • Search

Category

In descending order of MAU, slide 19

  • WhatsApp
  • Facebook Messenger
  • WeChat
  • QQ Mobile
  • Gchat
  • iMessage
  • Viber
  • LINE
  • Snapchat
  • Kik
  • Telegram
  • Tango
  • KakaoTalk
  • Hike
  • Zalo
  • Path Talk
  • FireChat
  • YikYak
  • SOMA
  • Jott
  • Nimbuzz
  • Microsoft Send
  • Vurb
  • Zolo

In some order, slides 20-30+

  • LINE
  • WeChat
  • Facebook Messenger
  • WhatsApp
  • Snapchat
  • Vurb
  • Pockettour
  • WeBank
  • Jobot
  • digit
  • Magic
  • Assist
  • Slack

Claims

  • A Buullion new Users by 2018
  • 4B Internet Users (out of ~8B on Earth).
  • Nearly all are abroad, and in “developing” markets.

3. Streaming (Audio)

  • 4 hours/day US for 13+
  • It’s a teen/young-peeple thing:
    • 13-17 → 55% streaming
    • 55+ → 6% streaming
  • Experience is bad
    <quote>inferior user experiences leave engagement lagging</quote>
  • Revenue Models
    • Advertising
    • Subscriptions
  • RedTube (YouTube Red)
  • Only 10% (more) consumers are open to pay for streaming subscriptions
    original research, Activate, panel N=? (they asked around the office?)
  • Podcasts are a thing.
    • demographics → upscale, young, educated
    • format has plenty of room for advertisement load.

Categories

  • Terrestrial broadcast (non-digital)
  • Satellite Radio
  • Streaming
  • Downloads
  • Television (Music Television)
  • Other

Instances

  • A cast of thousands
  • Enumerated on Slide 37.

Also, slide 41

  • Pandora
  • iHeart RADIO

In order of reach, descending; slide 42.

  • YouTube
  • Pandora
  • Spotify
  • Vevo
  • Hlu
  • MTV
  • VH-1
  • Yahoo! Radio
  • Rhapsody
  • Slacker Radio
  • Apple Music

In order of decreasing library size, slide 46.

  • YouTube
  • SoundCloud
  • Spotify
  • Apple Music
  • Pandora

Organized by curation type (human vs algorithm), slide 48, 49.

  • Infinite Tracks
  • Hype Machine
  • Pitchfork
  • SoundCloud
  • Apple Music
  • Google Music
  • Spotify
  • last.fm
  • Pandora
  • Shazam
  • imeem
  • Musicmatch
  • Urge
  • Ping
  • Grooveshark
  • Slacker Radio
  • Sonos

Claims

  • Four Buullion USD, now, US.
  • Ten Buullion USD, globally, 2020.
  • Audio is a multitasking activity (counts double, paired with another activity).

4. Cord Cutting

  • Over the Top (OTT)
    • HBO Now
    • SHO
  • TV Everywhere
  • Binge watching
    • Millennial → 83%
    • Generation X → 74$
    • Boomer → 56%
  • Big Screen Television
    is enjoyed by all ages(!); but Boomers like it more than Millennials
    <ahem>Seems more like Boomers (who are richer & own houses) own more big screen TVs.</ahem>
  • Two-box (four quadrant) model of consumer behavior on video
    • Linear Appointment Viewing = Long Form, High Production Cost & Live.
    • Social Networking Video = Short Form, Low Production Cost & Live
    • Video On-Demand = Long Form, High Production Cost & Recorded
    • Studio-Generated Content = Short Form, Low Production Value & Recorded.

Theses

  • The Future of TV is “Apps”
    • But that is independent of cord cutting
    • But that won’t decide how payment is attributed.
  • The Pay TV transition is “different”
    • not a technology issue
    • an experience issue
    • an access (licensing) issue
Reasoning
  • Users →still hooked on traditional TV
    (whatever this means; redundant with the other reasons)
  • Content → still licensed to pay TV (e.g. sports); not availabl in digital
  • Pricing → digital TV is still expensive
    • Pay TV bundles at low clst (though sell crap in with the desirable)all)
    • Digital TV a la carte is very expensive in aggregate
  • Experience → traditional TV wins
    • traditional is “simple”; & “reliable”
    • digital is “complex” and “unreliable”

Claims

  • (Linear) Television is 72% of all viewing
  • Viewing time is 6h/day, monthly, 2012-2015E
  • $185B/year US
    • $110B Aubscriptions (cable, add-on services)
    • $75B Advertising (of any kind)
  • Have hit “Peak Cable”

5. The Cable Killer (is X)

6. E-Sports & Gambling

7. All App Stores Are Closed

8. The Winner Take All Market Dynamics

Sources

As cited

  • PwC, IFPI, eMarketer, IBIS, SuperData, NewZoo, IBIS.
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics, The Telegraph, Edison Research, We Are Social, eMarketer, Nielsen, National Sleep Foundation, Deloitte, SNL Kagan, Sandvine, Ipsos, comScore, Global Web Index, OECD.
  • Nielsen, comScore, Ars Technica, TechCrunch, Internetlivestats, Digitalsmiths.
  • Edison, We Are Social, eMarketer, Nielsen, Deloitte, SNL Kagan, Sandvine, Ipsos, comScore, Global Web Index, Pew Research Center, Flurry Insights, Informate, NetMarketShare, Statcounter.
  • Edison, eMarketer, Nielsen, Sandvine, US Media Consulting, Cisco, Experientia, Media UK, Global Web Index, Secom, Ofcom, GroupM.
  • Google, Microsoft, Aldebaran, Disney / New York Times.
  •  Business Insider, Fortune, Mashable, Instagram, AppAnnie, AdWeek, Quartz, Yahoo Finance, Experian, TechCrunch, Forbes, Tech in Asia, eMarketer, Compete,
  • GlobalWebIndex, eMarketer, ITO.
  • AppAnnie, AdWeek, Quartz, Yahoo Finance, Experian, TechCrunch, Forbes.
  • AppAnnie, AdWeek, Quartz, Yahoo Finance, Experian, TechCrunch, Forbes, Tech in Asia, VentureBeat, Kakao, LINE, Viber.
  • Gallup, Twilio, U.S. Census Bureau, Forbes, Colombia Reports, World Bank.
  • GlobalWebIndex, Tech in Asia.
  • AdWeek, Quartz, Yahoo Finance.
  • LINE.com
  • LINE Payment map, Twilio, U.S. Census Bureau, Forbes, Gallup, Colombia Reports, nations.org.
  • GlobalWebIndex, Facebook Messenger App, facebook.com.
  • Pew Research, Consumer Intelligence Research Partners, Apple.
  • Snapchat.com, Re/Code, The Information.
  • TechCrunch, vurb.com, CNBC.
  • Fortune, WSJ, Skift, TechCrunch,
  • angel.co, AdWeek, Quartz, Yahoo Finance.
  • slack.com, VentureBeat, TechCrunch.
  • Apple App Store, Google Play.
  • Nomura, Andreessen Horowitz, Forbes, TechInAsia, The Economist.
  • Edison Research / Triton Digital.
  • Recording Industry Association of America, PwC, Radio Advertising Bureau, Ofcom.
  • comScore, Nielsen/Arbitron, Flurry.
  • U.S. Census, Edison Research.
  • SNL Kagan, SESAC.
  • Spotify, Pandora.
  • Apple, SoundCloud, Spotify, Pandora,
  • IFPI.
  • Pew Research, Edison Research
  • Midroll, IAB, US Census, Edison Research,
  • Marketing.science, New York Magazine, Current, Ad Age,
  • Digitalsmiths, eMarketer, GfK, Sandvine, Nielsen, TDG,
  • BIA/Kelsey, Digital TV Research, eMarketer, Google, Hulu, Netflix, PWC, SNL
  • Kagan, Statista Digital Market Outlook, TDG.
  • Leichtman Research Group, U.S. Census Bureau.
  • CDC, CTIA, FCC, Gartner, Interviews, SNL Kagan.
  • U.S. Census, TDG Research, Leichtman Research Group.
  • Digitalsmiths, eMarketer, GfK, Sandvine, Nielsen, TDG,
  • Nielsen’s 2015 Total Audience Report and 2011 Cross-Platform Report, WSJ, Financial Times, The Guardian, Automated
  • Insights.
  • Conviva, Deloitte.
  • Deloitte, Ericsson ConsumerLab, Nielsen.
  • ComScore, Deloitte, Verizon Digital Media Services.
  • HBO, Nielsen, Showtime.

Handbook of Data Analytics | Leada

Editors

  • Brian Liou
  • Tristan Tao
  • Elizabeth Lin

Shop: Leada, a consultancy

Outreach

Promotions

Mentions

  • Not a “handbook” in the sense that it’s not recipes for HOWTO at all.
  • Motivational interviews in a Q&A style; ~5 pages each
  • Career Advice.
  • Career Attractor.
  • No Math, Algos, Results.

Questions

  • What exactly is a data scientist anyway, and how is it different than a data analyst?
  • Who buys this stuff anyway?
  • What skills do such people need? [someone answers: PowerPoint 2-pager]
  • How does interviewing work in this area?
  • They interview for specific task-level skills; show passion, show “hunger to learn”

Buzz

  • <bzzzz>Big Data</bzzzz>
  • <zzzz>B2B</zzzz>
  • <zzzz>BI</zzzz>
  • <zzzz>CRM</zzzz>

Skills

  • Cassandra
  • Excel
  • HadoopTM MapReduce
  • Hive
  • Java
  • Kaggle
  • MATLAB
  • MongoDB
  • PDF
  • SAS
  • Storm
  • NoSQL
  • Pig
  • Python
  • R
  • Word

Techniques

  • regression
  • t-test
  • Algorithm complexity (Big O notation)
  • Machine Learning (general)
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Participants

  • BigML
  • Cloudera
  • Facebook
  • Flurry
  • HG Data
  • Linkedin
  • Mode Analytics
  • Persontyle
  • Smarter Remarketer Inc.
  • Stylistics
  • Yelp
  • Yhat

Gateways

  • C++ programming “low level systems programming
  • Quality Control
  • Computer Science
  • Economics
  • Humanities, generally
  • Parasitology
  • Philosophy

Via: backfill