Defending Internet Freedom through Decentralization: Back to the Future? | Barabas, Narula, Zuckerman

Chelsea Barabas, Neha Narula, Ethan Zuckerman; Defending Internet Freedom through Decentralization: Back to the Future?;a book?; The Center for Civic Media & The Digital Currency Initiative; MIT Media Lab; 2017; 113 pages.

tl;dr → theoretical; witnessing.  You tell it, you tell the story!  Mentions Bitcoin on page 2; uses the word “hegemon” on page 14.  Offers a cook’s tour of the boosterist community and their projects: Freedom Box, Diaspora, Mastodon, Blockstack, Interplanetary File System (IPFS), Solid, Appcoins, Steemit.

Table of Contents

  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
    • The Rise of the Centralized Web
    • Risks Posed by the Centralized Web
    • Structural Interventions as a Possible Solution
  • Section II: Federation
    • Freedom Box
    • Diaspora
    • Mastodon
  • Section III: Open Protocols
    • Authentication
    • Blockstack
    • Interoperability
    • IPFS
    • Solid
  • Section IV: Appcoins
    • Steemit
  • Conclusion

Recommendations

  • Wait and see, only time will tell.
    <quote>A precondition for the success of these distributed
    platforms is a shift towards user-controlled data,</quote>
  • Fund the projects (the best-of-breed exemplars, below, and more)
    e.g. Let’s Encrypt.
  • The fascination, gee whiz!; it’s simply phenomenal!
    Use Appcoins

    • circumvent Venture Capital funding.
    • business model: unspecified, but definitely “not advertising”
  • A fool and his money are soon parted:
    • <quote>However, this space also has a lot of potential for scams, and it might be unreasonable to expect users to manage a financial stake in many different networks.</quote>

Mentions

  • Bitcoin
  • Facebook
  • Reddit
  • Let’s Encrypt
  • Appcoins
  • Digitial Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Gopher
  • Archie
  • Wide Area Information Server (WAIS)
  • John Perry Barlow
    A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace
  • Fred Turner
    ambiguous reference

  • World Wide Web (WWW)
  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • “lock the web open”, attributed to Brewster Kayle.
  • Peer-to-Peer
  • cypherpunk worldview
  • Diffie-Hellman key exchange
  • Bitcoin
  • ledger
  • accounts
  • Hyper-Text Transport Protocol (HTTP)
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • <quote>Distributed, peer-to-peer protocols like HTTP and SMTP</quote>
    um, what?
  • Millennials
  • Baby Boomers
  • Google competitors
    • Baidu,
    • Yahoo,
    • Microsoft,
    • Yandex.
    • hey … what about DuckDuckGo?
  • Twitter
  • Arab Spring
  • Tunisia
  • Baltimore
  • BitTorrent
  • YouTube
  • WhatsApp
  • software stack
  • surveillance
  • decryption keys
  • Thailand
  • Thai Royal Family
  • “lock

Exemplars

Good

  • Freedom Box
  • Diaspora
  • Mastodon
  • Blockstack
  • Interplanetary File System (IPFS)
  • Solid
  • Appcoins
  • Steemit

Bad

  • Facebook
  • Google
  • Reddit
  • Twitter
  • WhatsApp
  • YouTube

Concerns

  • User and developer adoption
  • Security
  • Monetization and incentives

Risks

Elaborated in the Introduction

  1. Top-down, Direct Censorship
  2. Something. Couldn’t identify what it was. His second point, and surely they had one…

Characterizations

Honorifics

  • decentralized
  • good old days of unmediated publishing
  • critical safeguard for user privacy
  • mainstream
  • “disrupt” this new class of power elites

Epithets

  • mega-platform
  • centralized
  • third-party intermediaries
  • marginalized voices
  • for-profit
  • today’s online hegemons.

Who

  • John Perry Barlow, theorist.
  • Philando Castile, executed by police, on live TV.
  • David Chaum, polymath.
  • Fred Turner, Harry and Norman Chandler Professor of Communication
    Department Chair, Stanford University.
  • Frederick Jackson Turner, Wisconsin, Harvard, 1861→1932.
  • Mark Zuckerbirg, CEO, Facebook

References

There are 201 references, presented inline, as footnotes, in the style of a legal tract.

They are <omitted/> herein.

Previously filled.

BUS 145 — Product Management for the Internet of Things

BUS 145 — Product Management for the Internet of Things

Instructor: Daniel Elizalde

Syllabus

Daniel Elizalde, Founder, TechProductManagement

Daniel Elizalde trains product managers to become successful at managing IoT products through his IoT Decision Framework. He has over fifteen years of experience managing the lifecycle of IoT products. He regularly speaks at conferences and publishes the IoT product management blog TechProductManagement.

From the Survey

Greatest Challenge

Longevity and continuity concepts in product design and business model operation for consumer IoT operation. By way of perspective, my home is 60 years old.  My truck is fifteen years old.  All of them still “work.”  However, in the time span that I have owned the house, I have installed and a whole generation of television technology (the cutover to HDTV and encrypted digital cable from terrestrial broadcast analog signal transmission) and I have installed and remaindered two separate generations of analog and hybrid copper telecom infrastructure.  Today I use a 2nd generation of VoIP (whereas AT&T committed to and abandoned their VoiP business line [CallVantage]).  The challenge for IoT is how to provide significant lifespan to the technologies underpinning the services being offered.  Product lifetimes are short, frequently being circumscribed to a single build plan or kickstarter initiative at all.  More frequently now one sees abandonment of whole products and even lines of business in toto within a single fiscal year; c.f. Intel’s recent repudiation of their IoT product lines.  By the time the class starts, the IoT SBC line, Edison, Curie, etc., will be in final-order EOL status.

What to Learn
The learning would be around business model development under ephemeral technology constraints and the tie-in to product design. One is very cognizant of the “How to Survive on a Diet of Poisoned Fruit” thinking.  My trade is in and around online entertainment experiences. These are today are primarily driven from the WinTel platform, but moving onto Apple/Google. They are funded by advertising. The business model for the experiences is oriented around aggregation of “eyeballs”  Success is measured in “unique user counts” or “gross rating points” or “daily active users.”  Monetization (how the money happens) occurs through the introduction of gently intrusive messaging (advertising) wherein sponsors insert reminders of their call to action within the media being created. Whereas “data is the new oil”, the great martech and adtech machinery amplifies the efficacy of the media delivery by allowing audience-based buying and selling of the media.  The current form of the media is “pages” or short-form linear media (video snippets).  None of this makes any sense for an IoT world.  It is unclear how IoT will fund itself.  Consumers will simply not put up with advertising prior to turning on their thermostats or prior to commanding their oven to ignite.  And having a $35-$100/month bill for a “connected light bulb fleet” doesn’t make any sense at all.  We already do this for cell phones and telecom value-added services. Of course one can comprehend that budget-heavy enterprise solutions for predictive maintenance amortization will be useful, that too does not make sense in a consumer or household type setting.

How To Use a Futurist | Leading Thought (Liz Alexander)

How To Use a Futurist, promotional literature; Leading Thought; undated
25 ways futurists help organizations of all sizes and types discover, influence and experience preferred futures
Leading Thought is a training boutique.

tl;dr → demand generation for futurist work product. & interventions.  While anyone can do it, and it requires no real training, there is no actual barrier to entry in “the field”; yet there are branded methods. schemas and a lexicon to follow in the production of conforming output.

Author

Liz Alexander, Ph.D., Consulting Futurist & Co-founder, Leading Thought.
Leading Thought is a training boutique.

Table of Contents

  1. INTRODUCTION: Why Hire a Futurist?
  2. PART ONE: OVERVIEW
  3. What can a futurist do for you?
    Nine futurists representing Australia, Canada, Malaysia, Pakistan, U.K. and the United States outline how they help their clients achieve impact.
  4. PART TWO: TOOLS
  5. How do futurists arrive at alternatives?
    “Big Time,” Implications Wheel®, and Three Horizons are just a few of the many tools and methodologies that futurists use.
  6. PART THREE: SYNERGIES7.
  7. What else do we bring to the table?
    In many respects futurists are like gardeners. We cultivate insights and ideas by drawing on a broad range of expertise, skills and talents. But we begin by cultivating ourselves!
  8. Resources and Extras
  9. How other futurists are making an impact.
  10. Are You Ready to Claim YOUR Future?
Book

Craig Badings, Liz Alexander; # THOUGHT LEADERSHIP tweet Book01: 140 Prompts for Designing and Executing an Effective Thought Leadership Campaign (yes, that’s really the title, you can do that when you self-publish); THINKaha; 2012-10-06; 161 pages; ISBN:1616990929; Amazon:B009VJOZLQ: Kindle: $10, paper: $5+SHT.

Mentioned

  • Causal Layered Analysis (CLA)
    claim: links metaphor to strategy
  • Metafuture, a consultancy, training services.
  • Volatile, Uncertain, Complex Ambiguous (VUCA)
  • Scenarios, a.k.a. “alternative futures”
    definition: set of fictional narratives reflecting plausible future worlds
  • Kerr Smith, a design shop.
  • Generic Alternative Futures
    of the Manoa School.
  • Industry 4.0
  • Millennials
  • Generation Z.
  • Udacity
  • Knowledge Works
  • YouTube
  • Visioning
  • Roadmapping
    something about Systems Thinking
  • Future of Cities
  • Thought Leaders
  • Arup Foresight
  • Preferred Futures
  • Big History Project
    • Big Time
    • Big Space
  • Implications Wheel®
  • Futures Wheel
  • Futures Triangle
  • The Six Pillars Method
  • Futures
    • Negative Futures
    • Positive Futures
  • <aphorism>futurists are like gardeners</aphorism>
  • Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • a pedagogical theory
    • Benjamin Bloom
    • 1956
  • Anticipatory Action Learning (AAL)
  • Multiple Selves Theory
    perhaps David Lester
  • Visioning
  • Backcasting (contra Forecasting)
  • Delphi Method
  • Anthropology
    • “tribes” of consumer classes
    • user research, consumer research
    • The Focus Group
    • e.g. self-employed, sole proprietors, journeymen, tradesmen.
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Triple Bottom Line (3BL)
    • Concept
      • Social
      • Environmental (also, ecological)
      • Financial
    • Jimi Wales’ Wiki
    • Contra
      • Double Bottom Line
        (Regular) Bottom Line.
  • Weak Signals
  • Megatrends
    • Social, Demographic, Technological, Economic, Environmental, Political (STEEP)
    • Probably other acronyms as well
  • burgeoning fields

Methods

Anticipatory Action Learning (AAL)

  • Sketch of the Concept: none
    Seems to be a group process facilitation method with guard precepts around “the triggers.”  Something about how AAL is better; gives more confidence in treated subjects and … the salubrious result obtains.
  • Definition
    • <quote>unique style of questioning the future</quote>
  • Non-Concepts
    • <quote>while critical, it does not accede to any particular tradition of
      critical theory (Continental or Indic, for example) but rather draws from the actors’ ownepistemological categories.</quote>
  • Steps: unknown
  • Goals
    • better alternative futures, better scenarios; less boosterism, gee whiz!
    • <quote cite=ref section=4>A crucial factor is seeing futures not only as forecasting but as creating confidence individuals’ and systems’ abilities to creatively adapt to new challenges. The anticipatory action learning dimension is decisive. <snip/> Organizational, social, environmental, cultural and spiritual innovation is one of the most important potential contributions of Futures Studies.</quote>
  • Separation of Concerns
    1. Sensitivity to the social norms
    2. Discomfort with the material (“the struggle”)
    3. Will can be “appropriatable by power” by “official futures” [is that good or bad?]
    4. Notional “resistance” is to be respected; negotiated with, not removed.
    5. The Other.
  • References

Causal Layered Analysis (CLA)

  • Sketch of the Concept, among the link chiclets of Tricia Lustig, at pearltrees.
  • Steps
    Recite & elaborate

    1. Litany, of operating assumptions
    2. Systems and Institutions
    3. Worldviews, the values and tacit knowledge of Systems and Institutions
    4. Myths & Metaphors, narratives, framing, language usage, etc. c.f. Lakoff; e.g. “war against” { drugs, cancer, poverty, terrorism, Christmas }.
  • References

Delphi Method

  • Sketch of the Concept: none
  • Steps
    • Interview many.
    • Blend
    • Synthesize a “consensus opinion.”
    • Report out.
  • References

Futures Wheel

  • Sketch of the Concept, among the link chiclets of Tricia Lustig, at pearltrees.
  • Steps
    • Pretend the change has already happened.
    • Elaborate.
    • Focus on unintended consequences.
  • References
    • Obvious

Generic Alternative Futures (GAF), of the Manoa School

  • Sketch of the Method
    • alternative futures, a.k.a. “scenarios”
    • futures visioning process (five futures)
    • generic alternative futures (four)
      1. continuation
      2. collapse
      3. discipline
      4. transformation
    • preferred alternative future (plus one)
      1. preferred
  • References

Mulitple Selves Theory

  • Concept
    just what it says
  • Genre
    • personality development
    • child development
    • etc.
  • References
    • David Lester; A Multiple Self Theory of Personality; Nova Science Publishers, 1st edition; 2010-03-30; 186 pages; ASIN:1608767833 kindle: no, paper: $70+SHT.

Roadmapping

Three Horizons

  • Sketch of the Method, among the link chiclets of Tricia Lustig, at pearltrees
  • Concepts (the plurals):
    • Horizons named as Horizon #0, Horizon #1, Horizon #2, Horizon #3.
    • Tomorrows named as “tomorrow++”, “tomorrow+”
  • Steps
    1. Identify Horizon #0 Recent enough past for context
    2. Identify Horizon #1, the present
    3. Imagine “tomorrow++”
      This is Horizon #3, the possible future of “30-years hence”
    4. Imagine “tomorrow +” as a blend between Horizon #1 & Horizon #3.
      This is Horizon #2, as the reasoned path-based narration from Horizon #1 & Horizon #3.
  • Reference

Six Pillars Method

  • Sketch of the Method
  • Concepts
  • Steps
    1. Mapping the Present and the Future
      Apply: futures triangle, futures landscape.
    2. Anticipating the Future
      Apply:  emerging issues analysis, futures wheel.
    3. Timing the Future
      Apply: macrohistory, macrofutures.
    4. Deepening the Future
      Apply: causal layered analysis, multiple selves theory.
    5. Creating Alternatives to the Present
      Apply: scenarios, nuts and bolts[?]
    6. Transforming the Present and Creating the Future
      Apply: visioning, backcasting, anticipatory action learning, the transcend conflict resolution method.
  • References

Visioning

  • Concept: envisioning, imagining.
  • References
    • Obvious

Pantheon

In order of appearance in the work product…

Liz Alexander
Ross Dawson
  • Ross Dawson
  • a promoter
  • founder or co-founder of six (6) companies
    • Rh7thm
    • Advanced Human Technologies
  • Basis: Sydney, Australia
Lynn Curry
Proprietor, CurryCorp
CurryCorp offers training services. <quote>optimizes organizational performance</quote>
Sohail Inayatullah
  • UNESCO Chair for Futures Studies at USIM, Malaysia.
  • Professor, Graduate Institute of Futures Studies at
    • Tamkang University
    • Melbourne Business School, the University of Melbourne;
    • University of the Sunshine Coast.
  • Elsewhere attributed as:
    • Professor of Futures Studies, International Management Centres
    • Professorial Research Fellow, Tamkang University, Taiwan
    • Visiting Academic at the Communication Center, Queensland University of Technology.
    • Associate editor of New Renaissance
    • Co-editor of the Journal of Futures Studies.
Robert Burke
  • instructor with Sohail Inayatullah, “Futures Thinking and Strategy Development at Melbourne Business School, the University of Melbourne.
  • offered taught a residential four-day Futures Thinking and Strategy Development Program on a twice-yearly cadence at Melbourne Business School for over 15 years.
  • a director of Futureware Consulting
  • associate of Melbourne Business School, the University of Melbourne.
  • Previously
    • CEO-title roles, various.
Sohail Inayatullah
has many appointments
Ira Wolfe
Ruben Nelson
  • Executive Director of Foresight Canada.
  • Vice Chair, the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science.
  • Honors (from)
    • Queen’s University
    • the Queen’s Calgary Alumni
    • Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science
    • The World Business Academy
    • The Meridian Institute on Leadership, Governance, Change and the Future
Rushdi Abdul Rahim
  • A Senior Vice President at MIGHT
    MIGHT is a policy shop supervised by the Prime Minister’s Department, Malaysia
  • The Director of myForesight® – the Malaysian Foresight Institute.
Kyle Brown
  • from Toronto, Canada
  • Senior Foresight Strategist, Idea Couture
    Idea Couture is an idea shop
  • ex-staff Copenhagen Institute for Futures Studies.
Mark Tuckwood
  • Leading Thought associate
  • founder and principal at Insight Gravity
    Insight Gravity is an idea shop
William Gibson
And which quote do you think they selected?
Victor Vahidi Motti
  • News Editor and Co-Chair of the Youth Council for the World Futures Studies Federation (WFSF)
  • Honors
    • WFSF President’s Outstanding Young Futurists Award in 2013
    • is internationally-renowned
Joel Barker
  • a really great guy
  • “first person to popularize” credit for the concept of the “paradigm shift”
Tom Cheesewright
  • English (UK)
  • a corporate trainer
Patricia Lustig
  • Also “Tricia” Lustig; c.f. tricialustig
  • CEO of LASA Insight Ltd.
  • UK-based
  • practitioner in the methods
  • “author” credit, Strategic Foresight: Learning from the Future; Triarchy Press; 2015-07-15; 186 pages; Amazon:190947066X: Kindle: $16, paper: $21+SHT.
Umar Sheraz Sheraz
  • Senior Research Officer, Center for Policy Studies at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Jonathan Peck
  • President, Institute for Alternative Futures (IAF)
  • President, Alternative Futures Associates (AFA), the for-profit subsidiary
  • Credits
    • “leader” credit in “aspirational futures”
      … which <quote>integrates vision into scenario development</quote>
    • the method has been used in billable practice.
Jörn Bühring
  • Dr. Jörn Bühring
  • Research Assistant Professor, School of Design, Hong Kong Polytechnic University of Technology
  • program leader of the [Design] School’s Ignite Innovation Program
  • Has performed billable work for industry
  • He likes design-inspired foresight, vision and fiction.
Anne Boysen
  • Founder of After the Millennials,
    After the Millennials is an idea shop.
  • Associate,Leading Thought
  • A practitioner.
  • A graduate of the Foresight Program of the University of Houston.
Andrew Staines
Lisa Galarneau
  • Dr. Lisa Galarneau
  • An anthropologist
    A socio-cultural anthropologist
  • Graduated 25 years ago.
  • Employment: Amazon
Jacques Barcia
  • Jacques Barcia
  • Brazilian citizenship
  • Trade: reporter.
  • Has won awards
  • is an award-winning
  • “responsible” credit Mind the Future program at Porto Digital
    Porto Digital is an idea shop.
  • Staff, Dream Machine Futures Studio
    Dream Machine Futures Studio is an idea shop
Alice Walker
is quoted
Radha Mistry
  • Radha Mistry
  • Employment
  • Applied Research and Consulting (Division), Steelcase
  • Previous
    • Arup Foresight, London
    • Arup Foresight, San Francisco.
Frank Spencer
Puruesh Chaudhary
  • Founder and President of AGAHI
    AGAHI, Foresight Lab is an idea shop
  • Pakistan.
  • member, the Global Shapers Community, World Economic Forum
Mazlan Othman
  • Dr. Mazlan Othman
  • Credits
    • “first astro-physicist of Malaysia”
Brian David Johnson

Practicum

Hosts

  • Burston Marsteller
  • Ford
  • OECD
  • SAP

Purveyors

Schools

  • Arizona State University
  • University of Houston
  • University of Hawaii, Manoa

Outreach

Inspiration

  • Drivers Of Change
Credits

Image: 123rf.com
Cover: Le Moal Olivier
Interior: everythingpossible

Promotions

Referenced

in arbitrary order…

Previously filled.

Reflections on the REST Architectural Style and “Principled Design of the Modern Web Architecture” | Fielding, Taylor, Erenkrantz, Gorlick, Whitehead, Khare, Oreizy

Roy T. Fielding, Richard N. Taylor, Justin Erenkrantz, Michael M. Gorlick, E. James Whitehead, Rohit Khare, Peyman Oreizy; Reflections on the REST Architectural Style and “Principled Design of the Modern Web Architecture; In Proceedings of the 2017 11th Joint Meeting on Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE 2017); 2017; pages 4-11 (8 pages); landing.

Performed

Reflections on REST; keynote address; performed at the 2017 11th Joint Meeting on Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE 2017); by one of Roy Fielding, Richard Taylor, Rohit Khare (expect: Rohit Khare); video; 0:47:41; slides (42 slides).

Abstract

Seventeen years after its initial publication at ICSE 2000, the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style continues to hold significance as both a guide for understanding how the World Wide Web is designed to work and an example of how principled design, through the application of architectural styles, can impact the development and understanding of large-scale software architecture. However, REST has also become an industry buzzword: frequently abused to suit a particular argument, confused with the general notion of using HTTP, and denigrated for not being more like a programming methodology or implementation framework. In this paper, we chart the history, evolution, and shortcomings of REST, as well as several related architectural styles that it inspired, from the perspective of a chain of doctoral dissertations produced by the University of California’s Institute for Software Research at UC Irvine. These successive theses share a common theme: extending the insights of REST to new domains and, in their own way, exploring the boundary of software engineering as it applies to decentralized software architectures and architectural design. We conclude with discussion of the circumstances, environment, and organizational characteristics that gave rise to this body of work.

Mentions

  • REpresentational State Transfer (REST)
  • Computational REpresentational State Transfer (CREST)
    Computational REST (CREST)
  • Capability Uniform Resource Locator (CURL)
    Capability URL (CURL)
  • COmputAtional State Transfer (COAST)
  • Computing Resource Exchange with Security (COAST)
  • ARRESTED
  • Application Programming Interface (API)
  • Distributed Hash Table (DHT)
  • SIENA (Scalable Internet Event Notification Architectures)
  • XML
  • DHT
  • HTTP
  • REST
  • bit.ly
  • Persistsent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL)
    Persistsent URL (PURL)
  • Notifications
    • e.g. on page transitions
    • HTML ping
    • DOM, onClick, onLoad, onAnything
    • M. Thomson, E. Damaggio, B Raymor. Generic Event Delivery Using HTTP Push. RFC 8030. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 2016.
  • Google Analytics
  • Google Docs
  • Google Sheets
  • AJAX
  • JavaScript
  • HTTP
    • LINK
    • UNLINK
  • Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
  • Decentralized Applications (DAPPs, dApps)
  • Client/Server
  • Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV, WEBDAV)
    • lock-based concurrency control
    • An RPC-based client-server centralized ile system with remote access “over HTTP”
  • Limitations of REST
    • one-shot
    • one-to-one
    • one-way
  • execution engine
  • binding environment
  • COAST
    • Capabilities
      • Services
      • Messaging
      • Interpretation
    • Claims
      • Secure remote code execution (RCE)
      • Live update
      • Novel
      • Monitoring & Traceability
      • Something about refactoring:
        Server abdication, client redelegation, server re-offering (fewer services), client reprogramming of the server.
      • Dynamic Reconfiguration
  • Group Consensus and Simultaneous Agreement (GCSA)
  • WebRTC,
  • Websockets
  • Webhooks
  • HTTP/2
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Content Distrubtion Network (CDN)
  • TrueTime
  • GlobalClock
  • Apache Kafka
  • Amazon Kinesis,
  • Google Cloud Pub/Sub
  • Amazon Lambda,
  • IFTTT
  • ‘assistants’, a natural language conversational product concept, within the buzzy AI business culture. Think: Eliza, that you built in high school.
  • Cassandra
  • NoSQL
  • Federated Learning
  • Merkle Hash Trees (not MHT)
  • Bitcoin
  • <buzz>blockchain</buzz>
  • Git
    • is a decentralized in concept.
    • is not decentrlaized in practice, c.f. GitHub
  • Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
  • Computational REpresentational State Transfer (CREST)
  • Aura
  • Nikander
  • Trickles
  • network continuations
  • Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)
    • HTTP/1.1
    • HTTP/2
  • DARPA
  • NSF
  • ISR (Irvine Software Rationalization?)
  • Arcadia

Behavior, Asynchrony, State, Execution (BASE)

Concept

Adapability requires the design-time  actions…

LP1
making the parts that are subject to change identifiable, discrete and manipulable.
LP2
providing mechanisms for controlling interactions between the parts subject to change.
LP3
providing techniques for managing state.

Elaborated

  • Peyman Oreizy, Nenad Medvidovic, Richard N. Taylor. Runtime Software Adaptation: Framework, Approaches, and Styles. In Companion of 30th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE Companion). 2008. ACM. pages 899–910.
  • Richard N. Taylor, Nenad Medvidovic, Peyman Oreizy. Architectural Styles for Runtime Software Adaptation. In Proceedings of the Eighth Joint Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture and Third European Conference on Software Architecture. IEEE Computer Society, 171–180. 2009.

Exemplars

  • C2
  • CREST
  • MapReduce
  • Pipe-and-Filter
  • Event Notifications
  • “and others.”

Disambiguation

  1. within the transaction formalization of Database Theory
    • Basically Available, Soft state, Eventual consistency (BASE)
      not as used herein.
    • a consistency model wherein everything almost works
      riposte: “eventually we are all dead.”
    • Contra
      • Always Computing In Denial (ACID)
      • Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability (ACID)
  2. within the Dynamic Software Architectures Theory, page 9.
    • Behavior
    • Asynchrony
    • State
    • Execution
  3. within the ARRESTED Theory, page 10.
    the “mindset” of a node in a distributed network.
    Best-Effort
    Others are making their best effort, as are you.
    Approximate
    There is only approximate knowledge of the state of The Other; your theory of mind is limited & foggy, slacky-latent.
    Self-centered
    Others are self-centered, as are you.
    Efficient
    Make efficient use of the only global resource: communication bandwidth to others; i.e. time is the only finite resource.

Asynchronous, Routed, REpresentational State Transfer with Estimation & Delgation (A+R+REST+E+D, ARRESTED)

  • Polling (and its inverse Asynchrony)
  • Asynchrony (and its inverse Polling)
  • Routing
  • Delegation
  • Estimation

Concept

Theory
REST+P
REST with Polling.
REST+E
REST with Estimation.
A+REST
REST with Asynchrony (callbacks).
R+REST
REST with Routing (packets).
REST+D
REST with Delegation (proxies, gateways).
ARREST
Asynchronous, Routed, REST.
ARREST+E
Asynchronous, Routed, REST, with Estimation.
ARREST+D
Asynchronous, Routed, REST, with Delgation.
ARREST+D
Asynchronous, Routed, REST, with Estimation & Delgation.
ARRESTED
A synonym for slow, yes?
Topology

The metaphor.

Poles
North
Centralized Systems
East
Estimated Systems
South
Decentralized Systems
West
Distributed Systems
Boundaries
now horizon
  • Master-Slave Styles
  • Peer-to-Peer Styles
agency boundary
  • Consensus-Based Styles
  • Consensus-Free Styles

Elaborated

Techniques

  • Bitcoin
  • and other distributed ledger schemes.

Computational REpresentational State Transfer (CREST)

Is just like functional programming.

  • The Poetry
    • mashups of Web culture are “the same as” continuations in programming language theory & culture. c.f. Scheme & SML
    • 300-series redirects are continuations

Principles

CP1
The key abstraction of computation is a resource, named by an URL.
CP2
The representation of a resource is a program, a closure, a continuation, or a binding environment plus metadata to describe the program, closure, continuation, or binding environment.
CP3
All computations are context-free.
CP4
Only a few primitive operations are always available, but additional per-resource operations are also encouraged.
CP5
The presence of intermediaries is promoted.

Concept

  • Ship code+data as a package to evaluate off-box (over there, on their box).
  • Receive code+data as a package to evaluate on-box (here on our box).
  • What could go possibly wrong here? [over there?]

Elaborations

  • Justin R. Erenkrantz. Computational REST: A New Model for Decentralized, Internet-Scale Applications. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2009.
  • Justin R. Erenkrantz, Michael Gorlick, Girish Suryanarayana, Richard N. Taylor. Harmonizing Architectural Dissonance in REST-based Architectures. Technical Report UCI-ISR-06-18. Institute for Software Research, University of California, Irvine. 2006.
  • Justin R. Erenkrantz, Michael M. Gorlick, Girish Suryanarayana, Richard N. Taylor. From Representations to Computations: The Evolution of Web Architectures. In ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on The Foundations of Software Engineering (FSE). 2007. pages 255–264.
  • Roy T. Fielding. Maintaining distributed hypertext infostructures: Welcome to MOMspider’s Web. In Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 27, 2. 1994. pages 193–204. doi:10.1016/0169-7552(94)90133-3. Series title? Selected Papers of the First World-Wide Web Conference.

Techniques

  • web mashups
  • session management
  • cookies in client/server interactions
    <quote>, and the (misplaced) role of cookies in client/server interactions</quote>
  • time-dependent resources; e.g. weather forecasts.
  • time-series responses; e.g. stock tickers.

<editorial>Why aren’t cookies necessary again? They uniquely number the consumer base. They are used to develop Measurement, Targeting, Retargeting & Profiling which are the explicit and probably only renumerative use case of the (online) media business model. Oh, right, and paywalls. And, um, public televison-type “membership drive” tip jars.</editorial>

References

There are 59 references.

Abstracted

  • Roy T. Fielding, Richard N. Taylor. Principled Design of the Modern Web Architecture. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). 2000. pages 407–416. IEEE, Limerick, Ireland.

Dissertated

  • Justin R. Erenkrantz. Computational REST: A New Model for Decentralized, Internet-Scale Applications. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2009.
  • Roy T. Fielding. Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, California, USA. 2000.
  • Michael Martin Gorlick. Computational State Transfer: An Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. Technical Report UCI-ISR-16-3. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2016.
  • David Alan Halls. Applying Mobile Code to Distributed Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. 1997.
  • Michael Hicks. Dynamic Software Updating. Ph.D. Dissertation. Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 2001.
  • Rohit Khare. Extending the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, California, USA. 2003.
  • Mark Samuel Miller. Robust Composition: Towards a Unified Approach to Access Control and Concurrency Control. Ph.D. Dissertation. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2006.
  • Peyman Oreizy. Open architecture software: a flexible approach to decentralized software evolution. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.
  • Emmet James Whitehead, Jr. An Analysis of the Hypertext Versioning Domain. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2000.

Complete

  1. T. Aura, P. Niklander. Stateless Connections. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Security (Lecture Notes In Computer Science), Y. Han, T. Okamoto, S. Qing (editors), Vol. 1334. Springer-Verlag, 1997. pages 87–97.
  2. Tim Berners-Lee, Robert Cailliau, Ari Luotonen, Henrik Frystyk Nielsen, Arthur Secret. The World-Wide Web. In Communications of the ACM, 37, 8. 1994-08. pages 76–82. doi:10.1145/179606.179671.
  3. Tim Berners-Lee, Roy T. Fielding, Larry Masinter. Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC 3986. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 2005-01. doi:10.17487/RFC3986.
  4. Tim Berners-Lee, Roy T. Fielding, Henrik Frystyk Nielsen. Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.0. RFC 1945. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 1996-05. doi:10.17487/RFC1945.
  5. Tim Berners-Lee, Jean-Francois Groff. The World Wide Web (a.k.a. WWW). In SIGBIO Newsletter, 12, 3. 1992-09. pages 37–40. doi:10.1145/147126.147133.
  6. Keith Bonawitz, Vladimir Ivanov, Ben Kreuter, Antonio Marcedone, H. Brendan McMahan, Sarvar Patel, Daniel Ramage, Aaron Segal, Karn Seth. Practical Secure Aggregation for Federated Learning on User-Held Data. In Proceedings of the NIPS Workshop on Private Multi-Party Machine Learning. 2016. landing.
  7. Antonio Carzaniga, David S. Rosenblum, Alexander L. Wolf. Design and Evaluation of a Wide-Area Event Notification Service. In ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 19, 3. 2001-08. pages 332–383. paywall.
  8. James C. Corbett, Jeffrey Dean et. al. Spanner: Google’s Globally-distributed Database. In Proceedings of the 10th USENIX Conference on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI). 2012. pages 251–264. paywall, landing. slides: pptx, event: session.
  9. Chris Dixon. Crypto Tokens: A Breakthrough in Open Network Design. In His Blog, centrally hosted on Medium. 2017-06.
  10. L. Dusseault. HTTP Extensions for Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WEBDAV). RFC 4918. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 2007.
  11. Justin R. Erenkrantz. Computational REST: A New Model for Decentralized, Internet-Scale Applications. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2009.
  12. Justin R. Erenkrantz, Michael Gorlick, Girish Suryanarayana, Richard N. Taylor. Harmonizing Architectural Dissonance in REST-based Architectures. Technical Report UCI-ISR-06-18. Institute for Software Research, University of California, Irvine. 2006.
  13. Justin R. Erenkrantz, Michael M. Gorlick, Girish Suryanarayana, Richard N. Taylor. From Representations to Computations: The Evolution of Web Architectures. In ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on The Foundations of Software Engineering (FSE). 2007. pages 255–264.
  14. Roy T. Fielding. Maintaining distributed hypertext infostructures: Welcome to MOMspider’s Web. In Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 27, 2. 1994. pages 193–204. doi:10.1016/0169-7552(94)90133-3. Series title? Selected Papers of the First World-Wide Web Conference.
  15. Roy T. Fielding. Relative Uniform Resource Locators. RFC 1808. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 1995-06. doi:10.17487/RFC1808.
  16. Roy T. Fielding. Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, California, USA. 2000.
  17. Roy T. Fielding, Gail Kaiser. The Apache HTTP Server Project. In IEEE Internet Computing. 1, 4. 1997-07. pages 88–90. doi:10.1109/4236.612229
  18. Roy T. Fielding, Henrik Frystyk Nielsen, Jeffrey Mogul, Jim Gettys, Tim Berners-Lee. Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.1. RFC 2068. 1997-01. doi:10.17487/RFC2068
  19. Roy T. Fielding, Julian Reschke. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content. RFC 7231. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 2014-06. doi:10.17487/RFC7231.
  20. Roy T. Fielding, Richard N. Taylor. Principled Design of the Modern Web Architecture. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering. 2000. pages 407–416. IEEE, Limerick, Ireland.
  21. Roy T. Fielding, Richard N. Taylor. Principled Design of the Modern Web Architecture. In ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 2, 2. 2002-05. pages 115–150.
  22. Roy T. Fielding, E. James Whitehead, Jr., Kenneth M. Anderson, Gregory A. Bolcer, Peyman Oreizy, Richard N. Taylor. Web-Based Development of Complex Information Products. In Communications of the ACM, 41, 8. 1998-08. pages 84–92.
  23. Matias Giorgio, Richard N. Taylor. Accountability Through Architecture for Decentralized Systems: A Preliminary Assessment. Technical Report UCI-ISR-15-2. Institute for Software Research, University of California, Irvine. 2015.
  24. Cristiano Giuffrida, Anton Kuijsten, Andrew S. Tanenbaum. 2013. Safe and Automatic Live Update for Operating Systems. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS’13). ACM, New York City, New York, USA, 279–292.
  25. Y. Goland, E. Whitehead, A. Faizi, S. Carter, D. Jensen. HTTP Extensions for Distributed Authoring – WEBDAV. RFC 2518. Internet Engineering Task Force. 1999.
  26. Michael Martin Gorlick. Computational State Transfer: An Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. Technical Report UCI-ISR-16-3. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2016.
  27. Michael M. Gorlick, Kyle Strasser, Richard N. Taylor. COAST: An Architectural Style for Decentralized On-Demand Tailored Services. In Proceedings of 2012 Joint Working Conference on Software Architecture & 6th European Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA/ECSA). 2012. pages 71–80.
  28. David Alan Halls. Applying Mobile Code to Distributed Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. 1997.
  29. Michael Hicks. Dynamic Software Updating. Ph.D. Dissertation. Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 2001.
  30. Irvine Research Unit in Software (IRUS). The Workshop on Internet-Scale Technology (TWIST). A series, 1998-2000.
  31. R. Kadia. Issues Encountered in Building a Flexible Software Development Environment: Lessons from the Arcadia Project. In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Software Development Environments (SDE). 1992. ACM, New York, NY, USA. pages 169–180. doi:10.1145/142868.143768.
  32. Rohit Khare. Extending the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, California, USA. 2003.
  33. Rohit Khare, Richard N. Taylor. Extending the REpresentational State Transfer Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems. In Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). 2004. IEEE Computer Society, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pages 428–437.
  34. Avinash Lakshman, Prashant Malik. Cassandra: A Decentralized Structured Storage System. In SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, 44, 2. 2010-04. pages 35–40.
  35. David Mazieres. The stellar consensus protocol: A federated model for internet-level consensus. Stellar Development Foundation. 2015.
  36. Mark Samuel Miller. Robust Composition: Towards a Unified Approach to Access Control and Concurrency Control. Ph.D. Dissertation. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2006.
  37. Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. 2008.
  38. Peyman Oreizy. Open architecture software: a flexible approach to decentralized software evolution. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.
  39. Peyman Oreizy, Michael M. Gorlick, Richard N. Taylor, Dennis Heimbigner, Gregory Johnson, Nenad Medvidovic, Alex Quilici, David Rosenblum. An Architecture-based Approach to Self-Adaptive Software. In IEEE Intelligent Systems, 14, 3. 1999-05 (May-June). pages 54–62.
  40. Peyman Oreizy, Nenad Medvidovic, Richard N. Taylor. Architecture-Based Runtime Software Evolution. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). 1998. pages 177–186.
  41. Peyman Oreizy, Nenad Medvidovic, Richard N. Taylor. Runtime Software Adaptation: Framework, Approaches, and Styles. In Companion of 30th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE Companion). 2008. ACM. pages 899–910.
  42. Peyman Oreizy, Richard N. Taylor. 1998. On the role of software architectures in runtime system reconfiguration. In IEE Proceedings-Software, 145, 5. 1998. pages 137–145.
  43. Dewayne E. Perry, Alexander L. Wolf. 1992. Foundations for the Study of Software Architecture. In SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, 17, 4. 1992-10. pages 40–52. doi:10.1145/141874.141884.
  44. Sean Rhea, Brighten Godfrey, Brad Karp, John Kubiatowicz, Sylvia Ratnasamy, Scott Shenker, Ion Stoica, Harlan Yu. OpenDHT: A Public DHT Service and Its Uses. In SIGCOMM Computing Communication Review, 35, 4. 2005-08. pages 73–84.
  45. Alan Shieh, Andrew C. Myers, Emin G. Sirer. Trickles: A Stateless Network Stack for Improved Scalability, Resilience, and Flexibility. In Proceedings of Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation,/em> (NSDI), Vol. 2. USENIX Association. 2005. pages 175–188.
  46. Alan Shieh, Andrew C. Myers, Emin Gün Sirer. A Stateless Approach to Connection-Oriented Protocols. In ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 26, 3. 2008-09. pages 8:1–8:50.
  47. James W. Stamos, David K. Gifford. Implementing Remote Evaluation. In IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 16, 7. 1990-07. pages 710–722.
  48. James W. Stamos, David K. Gifford. Remote Evaluation. In ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), 12, 4. 1990-10. pages 537–564.
  49. Chengzheng Sun, Xiaohua Jia, Yanchun Zhang, Yun Yang, David Chen. Achieving Convergence, Causality Preservation, and Intention Preservation in Real-time Cooperative Editing Systems. In ACM Transactions on Complicating Human Interactions (HCI), 5, 1. 1998-03. pages 63–108.
  50. Richard N. Taylor, Nenad Medvidovic, et al. A Component- and Message- Based Architectural Style for GUI Software. In Transactions on Software Engineering. 1996-06. pages 390–406.
  51. Richard N. Taylor, Nenad Medvidovic, Eric M. Dashofy. Software Architecture: Foundations, Theory, and Practice. John Wiley & Sons. 2010. ASIN:B012AQ8M42: Kindle: no, paper: $151-$600.
  52. Richard N. Taylor, Nenad Medvidovic, Peyman Oreizy. Architectural Styles for Runtime Software Adaptation. In Proceedings of the Eighth Joint Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture and Third European Conference on Software Architecture. IEEE Computer Society, 171–180. 2009.
  53. R.D. Tennant. 1976. The Denotational Semantics of Programming Languages. In Communications of the ACM 19, 8. 1976-08. pages 437–453.
  54. M. Thomson, E. Damaggio, B Raymor. Generic Event Delivery Using HTTP Push. RFC 8030. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 2016.
  55. Emmet James Whitehead, Jr. An Analysis of the Hypertext Versioning Domain. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2000.
  56. Emmet James Whitehead, Jr., Yaron Goland. The WebDAV Property Design. In Software, Practice and Experience 34 2004, 135–161.
  57. Wikipedia. 2017. Representational state transfer,/a>. In Wikipedia. 2017.
  58. Scott Wolchok, J Alex Halderman. Crawling BitTorrent DHTs for Fun and Profit. In Proceedings of the Fourth USENIX Workshop on Offensive Technologies (WOOT10). 2010.
  59. Gavin Wood. 2014. Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger. Paper 151. Ethereum Project Yellow Papers 2014.

Previously filled.

Trip report: Summer ISO C++ standards meeting (Toronto) | Sutter’s Mill

Herb Sutter; Trip report: Summer ISO C++ standards meeting (Toronto); In His Blog entitled Sutter’s Mill; 2017-07-15.

Mentions

  • Concepts TS
    • “introducer syntax”
    • “terse/natural syntax”
  • Draft C++20
  • C++17
  • Modules TS
  • Coroutines TS
  • Networking TS
  • atomic_shared_ptr<T>
  • Latches
  • Barriers
  • Reflection
  • Library Evolution [Working Group]
  • SG1
  • CppCon

Something About…

  • several new containers
  • compile-time programming
  • metaclass programming

and…

  • modules
  • contracts

Definitions

“IS”
The “international standard” is core [of the] C++ standard.
a.k.a. “trunk.”
“TS”
The “technical specification” is a document separate from the main standard. Experimental features can start here before being put into the IS.
a.k.a. “beta branches.”
Current Status
See the actualities, below.

Who

  • Bjarne Stroustrup
  • Gabriel Dos Reis
  • Andrew Sutton

Referenced

Proposals
  • P0194compile-time reflection
  • P0244Unicode support
  • P0355date library
  • P0329Add designated initializers.
    e.g. struct A { int x; int y; int z; }; A b{.x = 1, .z = 2};
  • P0409Allow lambda capture [=, this].
  • P0428Allow template parameter lists on lambdas.
    e.g. auto f = []<typename T>(std::vector<T> vector) { /*…*/ };
Issues
  • BUG 311remove deprecated features

Previously

In His Blog

Actualities

Previously filled

A Comprehensive Look at Low Power, Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) | LinkLabs

A Comprehensive Look at Low Power, Wide Area Networks (LPWAN); a whitepaper; LinkLabs; 2017?; 16 pages (2 of content)
Teaser: For ‘Internet of Things’ Engineers and Decision Makers Important People Like You

Promotion

Mentions

  • Low Power, Wide Area Network (LPWAN)
  • Internet of things (IoT)
  • Machine to Machine (M2M)
  • Topologies
    • Mesh
    • Star
  • Energy per symbol
    • Shannon-Hartley Theorem
    • Information Theory
  • Regulations
    • FCC Part 15 (requrement)
    • ETSI (rules)
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
  • Radio Frequency (RF)
  • Code Division Multiplexing (CDMA)
  • Chirp Spread Sprectum (CSS)
  • Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
  • LoRaWAN
  • Groupe Speciale Mobile Association (GSMA)
  • Adaptive Data Rate
  • IoT Platform sector
  • Cellular IoT (CIoT) LPWAN.
  • Forking 4G with LTE-M.
  • LoRa, LoRaWAN
  • “clobbered,” a technical term.
  • Band
    • Europe (868 MHz)
      U.S. (915 MHz)
  • MAC
  • SATCOM
  • MTU
  • Ultra Narrowband (UNB) Radio
  • Random Phase Multiple Access (RPMA)
  • BPSK
Definition
  • long range
    10km
  • low power
    Aspirationally: half-a-generation, a decade, ten years.
  • low data rate
    metaphorical inverse of “blazing-fast”

Folklore

  • ZigBee has “trouble” in the 20-30m range; unusable beyond 30m.
  • Star topology is best.
  • LPWAN operate at 140-160 decibels (dB) of total path.
  • Receiver sensitivity
    • LPWAN  is more than -130 dBm
    • [some] other wireless is within -90 to -110 dBm.
  • The 915 MHz band is available only in ⅓ of the world.
    Therefore LPWAN is “not ready”
    There is no globally available band for LPWAN technologies like there is at the 2.4 GHz level (for Bluetooth and WiFi).

Standards

  • 802.11 of IEEE
    • 802.11ac
    • 802.11ad
    • 802.11n
    • 802.11a
    • 802.11g
    • 802.11b
  • 802.15 of IEEE
    • 802.15.4 ZigBee
    • 802.15.4 WPAN
    • 802.15.4k Nwave, Random Phase Multiple Access (RPMA)
    • 802.15.5 WBAN
  • The ‘G of The Telecom Sphere
    • 2G
    • 3G
    • 4G
    • 5G
    • you guessed it … “6G”
  • Bluetooth
    • Bluetooth (Classic)
    • Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
  • and
    • RFID
    • NFC

Products

  • Sigfox

    • What Is Sigfox
    • Proprietary
    • Concept
      12-byte packets, 300 baud, BPSK
      message repetition.
      15 byte messages, 10 messages/day up, 4 acknowledgements/day (down).
    • Something about: 2015, protocol upgrade, guaranteed message acknowledgment for up to four messages per day.
    • Scheme
      BPSK, 868 MHz,,915 MHz
  • Nwave
    • Proprietary
      • Capabilites unknown
      • Unpublished, undocumented
    • Scheme
      Ultra Narrowband (UNB) radio, sub-1 GHz ISM bands.
  • Ingenu
    • Proprietary
    • Founder, IEEE 802.15.4k task group
    • Something about: has a MAC concept.
    • Scheme
      Random Phase Multiple Access (RPMA); 2.4GHz
  • Weightless
    • Weightless Special Interests Group (SIG)
      unknown, unproven specifications & capabilities.
    • Concept
      10 year battery life
      2-way communication
    • Three sub-standards.
      • Weightless-W
    • Scheme
      sub-1GHz, unlicensed; in “unused TV spectrum”
  • LoRaWAN
    • LoRa Alliance
      • Specification, request
      • Intellectual Property
        • Semtech
        • with
          • IBM Research
          • Actility.
    • Concept
      Like Sigfox, but different
    • Dependencies
      • Any “code” must b be run off-box “in the cloud.”
      • Requires a “cloud vendor.”
      • Thus, heavy monthly fees for the compute.
        How much would you pay to have “smart light bulb?”
        With a monthly “subscription” and bill presentment?
    • Vendors
      • none
      • Aspiration
        • STMicroelectronics

Referenced

Actualities

Link Labs, 130 Holiday Court, Suite 100, Annapolis, MD 21401,

LinkLabs
130 Holiday Court, Suite 100
Annapolis, MD 21401,
http://www.nwave.io/

Previously filled.

Tech is Public Enemy #1. So Now What? | John Battelle

John Battelle; Tech Is Public Enemy #1. So Now What?; In His Blog, white-labeled as NewCo, centrally-hosted on Medium; 2017-09-10.
Teaser: If tech wants to reverse the crushing tide of negative public opinion, it must start creating public good commensurate with its extraction of private profit.

tl;dr → Agree, perhaps. But it’s not clear to what one is agreeing at all. Whereas the lede is buried; that being the promotion of Richard Florida’s book The New Urban Crisis.
and → Unto the hook of the title: For the sin, The Nostrum. To wit:

Nostrum
  • Enumerate.
  • Confess,
  • Repent,
  • Restitute, reparate.
  • Return.

Occasion

John Battelle interviewed Richard Florida towards a book promotion.

Book

Richard Florida The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class—and What We Can Do About It 1st Edition ; Basic Books; 2017-04-11; 336 pages; ASIN:0465079741: Kindle: $18, paper: $12+SHT.

Mentions

  • Where “tech” is Apple, Amazon, Facebook, Google, and maybe Netflix (rly?).
  • And JB foresaw it in a vision of 2017-01; fair. he also “saw” it in 2011-12, had Microsoft in the cohort, and pitched “The Internet Big Five” as a gushing chronicle-of-the-times, only-time-will-tell honorific of boosterist veneration. indeed though, it’s okay to change one’s mind upon further reflection.
  • Richard Florida is granted 191 words at the end to speak as a threat.
    Whereas Richard Florida has a direct line to Congress.
    Unless his demands are met … something will happen
  • Google Apple Facebook Amazon (GAFA),
    Google Amazon Facebook Apple (GAFA)
  • Facebook Amazon Netflix Google (FANG),
    Facebook Apple Netflix Google (FANG)
  • No Wintel.  The PC Revolution is over O.V.E.R.
    • No Microsoft?
    • No Intel?
Definition: the “tech” is an enumeration
  • Apple → fabless. Purveyors of phones & some laptops.
  • Amazon → Retail reseller. Cloud (billed as a service).
  • Facebook → Entertainment. laid against advertising.
  • Google → Fabless, phone designs. Cloud (billed as a service), Advertising marketplaces.  And 25 other hobbies as “Alphabet.”
  • Netflix → Licensed video entertainment. An Amazon cloud customer.
    …can’t really seriously belong in the class of the first four can it?

Epithets

  • Uber — a company that proved a perfect exemplar of tech’s most sociopathic characteristics*.
  • <quote>The bro culture long parodied in popular culture proved to be virulently on display at the world’s most valuable startup — misogyny, tone deaf management, winning at all costs, ignorance of social and political consequence.</quote>
  • Everything Store
  • <quote>rapacious and robotic approach to platform capitalism</quote>
  • Amazon’s purchase of Whole Foods
  • Big Tech
  • fake news
  • Russian information ops
  • <quote>They’re extracting — but giving nothing back.</quote>

Rebuttal

New bogies for new panics, not the old bogies from old panics…

Missing

Anyone that actually makes things out of actual atoms. No one is afraid of companies that fabricate things out of atoms.

  • Industry (even so called “light industry”)
  • Big Defense (denizens of ‘I’ in Military-Industrial Complex)
  • Big Oil
  • Big Food
  • Big Finance, a.k.a. “Wall Street”
  • Big Auto
  • Big Semiconductor
  • Big Telecom
  • Big Blue, a.k.a. IBM
  • Big Mining
  • Big Ads, a.k.a. “Madison Avenue”
  • Big Media, a.k.a. major market television
  • Big Music, a.k.a. “the Record Labels”
  • Big Hollywood, a.k.a. “The Movie Studios”
  • Big Newspaper
  • Big Cable
  • The Diamond Cartel, e.g. de Beers
  • Railroad Trusts
  • Anyone on the Conference Board.
    Remember the “interlocking directorate” research of ‘ago?
  • The QSR, as a self-conscious class.
  • Disney
  • Microsoft
  • Walmart
  • McDonald’s

And

  • No Japanese conglomerates. Remember MITI-managed organized markets?
  • No European national champions. Remember the ’90s?

Referenced

In archaeological order, newer outbursts on top, older opinements below…

Previously

In His Blog

Related

The publishing pile-on exponentially increasing across 2015, 2016, 2017. There are many more than are presented here. Everyone is sayin’ it, doin’ it; walkin’ the walk, talkin’ the talk. Yet presented here in archaeological order, newer outbursts on top, older opinements below…

Previously filled.

Out of Action: Do protests work? | The New Yorker

Out of Action: Do protests work?; Nathan Heller; In The New Yorker; 2017-08-14.
Teaser: Skeptics suggest that “folk politics”—marches, protests, and the like—are a distraction from the challenges of real change.

tl;dr → No.  Betteridge’s Law. folk politics as “leaderless” slactivism does not work; “leader”-based, top-down circa 1955-1965 did work; see Zeynep Tufekci.

Summary

<quote>Tufekci’s conclusions about the civil-rights movement are unsettling because of what they imply. People such as Kauffman portray direct democracy as a scrappy, passionate enterprise: the underrepresented, the oppressed, and the dissatisfied get together and, strengthened by numbers, force change. Tufekci suggests that the movements that succeed are actually proto-institutional: highly organized; strategically flexible, due to sinewy management structures; and chummy with the sorts of people we now call élites.</quote>

Mentions

  • “folk politics”
    • Attributed to Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams in Inventing the Future
    • Constitutes
      • authenticity-mongering
      • <quote>reasoning through individual stories [is] also a journalistic tic</quote>
      • <quote>a general inability to think systemically about change&lt/;quote>
    • “This is politics transmitted into pastime—politics-as-drug-experience, perhaps—rather than anything capable of transforming society”
    • <quote>Their objection to protest and direct action defies generations of radical zeal. “The people, united, will never be defeated!” the old street chant goes. These lefties say that, actually, they will.</quote>
    • <quote><snip/>the left, despite its pride in being progressive, is mired in nostalgia.
      “Petitions, occupations, strikes, vanguard parties, affinity groups, trade unions: all arose out of particular historical conditions,” they say. They think that modernizing these things for an internationalized, digitized world will free us from what they vividly call our “endless treadmill of misery.” Protest is fine for digging in your heels. But work for change needs to be pragmatic and up-to-date. </quote>
    • <quote>Inventing the Future may be the shrewdest, sanest pipe dream of a book published since the recession.</quote>
  • “the multitude”
    • Attributed to Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri; Assembly (Heretical Thought);
    • Constitutes
    • …some things…

Quotes

  • <quote><snip/>the killings of “more than” forty unarmed black people by law-enforcement officers. A majority of these officers were not indicted, however; of those that were, three were found guilty. To date, only one of the convicted has received a prison sentence.</quote>
  • …more…

Referenced

Previously

In The New Yorker

Datelined
Essays

Soup

  • New York
  • London
  • 2003
  • Occupy Wall Street
  • misdeeds of the finance industry
  • stranglehold of corporate power
  • predations of inequality.
  • Autumn 2011
  • Zuccotti Park
  • lower Manhattan.
  • 2014.
  • Black Lives Matter (B.L.M.)
  • demonstrators
  • Missouri
  • Women’s March
  • female empowerment
  • just-inaugurated President
  • boulevards in cities
  • New York
  • Washington
  • London
  • Los Angeles
  • First Amendment
  • “the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances”
  • Stamp Act boycotts of the seventeen-sixties
  • 1913 suffrage parade and the March on Washington
  • 1963
  • Tom Lehrer
  • Arab Spring
  • Macau
  • the feminism-and-rationalism-flaunting event known as Boobquake.
  • strident
  • Boobquake
  • Brainquake.
  • smartphones
  • social media
  • made organizing easier
  • social theatre
  • folk politics
  • authenticity-mongering
  • reasoning through individual stories [is] also a journalistic tic
  • channelling the righteous sentiments of those involved over the mechanisms of real progress.
  • pastime—politics-as-drug-experience
  • [not] wing nuts of the right
  • [not] stodgy suits
  • [not] quailing centrists.
  • Marx-infused leftists
  • “post-work,” open-bordered world.
  • “postcapitalist”
  • shorten the work week
  • a generous and global basic income
  • when robots take our jobs.

Previously filled.

Marketing Technology Landscape Supergraphic (2017): Martech 5000


(ChiefMarTec); Marketing Technology Landscape Supergraphic (2017): Martech 5000; In Their Blog; 2017-05-10.

Occasion

Martech 5000
Slide
copy, original
JPEG
copy, original
PDF
copy, original
Sheet

Licentious licentiate: <quote ref=”cite“>Feel free to cut-and-paste this data and use it as a starting point for your own research.</quote>

Mentions

  • Integration-Platform-as-a-Service(iPaaS, IPaaS)
    • are “distributed” platforms
    • perform <quote>[as] dynamically piping data between marketing applications and [a] data lake.</quote>
  • Content Management System (CMS)
    • are platforms, per se
    • are centralized
    • are repositories of data and services
    • Gartner staff renamed them digital marketing hub
  • Among: DMP, CDP, RTIM
    • is a subtle blending among them
    • The Spectrum
      • Data Management Platforms (DMP),
      • Customer Data Platform (CDP),
      • Real-Time Interaction Management (RTIM)

Exemplars

Content Management System (CMS)

  • Adobe
  • HubSpot
  • IBM
  • Marketo
  • Oracle
  • Salesforce
  • Sitecore

IPaaS, now with Microservices!

  • Boomi, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dell, a.k.a. Dell Boomi
  • Informatica
  • Jitterbit
  • Mulesoft
  • Segment
  • Zapier

The Spectrum Among: DMP, CDP, RTIM

Customer Data Platform (CDP)
  • AgilOne
  • Lytics
  • RedPoint
  • Tealium
  • Treasure Data
  • Usermind
Data Management Platform (DMP)
As a feature, not even Line of Business
  • Adobe
  • Oracle
  • Salesforce
Standalone
  • DataXu
  • MediaMath
  • Neustar
  • Rocketfuel, (sic) Rocket Fuel of Sizmek
Real-Time Importance Management (RTIM)
  • Experian
    but not Acxiom? EXPM contra ACXM …”the same, but different” aren’t they?
  • Infor
  • Pegasystems
  • SAS
  • Teradata

Credited

Iterations

Argot

  • Content Management System (CMS)
  • Customer Data Platform (CDP)
  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
  • Data Lake, an inelegant metaphor,
    a body corpora of water data facts in a controlled-but-unstructured format.
  • Data Management Platform (DMP)
  • Digital Marketing Hub (DMH)
    Gartner ‘lingo for the MarTech genre.
  • Enabler
    Doesn’t actually do the work, but still sends a bill for allowing it to occur.
    Usage: <quote>iPaaS and microservice platform enablers.</quote>
  • Integration-Platform-as-a-Service (iPaaS)
  • Long Tail
  • Marketing Automation Platform (MAP)
  • Microservices
  • Platform-as-a-Service (iPaaS)
  • Real-Time Interaction Management (RTIM)
  • Service-as-a-Service (SaaS)
  • Success-as-a-Service, a scheme.
    e.g. 2&20.

Referenced

Previously

In Their Blog

Actualities

Licentiate: ibidem.




The Fate of Online Trust in the Next Decade | Pew Research Center

, ; The Fate of Online Trust in the Next Decade; Pew Research Center; 2017-08-10; 89 pages; landing.

Teaser

Many experts say lack of trust will not be a barrier to increased public reliance on the internet. Those who are hopeful that trust will grow expect technical and regulatory change will combat users’ concerns about security and privacy. Those who have doubts about progress say people are inured to risk, addicted to convenience and will not be offered alternatives to online interaction. Some expect the very nature of trust will change.

Concept

  • Delphi-type survey design
  • N=1,233
  • A pull-quote generation vehicle. To Wit.

Summary

  • 48% → trust will be strengthened
  • 28% → trust will stay the same
  • 24% → trust will be diminished

Scope

Six major themes on the future of trust in online interactions

Theme 1
Trust will strengthen because systems will improve and people will adapt to them and more broadly embrace them

  • Better technology plus regulatory and industry changes will help increase trust
  • The younger generation and people whose lives rely on technology the most are the vanguard of those who most actively use it, and these groups will grow larger
Theme 2
The nature of trust will become more fluid as technology embeds itself into human and organizational relationships

  • Trust will be dependent upon immediate context and applied differently in different circumstances
  • Trust is not binary or evenly distributed; there are different levels of it
Theme 3
Trust will not grow, but technology usage will continue to rise, as a “new normal” sets in

  • “The trust train has left the station”; sacrifices tied to trust are a “side effect of progress”
  • People often become attached to convenience and inured to risk
  • There will be no choice for users but to comply and hope for the best
Theme 4
Some say blockchain could help; some expect its value might be limited

  • Blockchain has potential to improve things
  • There are reasons to think blockchain might not be as disruptive and important as its advocates expect it to be
Theme 5
The less-than-satisfying current situation will not change much in the next decade
Theme 6
Trust will diminish because the internet is not secure, and powerful forces threaten individuals’ rights

  • Corporate and government interests are not motivated to improve trust or protect the public
  • Criminal exploits will diminish trust

Producers

Imagining The Internet (Center)
  • Pew Research Center
  • Elon University

Previously filled.

Purism Librem 5 – A Security and Privacy Focused Phone

Librem 5A Security and Privacy Focused Phone
still uses Flash on the promotion page.

 

 

 

Conformance

Telecommunications

  • 2G/3G/4G
  • GSM
  • UMTS
  • LTE

Software

Applications

  • HTML5 “web apps” in a browser
  • Matrix

Operating Systems

  • PureOS
  • Debian GNU/Linux
  • Ubuntu
  • Fedora
  • Suse
  • Arch Linux
  • SubgraphOS
  • “will run almost any GNU+Linux based distribution”

Hardware

  • 5″ touchscreen
  • i.MX6/i.MX8 CPU
  • Vivante GPU
    (Etnaviv free software accelerated driver
  • Separate mobile baseband
  • 3GB LPDDR3
  • 32GB eMMC
  • MicroSD slot
  • Camera (front and back)
  • Flash
  • Headphone and Microphone Jack (3.5mm)
  • Microphone
  • Speaker
  • Power Button
  • Volume Controls
  • SIM Slot
  • WiFi 802.11
  • Bluetooth 4
  • Debugging interface (internal)
  • USB Host
  • USB Type-C
  • Battery
  • Sensors:
    • GPS
    • Accelerometer
    • Gyroscope
    • Compass
    • Ambient Light
    • Proximity
  • Hardware kill switches for:
    • Camera
    • Microphone
    • Baseband
    • WiFi/Bluetooth

whatcounts.com | Your connection is not secure

Nothing says “The Web is Misconfigured” quite like a low-level security protocol failure notice on a DIY computer-hobbyist site.


Explanation

Pre-Conference AdTech Summarization | Gubbins

; Things you should know about AdTech, today; In His Blog, centrally hosted on LinkedIn; 2017-08-30; regwalled (you have to login to linkedin).

Occasion

Boosterism in front of the trade shows
  • Exchange Wire #ATSL17
  • Dmexco
  • Programmatic IO

Mentions

  • There be consolidation in the DSP category.
  • There will be more DSPs not less fewer.
  • Owned & Operated (O&O)
  • preferential deals
  • private equity companies
  • party data & a GDPR compliant screen agnostic ID
  • no “point solutions.”
  • Doubleclick Bid Manager (DBM), Google
  • Lara O’Reilly; Some Article; In Business Insider (maybe); WHEN?
    tl;dr → something about how Google DSP DBM guarantee “fraud-free” traffic.
  • Ads.txtAuthorized Digital Sellers, IAB Tech Lab
  • Claimed:
    comScore publishers are starting to adopt Ads.txt

Buy Side

Deal Flow
  • Sizmek acquired Rocket Fuel, (unverified) $145M.
  • Tremor sells its DSP to Taptica for $50M.
  • Singtel acquired Turn for $310M.
No flow, yet
  • Adform
  • MediaMath
  • DataXu
  • AppNexus

Sell Side

  • Header Bidding (HB)
    • Replaces the SSP category
    • <quote>effectively migrated the sell sides narrative & value prop of being a yield management partner to that of a feet on the street publisher re-seller.</quote>
  • QBR (Quarterly Business Result?)
  • Prebid.js
  • With server bidding, too.
  • Supply Path Optimization (SPO)
    • Brian O’Kelley (AppNexus); Article; In His Blog; WHEN?
      Brian O’Kelley, CEO, AppNexus.
    • Article; ; In ExchangeWire; WHEN?
  • Exchange Bidding in Dynamic Allocation (EBDA), Google
Exemplars
The Rubicon Project
a header tag, compatible with most wrappers, no proprietary wrapper, only Prebid.js
Index Exchange
a header tag, compatible with most wrappers, a proprietary wrapper
OpenX
a header tag that, compatible with many (not ‘most’) wrappers, a proprietary wrapper
AppNexus
a header, compatible with many (not ‘most’) wrappers, a proprietary wrapper (that is better than OpenX’s which is not enterprise grade)
PubMatic
a header tag, compatible with many (not ‘most)’ wrappers, a proprietary wrapper.
Other
  • TrustX
    • with
      • Digital Content Next
      • IPONWEB
      • ANA
    • Something about a transparent marketplace.
  • Something about another supply network
    • German
    • trade press in Digiday
Mobile
  • No header bidding, yet.
  • Mobile equals Adware (“in app”)
    • but Apps don’t have “browsers.”
    • but App browsers don’t have “pages” with “headers.”
    • though Apps have SDKs (libraries).
Video
  • RTL acquires SpotX
  • <quote>One could argue video is the perfect storm for header bidding, limited quality supply & maximum demand, the ideal conditions for a unified auction…</quote>
Talking Points
  • The industry is currently debating the pros & cons of running header bidding either client or server side (A lot boils down to latency V audience match rates)
  • Google offer their own version of header bidding, this is referred to as EBDA (Exchange Bidding in Dynamic Allocation) and is available to DFP customers.
  • Facebook recently entered header bidding by launching a header tag that enables publishers to capture FAN demand via header bidding on their mobile traffic.
  • Criteo entered header bidding by offering publishers their header tag (AKA Direct Bidder) that effectively delivers Criteos unique demand into the publisher’s header auction, at a 1st rather than cleared 2nd price.
  • Amazon have launched a server to server header bidding offering for publishers that delivers unique demand and the ability to manage other S2S demand partners for the publisher.
Extra Credit
  • <quote>senior AdTech big wigs</quote>
  • programmatic auction process
  • 1st v 2nd price
  • 2nd price was for waterfall
  • 1st price will be for unified (header bidding)

General Data Protection Regulation’ (GDPR)

  • 2018-05
  • Consent must be collected.
  • Will make 2nd party data marketplaces economical.
  • The salubrious effect.
  • Publishers have a Direct Relationship with consumers.
    this is argued as being “better.”
  • Industry choices
    • collect holistic consent
      <quote>one unified [process] of consumer [outreach] rather than one for every vendor</quote>
    • individual vendor consent
      <quote>for every cookie or device ID that flows through the OpenRTB pipes we have spent the last 10 years laying.</quote>

Viewability & Brand Safety

  • IAB
  • MRC

Talking Points

  • Moat was sold to Oracle for reported number of $800M.
  • PE Firm Providence Equity bought a % of Double Verify giving them a reported value of $300M.
  • Integral Ad Science remains independent, for now

Telcos

  • Telcos have what everybody in AdTech wants:
    • accurate data
    • privacy compliant data
    • scaled data
    • 1st party data.
  • Telcos want what AdTech & publishing companies have:
    • programmatic sell and buy side tools
    • content creation functions
    • distribution at scale.
    • diversification of revenues

Talking Points

  • Verizon buys AOL & Yahoo to form Oath, a publisher, a DSP, a DMP.
  • Telenor buys TapAd, a cross-device DMP-type-thing
  • Altice buys Teads, a streaming video vendor)
  • Singtel buys Turn, a DSP
  • AT&T needs a line in this list; might want to buy Time Warner which is a movie studio, media holding copmany, a cable operator, an old owner of AOL.
Shiny
Smartpipe
Raised $18.75M, Series A. Why?
ZeoTap
Raised $20M, through Series B, Why?

Data Management Platform (DMP)

  • Not a pure-play business.
    • A division, not a business.
    • An interface, not a division.
  • Everyone wants to own one.
Deciderata
  • Should DMP’s also be in the media buying business?
  • What are DMP’s doing to stay relevant for a world without cookies?
  • Do DMP’s plan to build or buy device graph features / functions?
  • For platforms that process & model a lot of 1st, 2nd & 3rd party data, how will they be affected by the pending GDPR?
Talking Points
  • Adobe bought Tube Mogul, a video DSP, for $540M (based on information &amp belief).
  • Oracle bought Moat, a verification feature, for $800M
  • Oracle bought Crosswise, a cross-device database, for <unstated/>
  • Salesforce bought Krux, a DMP, FOR $700M

Lotame remains independent, for now

ID Consortium’s & Cross-Device Players

Claims
Probabilistic “won’t work”
<quote>The GDPR may make it very difficult for a number of probabilistic methods to be applied to digital ID management.</quote>
Walled Garden
They … <quote>are using their own proprietary cross-screen deterministic token / people based ID that in many cases only works within their O&O environments.</quote>
Universal ID
Is desired. <quote>CMO’s & agencies in the future will not be requesting a cleaner supply chain, but a universal ID (or ID clearing house) that will enable them to manage reach, frequency & attribution across all of the partners they buy from.</quote>
Initiatives
The DigiTrust
<quote>This technology solution creates an anonymous user token, which is propagated by and between its members in lieu of billions of proprietary pixels and trackers on Web pages.</quote>
Claim: “Many” leading AdTech companies are already working with the DigiTrust team. [Which?]
AppNexus ID Consortium
  • Scheme: people-based ID.
  • Launch: 2017-05
  • Trade Name: TBD
    • Index Exchange
    • LiveRamp
    • OpenX
    • Live Intent
    • Rocket Fuel
Standalones
  • Adbrain
  • Screen6
  • Drawbridge

Blockchain

BUZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ!

  • Blockchain is slow, too slow, way too slow
    Blockchain can handle 10 tps.
  • Does not work in OpenRGB
  • NYIAX
    • New York City
Referenced
  • Some Q&A; In AdExchanger
    tl;dr → interview of Dr Boris WHO?, IPONWEB; self-styled “the smartest man in AdTech and he concurs”

Artificial Intelligence

  • Is bullshit.
  • c.f.(names dropped)
    • Deepmind
    • Boston Dynamics

Omitted

  • DOOH
  • Audio
  • Programmatic TV
  • Over The Top (OTT)
  • MarTech != AdTech

Previously filled.

Surviving on a Diet of Poisoned Fruit: Reducing the National Security Risks of America’s Cyber Dependencies | Danzig (CNAS)

Richard J. Danzig; Surviving on a Diet of Poisoned Fruit Reducing the National Security Risks of America’s Cyber Dependencies; Center for a New American Security; 2014-07; 64 pages; landing.

tl;dr → a metaphor for an ambivalent relationship with the technical platforms upon which all things depend.  Writ large into the relationship with the supply chain that we do not control and is inimical to our interests..

Executive Summary

Digital technologies, commonly referred to as cyber systems, are a security paradox: Even as they grant unprecedented powers, they also make users less secure. Their communicative capabilities enable collaboration and networking, but in so doing they open doors to intrusion. Their concentration of data and manipulative power vastly improves the efficiency and scale of operations, but this concentration in turn exponentially increases the amount that can be stolen or subverted by a successful attack. The complexity of their hardware and software creates great capability, but this complexity spawns vulnerabilities and lowers the visibility of intrusions. Cyber systems’ responsiveness to instruction makes them invaluably flexible; but it also permits small changes in a component’s design or direction to degrade or subvert system behavior. These systems’ empowerment of users to retrieve and manipulate data democratizes capabilities, but this great benefit removes safeguards present in systems that require hierarchies of human approvals. In sum, cyber systems nourish us, but at the same time they weaken and poison us.

The first part of this paper illuminates this intertwining. The second part surveys the evolution of strategies to achieve greater cybersecurity. Disadvantaged by early design choices that paid little attention to security, these strategies provide some needed protection, especially when applied collectively as a coordinated “defense in depth.” But they do not and never can assure comprehensive protection; these strategies are typically costly, and users will commonly choose to buy less security than they could obtain because of the operational, financial or convenience costs of obtaining that security.

Three other factors, discussed in Section V, amplify cyber insecurity. First, the cyber domain is an area of conflict. Cyberspace is adversarial, contested territory. Our adversaries (including criminals, malevolent groups and opposing states) co-evolve with us. The resulting ecosystem is not static or stable. Second, the speed of cyber dissemination and change outpaces our recognition of problems and adoption of individual and societal safeguards to respond to them. Protective actions are likely to continue to lag behind security needs. Third, in cyberspace America confronts greater-than customary limits to U.S. government power because of the global proliferation of cyber capabilities, cyber attackers’ ability to remain outside the United States even while operating within the country’s systems and our likely inability, over the long term, to avoid technological surprise. Two-thirds of a century of technological dominance in national security matters has left the United States intuitively ill-prepared for technology competitions that it probably will not continue to dominate and in which there is a high likelihood of surprise.

What then is to be done? The concluding part of this paper does not attempt to recapitulate or evaluate efforts now extensively debated or in progress. It focuses instead on recommending initiatives that deserve fresh attention from U.S. government decision-makers. These include:

  1. Articulate a national security standard defining what it is imperative to protect in cyberspace. The suggested standard is: “The United States cannot allow the insecurity of our cyber systems to reach a point where weaknesses in those systems would likely render the United States unwilling to make a decision or unable to act on a decision fundamental to our national security.” A more stringent standard may later be in order, but this standard can now secure a consensus, illuminate the minimum that the United States needs to do and therefore provide an anvil against which the nation can hammer out programs and priorities.
  2. Pursue a strategy that self-consciously sacrifices some cyber benefits in order to ensure greater security for key systems on which security depends. Methods for pursuing this strategy include stripping down systems so they do less but have fewer vulnerabilities; integrating humans and other out-of-band (i.e., non-cyber) factors so the nation is not solely dependent on digital systems; integrating diverse and redundant cyber alternatives; and making investments for graceful degradation. Determining the trade-offs between operational loss and security gain through abnegating choices will require and reward the development of a new breed of civilian policymakers, managers and military officers able to understand both domains.
  3. Recognize that some private-sector systems fall within the national security standard. Use persuasion, federal acquisition policies, subsidy and regulation to
  4. apply the abnegating approach to these systems. While doing this, reflect an appreciation of the rapidity of cyber change by focusing on required ends while avoiding specification of means. Refrain from regulating systems that are not critical.
  5. Bolster cyber strategic stability between the United States and other major nation-states by seeking agreement on cyber constraints and confidence-building measures. As an early initiative of this kind, focus on buttressing the fragile norm of not using cyber as a means of physical attack between China, Russia and the United States.
  6. Evaluate degradation in the sought-after certainties of mutually assured destruction (MAD) as a result of uncertainties inherent in cyber foundations for nuclear command, control and attack warning. If we are moving to a regime of mutually unassured destruction (MUD), suggest to China and Russia that we are all becoming less secure. Then pursue agreements that all parties refrain from cyber intrusions into nuclear command, control and warning systems.
  7. Map the adversarial ecosystem of cyberspace in anthropological detail with the aim of increasing our understanding of our adversaries and our own incentives and methods of operation.
  8. Use the model of voluntary reporting of near-miss incidents in aviation to establish a data collection consortium that will illuminate the character and magnitude of cyber attacks against the U.S. private sector. Use this enterprise as well to help develop common terminology and metrics about cybersecurity.
  9. Establish a federally funded research and development center focused on providing an elite cyber workforce for the federal government. Hire that workforce by cyber competition rather than traditional credentials, and promote, train, retain and assign (including to the private sector) that workforce by standards different from those currently used in federal hiring.

Previously filled.

Roundup on Onavo Protect VPN used to inform Facebook UX, M&A | Houseparty contra Bonfire, On This Day contra Timehop

In archaeological order…

tl;dr → Onavo is a VPN. Facebook snoops the traffic on it to grok trends. Trends highlights cause cloned features in Facebook UX or deal flow at Facebook M&A.

  • The Washington Post piece goes broad to illustrate the pattern across a wide range of business lines and a long time span.
  • The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) piece goes deep to focus on travel log: group video chat with Facebook’s attempt to acqui-hire Houseparty prior to the launch of Bonfire in 2017-Q4 (“in the Fall”).

Mentions

  • Onavo
    • Onavo Protect
    • Tel Aviv, Israel
  • Science
    • a startup studio, an incubator, a venture capital shop.
    • Los Angeles.
  • Meerkat
  • Verto Analytics
    • sourced the DAU factoids.
    • Hannu Verkasalo, CEO
  • Sensor Tower.
    • sourced the app popularity factoids
  • Bonfire, Facebook

The Four Dominant Companies

  • Apple
  • Google Alphabet
  • Amazon
  • Facebook

AAAF? AGAF? GAAF?

Concept

The Misdirection

Onavo does not not state its affiliation with Facebook in T&C on stores.
This is positioned as a sort of misdirective cloaking to consumers. It allows Facebook to observe nominally the VPN traffic flowing over “its” wires.

The Subsumption

Facebook competitor apps become tabs in the Facebook UX.

  • Event scheduling
    Cloning: Meetup
  • Fundraising
    Cloning: Kickstarter, GoFundMe
  • Messaging (WattsApp)
    Cloning: SMS
  • Marketplace
    Cloning: Craigslist
  • Meal delivery
    Cloning: Grubhub, Seamless, Caviar, Postmates.
  • Photo memorabilia (On This Day)
    Cloning: Timehop, Dropbox, Google Drive, iPhone camera (on box?)

The Pattern

Amazon

  • Quidsi of Diapers.com
  • Something contra Blue Apron

Facebook

  • Instagram
  • WhatsApp
  • Something contra Snap’s Snapchat.

Google Alphabet

  • Waze for (Google) Maps
  • Something contra Snap’s Snapchat.

Exemplars

Timehop

  • an app
  • cloned by Facebook

Houseparty

  • an app
    • casual small-group chat by video.
    • Like, but different
      • Meerkat
      • (Google) Hangouts
      • “everyone” has a teen-focused group chat.…
    • Cultures (both)
    • The promotion page uses Flash.
      <snide>Are you kidding me?  In 2017?</snide>
    • Something about a kerfluffle with a change in the Terms & Conditions (T&C)
  • Launched
    • 2016-02.
    • as Life on Air Inc.; renamed Houseparty
  • Location
    • San Francisco, CA
    • Some warehouse; around SOMA
  • Founders
    • Ben Rubin,
      • age 29
    • Sima Sistani
      • age 38
    • Itai Danino
      • exists
  • Funders
    • Greylock Partners
      via

      • Josh Elman, with board representation
    • Sequoia
      via

      • Mike Vernal, with board representation
      • $50M
      • 2016?
  • Staff
    • Employees
      • 25
      • “30% increase” since “then” in 2016.
    • Kinshuk Mishra
      • vice president of engineering, Houseparty
      • ex-Spotify AB
      • hired 2016

Quotes

  • “Don’t be too proud to copy” attributed to Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook via a leaked memo; in The Wall Street Journal (WSJ).

Attributed to The Washington Post.

  • <quote>acebook is able to glean detailed insights about what consumers are doing when they are not using the social network’s family of apps, which includes Facebook, Messenger, WhatsApp and Instagram</quote>
  • <quote>Facebook’s use of Onavo is partly borne of need. Because Google and Apple, for instance, control the operating systems in which many apps live, they have access to huge amounts of information about how consumers use their apps. Facebook is more limited. It knows what consumers do within its own apps, and it knows about behavior on apps that work with Facebook — such as for sign-in credentials. Onavo, on the other hand, helps Facebook’s expanding ambitions by offering near real-time access to information about what users do while Onavo is active in the background. Onavo sends anonymized data to Facebook on what apps consumers have installed, how frequently they open those apps, how long they linger inside them, and the sequence throughout the day of consumers’ app usage — information that functions as an early-detection system on whether an app is gaining popularity, according to the people familiar with the company’s activities. This information can be far more valuable, and be available earlier, than waiting for an app or feature to publicly take off.</quote>
  • <quote>Onavo was used to detect the popularity outside the United States of the messaging service WhatsApp, which Facebook purchased for $19 billion in 2014, several months after the Onavo acquisition, according to the people familiar with the company’s activities</quote>

Attributed ot The Wall Street Journal (WSJ)

  • <quote>Facebook uses an internal database to track rivals, including young startups performing unusually well, people familiar with the system say. The database stems from Facebook’s 2013 acquisition of a Tel Aviv-based startup, Onavo, which had built an app that secures users’ privacy by routing their traffic through private servers. The app gives Facebook an unusually detailed look at what users collectively do on their phones, these people say.</quote>
  • <quote>Mr. Elman says he is encouraged that Bonfire is a stand-alone app and that Facebook hasn’t been particularly successful with those. But, he says, if Facebook figures out how to integrate the power of Houseparty “into a property that I’m already using 10 times a day, that would scare the crap out of me.”</quote>
    but that’s sorof the point of launching Bonfire as a separable MVP.

Who

In alphabetical order…

  • Jeffrey P. Bezos
    • CEO, Amazon
    • owner, The Washington Post.
  • Itai Danino
    • founder, Houseparty
    • not featured, quoted, pictured.
  • Josh Elman
    • partner, Greylock Partners
    • investor, director, Houseparty
    • ex-product manager, Facebook.
  • Scott Heiferman, chief executive, Meetup.com.
  • Alfred Lin, partner, Sequoia.
  • Kinshuk Mishra
    • vice president of engineering, Houseparty
    • ex-Spotify AB
  • Roger McNamee
    • founder, Elevation Partners
    • claims on Facebook & Google,
      • reminds us of his prescience as evidenced in his early contribution credit.
      • regret on his early contribution as such participation is no longer politic:
        I helped create the Google-Facebook monster — and I’m sorry; Roger McNamee; an oped; In USA Today; 2017-08-08.
        Teaser: ‘Brain hacking’ Internet monopolies menace public health, democracy, writes Roger McNamee.
  • Peter Pham, co-founder, Science (a vc boutique).
  • Scott Sandell
    • managing partner, New Enterprise Associates
    • ex-product manager, Windows 95, Microsoft.
    • quoted for color, background & verisimilitude;
      a confessional testifying to illegal, abusive & predatory aggressive M&A tactics from “back in the day.”
  • Fidji Simo, “head” of “video efforts”, Facebook.
  • Sima Sistani
    • founder, Houseparty
    • age 38
    • featured, quoted, pictured.
  • Scott Stern
    • professor, management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
    • quoted for color, background & verisimilitude.
      testification that an early exit is good for the investors & good for the founders, and something vague about <quote>might be at the expense of a more competitive landscape</quote>
  • Ben Rubin
    • founder, Houseparty
    • age 29
    • featured, quoted, pictured.
  • Rick Webb, CEO, Timehop.
  • Hannu Verkasalo, CEO, Verto Analytics
  • Mike Vernal
    • partner, Sequoia
    • investor, director, Houseparty
    • ex-”executive,” Facebook.
  • Mark Zuckerberg, CEO, Facebook

Sources

The Washington Post

  • Some, surely; they went broad.
  • <quote>Facebook declined to comment but noted [some platitudes]</quote>
  • Not so obviously sourced on deep background & pure gossip & rumor.

The Wall Street Journal

  • <quote>says a person familiar with the contacts.</quote>
  • <quote>Rubin and Elman declined to discuss details of the conversations.</quote>
  • <quote>the person says. Facebook said Ms. Simo declined to comment.</quote>

Related

Color

Honorific

  • the prominent venture capital firm
  • the investment firm
  • the startup studio
  • the venture-capital firm

Salutary

  • is nimble
  • forces the best entrepreneurs to be more creative

Epithettery

  • tech giants (contra media giants)
  • Silicon Valley is dominated by a few titans
  • libertarian-leaning Silicon Valley

Previously filled.

Roundup of the backlog of The Concepts of Note

Occasion

Whereas The Firefox crashed. Tabs were lost


Activities

C++

  • std::split, the proposal
  • gcc 7.2
  • Generalizing Range-Based Variables
  • Inline Variables

Debug

  • rngd: No entropy sources working, exiting

Bubblicious

  • Blockstack

Bookists

  • Thinking in C++, Volume 1, Volume 2
  • Chris Hayes
    • A Colony in a Nation
    • Twilight of the Elites: America after Meritocracy
  • Notable Privacy and Security Books, therein
  • Surveillance Studies, CRC Press
  • Feminist Surveillance Studies, Duke University Press
  • Do Economists Make Markets: On the Performativity of Economics
  • Andrew Lo, Adaptive Markets: Financial Evolution at the Speed of Thought
  • Mervyn King, Radical Uncertainty
  • Frank Pasquale; The Black Box Society: <long><<subtitle/></long>
  • Billie Rinaldi, Aaron Cordova, Michael Wall; Accumulo; O’Reilly Media; 2015-07; ISBN:9781491947098
  • Susann Wagenknecht; A Social Epiistemology of Research Groups; Palgrave Macmillan; 2016; 187 pages; Amazon:B01N1P7W67: Kindle: $110, paper: $60+SHT <wow>$0.58/page</wow>
  • and

Concepts

  • Black Sky Thinking
  • Constructal Law
  • Edge
  • Middle Voice
  • Pull
  • Shift, The Big Shift, The Shift Index
  • Stocks vs Flows, wasn’t it ever thus?
  • Taxes for Revenue, or not, MMT
  • Uncertainty, Knightian Uncertainty
  • Universal Dole

Folk Theorems

  • Goodhart’s Law
  • Drucker’s Rule
  • Zookoo’s Triangle
    2 of 3 in { Secure, Memorable, Global }

Essaying

  • The Art of Unix Usability
  • Karl Marks and the Three Faces of Technological Determinism
  • Kranzenberg’s Six Laws of Technology, A Metaphor , and a Story
  • Rachel Armstrong; Why We Should Make 100-Year Plans <obvious>even though we won’t live to see even a fraction of that time duration</obvious>
  • Devops Against Humanity
  • Terra Incognita: On the Practicality of User-Space File Systems

Finance

  • VBTLX
  • VTSAX
  • John C. Bogle; The Little Book of Common Sense Investing

Papering

Persons

  • Dan Luu
  • Mirowski
  • Nik-Khah

Products

  • Intel NUC, still alive?
    • NVMe
  • Intel Edison, terminated.
  • RP13 Light

Projects

  • D-Bus
  • Gorilla iMux gorilla/mux
  • graphqlparser – GraphQL
  • roscpp Robot Operating System
  • Apache with OSCP Stapling
  • openca/openca-oscpd – an OSCP Responder
  • Accumulo, Apache
    Like BigTable, but made of Hadoop, ZooKeeper, Thrift.
  • Digital Object Architecture, Internet Society

References

  • yes

Definitional

Standards

C++
  • N3690
Certifications
  • CompTIA Security SYO-401
RFC
  • RFC 3849
  • RFC 4941
  • RFC 5280
  • RFC 5737
  • RFC 7217

Jimi Wales Wiki

  • Technological Determinism
  • World-Systems Theory
  • The Other Canon Foundation
  • Covering-Law Model
  • Harold Innis
  • Laws of Media, The Tetrad of Media by Marshall McLuhan
  • Meson
  • George Gurdjeff
  • The Fourth Way
  • Extropy, Extropianism
  • X.509
  • CompTIA
  • Accumulo, Apache
  • Piconet, PicoRadio
  • Institutional Logic
  • Scram

Vocabulary

  • Explanada
  • Salutary

tinyLiDAR | The Maker-Friendly Laser Sensor

tinyLiDAR: The Maker-Friendly Laser Sensor; At IndieGoGo; campaign through 2017-08-13.
A Higher Performance, Arduino Compatible Time-of-Flight Sensor with Dedicated Micro

Mentions

Specifications

Distance measurements from 30 mm → 2000 mm.

Pricing

1x board → $15
3x boards →$39 + $5 SHT

Delivery

2017-10(ish)

Deadline

2017-08-13

References

  • VL53L0X, ST Microelectronics
  • Pololu VL53L0X/ Library

Promotions

Actualities

Code Dependent: Pros and Cons of the Algorithm Age | Pew Research

, ; Code Dependent: Pros and Cons of the Algorithm Age; 2017-02-08; 87 pages; landing.
Teaser: Algorithms are aimed at optimizing everything. They can save lives, make things easier and conquer chaos. Still, experts worry they can also put too much control in the hands of corporations and governments, perpetuate bias, create filter bubbles, cut choices, creativity and serendipity, and could result in greater unemployment.

tl;dr → there be dragons; this is an important area; the future is at stake; the alarum has been sounded; there are seers who can show us the way. In their own words.

Series

Future of the Internet, of Pew Research & Elon University.

Table of Contents

  • Overview
  • Themes illuminating concerns and challenges
  • Key experts’ thinking about the future impacts of algorithms
  • About this canvassing of experts
  • Theme 1: Algorithms will continue to spread everywhere
  • Theme 2: Good things lie ahead
  • Theme 3: Humanity and human judgment are lost when data and predictive modeling become paramount
  • Theme 4: Biases exist in algorithmically-organized systems
  • Theme 5: Algorithmic categorizations deepen divides
  • Theme 6: Unemployment will rise
  • Theme 7: The need grows for algorithmic literacy, transparency and oversight
  • Acknowledgments

Promotion

Code-Dependent: Pros and Cons of the Algorithm Age; , (Pew Research Center); In Their Blog; 2017-02-08.

Teaser: Algorithms are aimed at optimizing everything. They can save lives, make things easier and conquer chaos. Still, experts worry they can also put too much control in the hands of corporations and governments, perpetuate bias, create filter bubbles, cut choices, creativity and serendipity, and could result in greater unemployment/

Mentions

  • Pew Research Center of the Pew Charitable Trusts
  • Imagining the Internet Center at Elon Univesity
  • <ahem>the Singularity enthusiasts … .</ahem>

Themes

  1. Algorithms will continue to spread everywhere
  2. Good things lie ahead
  3. Humanity adn human judgement are lost wwhen data nad predictive modeling become paramount
  4. Biases exist in algorithymically-organized systems
  5. algorithmic categorizations deepen divides
  6. Unemployment will rise
  7. The need grows for algorithmic literacy, transparency and oversight.

Argot

  • <snicker>Artificial Intelligence (AI)</snicker>
  • algocratic governance
  • surveillance capitalism
  • information capitalism
  • topsight
  • black-box nature [of]
  • digital scientism
  • obedience score

Quoted

  • Aneesh Aneesh, Stanford University.
  • Peter Diamandis, CEO, XPrize Foundation.
  • Shoshana Zuboff, Harvard.
  • Jim Warren, activist.
  • Terry Langendoen, expert, U.S. National Science Foundation.
  • Patrick Tucker technology editor at Defense One,.
  • Paul Jones, clinical professor at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and director of ibiblio.org.
  • David Krieger, director of the Institute for Communication & Leadership IKF,.
  • Galen Hunt, partner research manager at Microsoft Research NExT,.
  • Alf Rehn, professor and chair of management and organization at Åbo Akademi University in Finland,.
  • Andrew Nachison, founder at We Media,.
  • Luis Lach, president of the Sociedad Mexicana de Computación en la Educación, A.C.
  • Frank Pasquale, professor of law, University of Maryland.
  • Jeff Jarvis, reporter.
  • Cindy Cohn, executive director at the Electronic Frontier Foundation,.
  • Bernardo A. Huberman, senior fellow and director of the Mechanisms and Design Lab at HPE Labs, Hewlett Packard Enterprise.
  • Marcel bullinga, expert.
  • Michael Rogers, principal, Practical Futurist.
  • Brian Christian, Tom Griffiths.
  • David Gelertner.
  • Deloitte Global (anonymous contributors).
  • Barry Chudakov, founder and principal at Sertain Research and StreamFuzion Corp.
  • Stephen Downes, staff, National Research Council of Canada,.
  • Bart Knijnenburg, assistant professor in human-centered computing at Clemson University.
  • Justin Reich, executive director at the MIT Teaching Systems Lab.
  • Dudley Irish, tradesman (a coder).
  • Ryan Hayes, owner of Fit to Tweet,.
  • Adam Gismondi, a visiting scholar at Boston College.
  • Susan Etlinger, staff, Altimeter Group.
  • Chris Kutarna, fellow, Oxford Martin School.
  • Vintno Cert, Internet Hall of Fame, vice president and chief internet evangelist at Google:.
  • Cory Doctorow, writer, computer science activist-in-residence at MIT Media Lab and co-owner of Boing Boing.
  • Jonathan Grudin, Microsoft.
  • Doc Searls, director, Project VRM, Berkman Center, Harvard University,.
  • Marc Rotenberg, executive director of the Electronic Privacy Information Center.
  • Richard Stallman, Internet Hall of Fame, president of the Free Software Foundation.
  • David Clark, Internet Hall of Fame, senior research scientist at MIT,.
  • Baratunde Thurston, Director’s Fellow at MIT Media Lab, ex-digital director of The Onion.
  • Anil Dash, pundit.
  • John Markoff, New York Times.
  • Danah Boyd (“danah boyd”), founder, Data & Society, an advocacy group.
  • Henning Schulzrinne, Internet Hall of Fame, professor at Columbia University,.
  • Amy Webb, futurist and CEO at the Future Today Institute.
  • Jamais Cascio, distinguished fellow at the Institute for the Future.
  • Mike Liebhold, senior researcher and distinguished fellow at the Institute for the Future,.
  • Ben Shneiderman, professor of computer science at the University of Maryland,.
  • David Weinberger, senior researcher at the Harvard Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society.

Referenced

Previously filled.

The Futures of Everyday Life: Politics and the Design of Experiential Scenarios | Stuart Candy

Stuart Candy; The Futures of Everyday Life: Politics and the Design of Experiential Scenarios; Ph.D. Dissertation; University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa; 2010-08; 372 pages; DOI:10.13140/RG.2.1.1840.0248; ResearchGate.

Abstract

The great existential challenges facing the human species can be traced, in part, to the fact that we have underdeveloped discursive practices for thinking possible worlds ‘out loud’, performatively and materially, in the register of experience. That needs to change. In this dissertation, a methodology for ‘experiential scenarios’, covering a range of interventions and media from immersive performance to stand-alone ‘artifacts from the future’, is offered as a partial corrective. The beginnings of aesthetic, political and ethical frameworks for ‘experiential futures’ are proposed, drawing on alternative futures methodology, the emerging anti- mediumist practice of ‘experience design’, and the theoretical perspective of a Rancièrian ‘politics of aesthetics’. The relationships between these three domains — futures, design, and politics — are explored to show how and why they are coming together, and what each has to offer the others. The upshot is that our apparent binary choice between unthinkable dystopia and unimaginable utopia is a false dilemma, because in fact, we can and should imagine ‘possibility space’ hyperdimensionally, and seek to flesh out worlds hitherto supposed unimaginable or unthinkable on a daily basis. Developed from early deployments across a range of settings in everyday life, from urban guerrilla-style activism to corporate consulting, experiential scenarios do not offer definitive answers as to how the future will look, or even how it should look, but they can contribute to a mental ecology within which these questions may be posed and discussed more effectively than ever before.

Concept

Experiential Scenarios

Contribution

A [better] mental ecology in which [futures] questions may be posed and discussed.

Thesis
  • a diagnosis
  • a methodology
  • a corrective
  • a framework

Mentions

  • (thinking) out loud
  • (thinking) performatively and materially
  • the register of experience
  • artifacts from the future
  • experiential futures
  • alternative futures methodology
  • experience designthe emerging anti- mediumist practice of)
  • Jacques Rancière, b1940, see Jimi Wales’ Wiki
  • politics of aesthetics
  • possibility space
  • hyperdimensionally
Domains
  • futures
  • design
  • politics
Span
  • unthinkable dystopia
  • unimaginable utopia

Claim: a false dilemma, no a binary choice.

Scope
  • urban guerrilla-style activism
  • corporate consulting

as such: all

Committee
    • Jim Dator

, chair

  • Michael J. Shapiro
  • Debora Halbert
  • Stephen Duncombe
  • Markus Wessendorf

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • List of Figures
  • Introduction. The Unthinkable And The Unimaginable
  • Chapter 1. Beyond Utopia And Dystopia
    • Three easy pieces
      1. Alternative futures
      2. Images of the future
      3. The trio of possible, probable and preferable futures
    • Mapping possibility space
    • A note about theory
    • Generating scenarios
    • The four generic futures
    • Four corners of possibility space
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 2. From Experiential Gulf To Experiential Scenario
    • A tale of two cities
      1. New Orleans: Blindsided by Katrina
      2. Detroit: The future that couldn’t last
    • Lessons from New Orleans and Detroit
    • Another hurricane, and the experiential gulf
    • Reuniting brain and body
    • Mind the gap
    • For a mundane turn in futures
    • Experiential scenarios: a case study
    • Experience design
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 3. The Politics Of Futures And Design
    • Scoping the political
    • Futures and design, considered politically
      1. Critical, political futures
      2. The politics of design
        1. Take One: Design as a signal of human intention
        2. Take Two: Design as reshaping the material world
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 4. Why Futures And Design Are Getting Married
    • A good fit
    • Deepening discourse by design
      1. Discursive, critical and interrogative design
      2. Design fiction
    • The dance depends on who leads
    • Three principles for designing experiential scenarios
      1. Don’t break the universe
      2. The tip of the iceberg
      3. The art of the double take
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 5. Guerrillas In The Wild
    • Situating guerrilla futures
    • Culture jamming and prefigurative politics
      1. Jamming the future
      2. Performing the preferred future
    • Three guerrilla futures interventions
      1. New York Times Special Edition
      2. Hawaii Blue Line Project
      3. FoundFutures: Chinatown
    • A comparative case study
      1. Space
      2. Media
      3. Time
      4. Narrative
      5. Audience Involvement
    • Evaluating political effectiveness
    • A checklist for guerrilla engagement
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 6. Scenario, Simulation, Hoax
    • An ontological spectrum
    • Three discursive technologies
    • Experiential concreteness and indispensable mimesis
    • Two Halloweens (Tricks, or treats?)
      1. War of the Worlds
      2. Hell House
    • Two ethical risks
      1. Distressing?
      2. Misleading?
    • Towards an ethics of experiential futures
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 7. The Futures Of Everyday Life
    • Has futures studies failed?
    • What would it mean to succeed?
    • How are we approaching it?
      1. Future-shock therapy vs ambient foresight
      2. Foresight that is like falling off a log
      3. Ambient foresight nodes
      4. Ambient foresight networks
      5. The limits of ambience?
    • A futures-oriented social ecology
    • Conclusion
  • Conclusion. How We Might Feel Tomorrow
  • References

References

There are 496 references, pages 327-336.

  1. Abel, Jenny and Jeff Hockett (dir.), 2005, Abel Raises Cain (Documentary). United States: Crashcourse Documentaries.
  2. Adams, Douglas, 2005 [1979], The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. USA: Del Rey.
  3. Adbusters Media Foundation, n.d., Spoof ads gallery, ‘Obsession for Women’. https://www.adbusters.org/gallery/spoofads/fashion/obsession_women
  4. Aldrich, Clark, 2004, Simulations and the Future of Learning: An Innovative (and Perhaps Revolutionary) Approach to e-Learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer / John Wiley & Sons.
  5. Alvin and Heidi Toffler personal website. http://www.alvintoffler.net/?fa=books
  6. Amara, Roy, 1974, ‘The futures field: functions, forms and critical issues’. Futures, 6(4): 289-301.
  7. Amara, Roy, 1981a, ‘The Futures Field: Searching for Definitions and Boundaries’. The Futurist 15(1): 25-29 (February).
  8. Amara, Roy, 1981b, ‘The Futures Field: How to Tell Good Work from Bad’. The Futurist, 15(2): 63-71 (April).
  9. Amara, Roy, 1981c, ‘The Futures Field: Which Direction Now?’. The Futurist, 15(3): 42-46 (June).
  10. Anderson, Paul Thomas (dir.), 1997, Boogie Nights (Motion Picture), United States: New Line Cinema.
  11. Anderson, Walter Truett, 1987, To Govern Evolution: Further Adventures of the Political Animal. Boston: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  12. Antonelli, Paola, 2008, Design and the Elastic Mind. New York: Museum of Modern Art.
  13. Arakawa, Lynda, 2009, ‘Isles host talks on climate change’, Honolulu Advertiser, 28 January. http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2008/Jan/28/ln/hawaii801280350.html
  14. Architecture 2030, Project website. http://www.architecture2030.org/about.php
  15. Arnold, Kevin, 2004, ‘Tragedy of the Mental Commons’. Adbusters, 51 (January/ February). http://web.archive.org/web/20040207171954/http://adbusters.org/magazine/51/articles/mentalcommons.html (Internet Archive Wayback Machine, cached 7 February 2004, accessed 22 June 2010.)
  16. Arrow, Kenneth et al., 2008, ‘The Promise of Prediction Markets’. Science, 320 (16 May): 877-878.
  17. Atlee, Tom, 2003(?), ‘Crisis Fatigue and the Co-Creation of Positive Possibilities’. The Co-Intelligence Institute. http://www.co-intelligence.org/crisis_fatigue.html
  18. Atwood, Margaret, 1988 [1985], The Handmaid’s Tale. New York: Anchor Books.
  19. Baerten, Nik, 2008, ‘Nathan Shedroff: futures, experiences & design’. A Thousand Tomorrows blog, 1 October. http://www.pantopicon.be/blog/2008/10/01/futures-experiences-design/
  20. Barbrook, Richard, 2007, Imaginary Futures: From Thinking Machines to the Global Village. London: Pluto Press.
  21. Barnes, Russell (dir.), 2006, Root of All Evil?, Part 2, ‘The Virus of Faith’ (Documentary Series). United Kingdom: IWC Media Limited (for Channel 4).
  22. Barnouw, Erik, 1968, The Golden Web: A History of Broadcasting in the United States, Volume II — 1933 to 1953. New York, Oxford University Press.
  23. Baudrillard, Jean, 1994, Simulacra and Simulation (trans. Sheila Faria Glaser). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  24. ‘The Beast’ Alternate Reality Game, Wikipedia entry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ The_Beast_(game)
  25. Bell, Wendell, 2003 [1997], Foundations of Futures Studies: Human Science for a New Era, Vol. 1: History, Purposes, Knowledge. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
  26. Bell, Wendell, 2004 [1997], Foundations of Futures Studies: Human Science for a New Era, Vol. 2: Values, Objectivity, and the Good Society. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
  27. Bergson, Henri, 2004 [1912], Matter and Memory (trans. Nancy Margaret Paul and W. Scott Palmer). New York: Dover.
  28. Bey, Hakim, 1985, T.A.Z.: The Temporary Autonomous Zone. The Anarchist Library. [Available online at http://www.hermetic.com/bey/taz_cont.html]
  29. Bezold, Clement and Trevor Hancock, 1993, ‘An Overview of the Health Futures Field for the WHO Health Futures Consultation’. In: Ann Taket, Health Futures in Support of Health for All, Report of an International Consultation convened by the World Health Organization. Geneva: World Health Organization, 69-91.
  30. Bichlbaum, Andy, Mike Bonanno and Kurt Engfehr (dir.), 2009, The Yes Men Fix the World (Documentary). United States: Home Box Office (HBO).
  31. Bishop, Peter, Andy Hines and Terry Collins, 2007, ‘The Current State of Scenario Development: An Overview of Techniques’. Foresight, 9(1): 5-25.
  32. Bishop, Peter, 2009, ‘Thinking About the Future: A User’s Guide’. Presentation at the World Futures Society Conference, Chicago, 16 July. http://www.slideshare.net/whatidiscover/thinking-about-the-future [slide deck]
  33. Bleecker, Julian, 2006, ‘EKO’s and Theory Objects, or — Why Do I Blog This?’. Near Future Laboratory, 31 January. http://www.nearfuturelaboratory.com/2006/01/31/ekos-and-theory-objects-or-—-why-do-i-blog-this/
  34. Bleecker, Julian, 2009, ‘Design Fiction: A short essay on design fact and fiction’. Near-Future Laboratory, 17 March. http://www.nearfuturelaboratory.com/2009/03/17/design-fiction-a-short-essay-on-design-science-fact-and-fiction/
  35. Bleecker, Julian et al., 2010, ‘Design Fiction: Props, Prototypes, Predicaments Communicating New Ideas’. Panel at South by Southwest Interactive, Austin, TX, 13 March. http://audio.sxsw.com/2010/podcasts/031310i_designFiction.mp3 [audio]
  36. Bohm, David, 1994, Thought as a System. London: Routledge.
  37. Book of the Revelation of John, New Testament.
  38. Borges, Jorge Luis, 1964, Dreamtigers (trans. Mildred Boyer and Harold Borland). Austin: University of Texas Press.
  39. Börjeson, Lena et al., 2006, ‘Scenario types and techniques: Towards a user’s guide’. Futures, 38(7): 723-739.
  40. Bortolotti, Lisa and Matteo Mameli, 2006, ‘Deception in Psychology: Moral costs and benefits of unsought self-knowledge’. Accountability in Research, 13(3): 259–275.
  41. Boulding, Elise, 1978, ‘The Dynamics of Imaging Futures’. World Future Society Bulletin, 12(5): 1-8.
  42. Boulding, Elise, 1990, Building a Global Civic Culture: Education for an Interdependent World. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
  43. Bourdieu, Pierre, 1990, The Logic of Practice (trans. Richard Nice). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  44. Boyle, Kevin, 2001, ‘The Ruins of Detroit: Exploring the Urban Crisis in the Motor City’. The Michigan Historical Review, 27(1): 109-127.
  45. Brand, Stewart, 1994, How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built. New York: Viking Penguin.
  46. Brand, Stewart, 2000, The Clock of the Long Now: Time and Responsibility. New York: Basic Books.
  47. Brand, Stewart, 2009, Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto. New York: Viking.
  48. Branwyn, Gareth, 1997, Jamming the Media: A Citizen’s Guide: Reclaiming the Tools of Communication. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.
  49. Bright, Kevin (dir.), 2001, Friends, Season 8, Episode 1, ‘The One After I Do’ (Television Program). United States: Bright/Kauffman/Crane Productions. Quotation via Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0583435/quotes
  50. Brown, Tim, with Barry Katz, 2009, Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation. New York: Harper Business.
  51. Bruder, Jessica, 2007, Burning Book: A Visual History of Burning Man. New York: Simon Spotlight Entertainment.
  52. Brumbaugh, Robert S., 1966, ‘Applied Metaphysics: Truth and Passing Time’. The Review of Metaphysics, 19(4): 647-666.
  53. Bruner, Jerome, 1986, Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  54. Burns, Colin et al., 2006, Transformation Design. RED Paper 02, Design Council, London. http://www.designcouncil.info/mt/RED/transformation/TransformationDesignFinalDraft.pdf
  55. Cacophony Society, Wikipedia entry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cacophony_Society
  56. Callenbach, Ernest, 2004 [1975], Ecotopia: The Notebooks and Reports of William Weston. Berkeley, CA: Banyan Tree Books.
  57. Candy, Stuart, 2006a, ‘Cascio Rocks the Rafters’. Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies blog, 25 August. http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/2006/08/cascio-rocks-rafters_25.php
  58. Candy, Stuart, 2006b, ‘Death of a President’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 12 November. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2006/11/death-of-president.html
  59. Candy, Stuart, 2006c, ‘The Future of Futurism’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 3 July. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2006/07/future-of-futurism.html
  60. Candy, Stuart, 2007a, ‘4-2050s’. Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies blog, 7 March. http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/2007/03/4-2050s.php
  61. Candy, Stuart, 2007b, ‘The Bird Cage’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 26 October. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2007/10/bird-cage.html
  62. Candy, Stuart, 2007c, ‘Footwear for a warmer world’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 24 July. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2007/07/footwear-for-warmer-world.html
  63. Candy, Stuart, 2007d, ‘Found futures’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 30 May. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2007/05/found-futures.html
  64. Candy, Stuart, 2007e, ‘Green Dragon’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 25 October. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2007/10/green-dragon.html
  65. Candy, Stuart, 2007f, ‘It looks like rain’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 2 August. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2007/08/it-looks-like-rain.html
  66. Candy, Stuart, 2007g, ‘McChinatown’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 25 October. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2007/10/mcchinatown.html
  67. Candy, Stuart, 2007h, ‘Neill Blomkamp, visual futurist’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 8 August. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2007/08/neill-blomkamp-visual-futurist.html
  68. Candy, Stuart, 2007i, ‘Outdoor installation takes cover’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 26 October. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2007/10/outdoor-installation-takes-cover.html
  69. Candy, Stuart, 2007j, ‘We are all temporal chauvinists now’. The Long Now Foundation Blog, 13 September. http://blog.longnow.org/2007/09/13/we-are-all-temporal-chauvinists-now/
  70. Candy, Stuart, 2008a, ‘Architectural time travel’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 8 October. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/10/architectural-time-travel.html
  71. Candy, Stuart, 2008b, ‘The future as caricature (part one)’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 20 February. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/01/future-as-caricature-part-one.html
  72. Candy, Stuart, 2008c, ‘Future-jamming 101’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 10 September. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/09/future-jamming-101.html
  73. Candy, Stuart, 2008d, ‘Future news-flash: your vote counts’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 24 October. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/10/future-news-flash-your-vote-counts.html
  74. Candy, Stuart, 2008e, ‘Future watch’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 4 August. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/08/future-watch.html
  75. Candy, Stuart, 2008f, ‘Good news for people who love bad news’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 16 January. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/01/good-news-for-people-who-love-bad-news.html
  76. Candy, Stuart, 2008g, ‘Greener Gadgets’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 3 April. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/04/greener-gadgets.html
  77. Candy, Stuart, 2008h, ‘Mapping c-change’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 22 February. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/02/mapping-c-change.html
  78. Candy, Stuart, 2008i, ‘Object-oriented futuring’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 2 November. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/11/object-oriented-futuring.html
  79. Candy, Stuart, 2008j, ‘Put on a happy face’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 21 May. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/05/put-on-happy-face.html
  80. Candy, Stuart, 2008k, ‘Sometimes it doesn’t belong in a museum’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 5 March. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/03/sometimes-it-doesnt-belong-in-museum.html
  81. Candy, Stuart, 2008l, ‘Surveillance Supreme’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 24 November. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/11/surveillance-supreme.html
  82. Candy, Stuart, 2008m, ‘Tangible futures’ (interview with Victor Lombardi). The Sceptical Futuryst, 17 November. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/11/tangible-futures.html
  83. Candy, Stuart, 2008n, ‘White House Redux’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 22 November. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/11/white-house-redux.html
  84. Candy, Stuart, 2008o, ‘World Without Oil Photo Essay’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 29 January. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/01/world-without-oil-photo-essay.html
  85. Candy, Stuart, 2009a, ‘Killer Imps’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 27 March. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2009/03/killer-imps.html
  86. Candy, Stuart, 2009b, ‘Refugee Run’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 16 February. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2009/02/refugee-run.html
  87. Candy, Stuart, 2009c, ‘Thoughts about feelies’. The Sceptical Futuryst, 26 February. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2009/02/thoughts-about-feelies.html
  88. Carbon Trust (UK), 2010, ‘Carbon footprinting’. http://www.carbontrust.co.uk/cut-carbon-reduce-costs/calculate/carbon-footprinting/pages/carbon-footprinting.aspx
  89. Card, Orson Scott, 1985, Ender’s Game. New York: Tor Books.
  90. Caron, Bruce, 2006, ‘Welcome to Santa Barbara’s Lightblueline Action’. lightblueline Project website, 3 November. http://lbline.org/welcome-santa-barbaras-lightblueline-action
  91. Cascio, Jamais, 2006, ‘Hawaii 2050’. Open the Future blog, 29 August. http://www.openthefuture.com/2006/08/hawaii_2050.html
  92. Cascio, Jamais, 2008, ‘Mozilla Scenarios’. Open the Future blog, 6 August. http://www.openthefuture.com/2008/08/mozilla_scenarios.html
  93. Cascio, Jamais, n.d., ‘The Cheeseburger Footprint’. Open the Future blog. http://openthefuture.com/cheeseburger_CF.html
  94. 333Center for Advanced Visual Studies website, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. http://cavs.mit.edu/
  95. Cerf, Christopher and Victor Navasky, 1998, The Experts Speak: The Definitive Compendium of Authoritative Misinformation (revised ed.). New York: Villard.
  96. Chaiken, Shelly and Yaacov Trope (eds.), 1999, Dual-Process Theories in Social Psychology. New York: Guilford.
  97. Chan, Sewell, 2008, ‘Liberal Pranksters Hand Out Times Spoof’. City Room blog, New York Times, 12 November. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/11/12/pranksters-spoof-the-times/
  98. Chaplin, George and Glenn D. Paige (eds.), 1973, Hawaii 2000: Continuing Experiment in Anticipatory Democracy. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii for the Governor’s Conference on the Year 2000.
  99. Charmr: Adaptive Path diabetes management design concept, 2007, YouTube, August 14. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQe1tssyGkU
  100. Chartier, Roger, 2006, ‘Histoire des mentalités’. In: Lawrence D. Kritzman (ed.), 2006, The Columbia History of Twentieth-century French Thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 54-59.
  101. Chermack, Thomas J., Susan A. Lynham, and Wendy E.A. Ruona, 2001, ‘A Review of Scenario Planning Literature’. Futures Research Quarterly, 17(2): 7-31.
  102. Chicago Public Radio, 2002, ‘This American Life #213: ‘Devil on my Shoulder’, first broadcast 24 May. http://www.thislife.org/Radic_Episode.aspx?episode=213
  103. Chicago Public Radio, 2005, ‘This American Life #296: After the Flood’, first broadcast 9 September. http://www.thisamericanlife.org/Radio_Episode.aspx?sched=1097
  104. Coughlan, Peter and Ilya Prokopoff, 2004, ‘Managing Change, by Design’. In: Richard J. Boland Jr. and Fred Collopy, Managing as Designing. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 188- 192.
  105. CRED, 2009, The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public. Center for Research on Environmental Decisions. New York: Columbia University. http://www.cred.columbia.edu/guide
  106. Crichton, Michael (dir.), 1973, Westworld (Motion Picture). United States: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM).
  107. Cuarón, Alfonso (dir.), 2006, Children of Men (Motion Picture). Japan / United Kingdom / United States: Universal Pictures.
  108. Curry, Andrew and Wendy Schultz, 2009, ‘Roads Less Travelled: Different Methods, Different Futures’. Journal of Futures Studies, 13(4): 35-60.
  109. Curtis, Adam (dir.), 2002, The Century of the Self (Documentary Series). United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Corporation.
  110. Damasio, Antonio, 1994, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Avon Books.
  111. Dator, Jim, 1979, ‘The Futures of Culture or Cultures of the Future’. In: Anthony J. Marsella, Roland G. Tharp and Thomas J. Ciboroski (eds.), Perspectives on Cross-Cultural Psychology. New York: Academic Press, 369-388.
  112. Dator, Jim, 1986, ‘Futures report : The futures of futures studies — the view from Hawaii’. Futures, 18(3), 440-445.
  113. Dator, Jim, 1987, ‘Hawaii 2000, The World Futures Studies Federation, and Me: Thinking Locally and Acting Globally’. In: Michael Marien and Lane Jennings (eds.), What I Have Learned: Thinking About the Future Then and Now. New York: Greenwood Press, 87-100.
  114. Dator, Jim, 1993, ‘From Future Workshops to Envisioning Alternative Futures’. Futures Research Quarterly, 9(3): 108-112 (Fall). http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/dator/futures/Workshops.pdf
  115. Dator, Jim, 1996a, ‘Foreword’. In: Richard Slaughter (ed.), The Knowledge Base of Futures Studies (3 vols.). Hawthorne, Australia: DDM Media Group. http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/dator/futures/foreward.pdf
  116. Dator, Jim, 1996b, ‘Futures Studies as Applied Knowledge’. In: Richard Slaughter (ed.), New Thinking for a New Millennium. London: Routledge. http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/dator/futures/appliedknow.html
  117. Dator, Jim, 1997, ‘Responsible for Your Rose’. Futuribili, 3: 75-99 (published in Italian, trans. Eleonora Masini). http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/dator/artificiality/responsible4rose.html
  118. Dator, Jim, 1998, ‘The Future Lies Behind! Thirty Years of Teaching Futures Studies’. American Behavioral Scientist, 42: 298-319 (November). [Republished in Dator 2002, 1-30. Full text at http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/dator/futures/behind.html]
  119. Dator, Jim et al., 1999, Hawaii 2000: Past, Present and Future. Report prepared for the Office of Planning, Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT), Honolulu: Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii, December. http://hawaii2050.org/images/uploads/HI2KDBEDTReport_1299.pdf
  120. Dator, Jim, 1999, ‘Return to long waves’, Futures, 31(3-4): 361–372.
  121. Dator, James A. (ed.), 2002, Advancing Futures: Futures Studies in Higher Education. Westport, CT: Praeger.
  122. Dator, Jim, 2005, ‘De-Colonizing the Future’, Journal of Futures Studies, 9(3): 93-104. [First published in shortened form in Andrew A. Spekke (ed.), 1975, The Next 25 years: Crisis & Opportunity. Washington, DC: World Future Society.]
  123. Dator, Jim, 2006, Keynote address at ‘Securing the future: Networked policing in New Zealand’, Symposium proceedings, 22 November. http://www.policeact.govt.nz/securing-the-future/proceedings.html
  124. Dator, Jim, 2009, ‘Alternative Futures at the Manoa School’, Journal of Futures Studies, 14(2): 1-18. http://www.jfs.tku.edu.tw/14-2/A01.pdf
  125. Dator, Jim, n.d., ‘Society as a social invention and you as a social inventor’. http://futures673.wikispaces.com/file/view/SocInvent.doc [MS Word document]
  126. Dator, Jim and Yongseok Seo, 2004, ‘Korea as the Wave of a Future: The Emerging Dream Society of Icons and Aesthetic Experience’. Journal of Futures Studies, 9(1): 31-44 (August). http://www.jfs.tku.edu.tw/9-1/04.pdf
  127. Dawkins, Richard, 2006 [1976], The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  128. Debatty, Regine, 2008, ‘Prosthesis for a Lost Instinct’. we-make-money-not-art, 21 February. http://we-make-money-not-art.com/archives/2008/02/alertness-enhancing-device.php
  129. de Bono, Edward, 1991, I Am Right – You Are Wrong. London: Penguin.
  130. de Bono, Edward, 1998, How to be More Interesting. London: Penguin.
  131. Debord, Guy, 1994 [1967], The Society of the Spectacle (trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith), New York: Zone Books.
  132. de Certeau, Michel, 1984, The Practice of Everyday Life (trans. Steven Rendall). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  133. de Certeau, Michel, 1988, The Writing of History (trans. Tom Conley). New York: Columbia University Press.
  134. Deleuze, Gilles and Claire Parnet, 1987, Dialogues (trans. by Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam). London: The Athlone Press.
  135. Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari, 2004, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (trans. Brian Massumi). London: Continuum.
  136. Dery, Mark, 1990, ‘The Merry Pranksters and the Art of the Hoax’. New York Times, 23 December, p. 21. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/12/23/arts/the-merry-pranksters-and-the-art-of-the-hoax.html
  137. Dery, Mark, 1993, ‘Culture Jamming: Hacking, Slashing and Sniping in the Empire of Signs’. Open Magazine Pamphlet Series. http://www.markdery.com/archives/books/culture_jamming/#000005#more
  138. Design Led Futures website, School of Design, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand). http://www.designledfutures.com/dlf2009/index.html
  139. Dewey, John, 1997 [1938], Experience and Education. New York: Touchstone.
  140. Dickens, Charles, 1859, A Tale of Two Cities. [Full text via Internet Archive. http:// www.archive.org/details/ataleoftwocities00098gut]
  141. Dinosaur Adventure Land website. http://www.dinosauradventureland.com/ (Message posted 24 August 2009, accessed 11 February 2010.)
  142. Dunagan, Jake, 2008a, ‘Boogie Rights at SXSW’. Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies blog, 22 March. http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/2008/03/boogie-rights-at-sxsw.php
  143. Dunagan, Jake, 2008b, ‘SXSW Interactive Report’. Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies blog, 19 March. http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/2008/03/sxsw-interactive-report.php
  144. Duncombe, Stephen, 2007, Dream: Re-imagining Progressive Politics in an Age of Fantasy. New York: The New Press.
  145. Duncombe, Stephen, 2008, ‘Art of the Impossible: Creating Spaces to Imagine Alternative Futures’. Presentation at the Honolulu Futures Salon, 9 May. http:// futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/10/dreampolitik.html [video]
  146. Duncombe, Stephen, 2010, Unpublished interview with Jake Dunagan. Institute for the Future, Palo Alto, CA, 9 March. (Copy on file with author.)
  147. Dunne, Anthony, 2006, Hertzian Tales: Electronic Products, Aesthetic Experience, and Critical Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  148. Dunne, Anthony et al. (eds.), 2008, Index: Design Interactions 2008. London: Royal College of Art.
  149. Dunne, Anthony (ed.) 2009, Design Interactions 2009. London: Royal College of Art.
  150. Dunne, Anthony and Fiona Raby, 2001, Design Noir: The Secret Life of Electronic Objects. Basel: Birkhäuser.
  151. Eagleman, David, 2010, ‘Six Easy Steps to Avert the Collapse of Civilization’. Seminar About Long-Term Thinking, The Long Now Foundation, 1 April. http://fora.tv/2010/04/01/Six_Easy_Steps_to_Avert_the_Collapse_of_Civilization [video]
  152. Eco, Umberto, 1986, Travels in Hyper Reality: Essays (trans. William Weaver). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  153. The Economist, 2007, ‘The Future of Futurology’. 30 December. http://www.economist.com/theworldin/international/displayStory.cfm?story_id=10120166&d=2008 [subscription required]
  154. Embodied energy, Wikipedia entry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embodied_energy
  155. Emmerich, Roland (dir.), 2004, The Day After Tomorrow (Motion Picture). United States: 20th Century Fox.
  156. Emmerich, Roland (dir.), 2009, 2012 (Motion Picture). United States: Columbia Pictures.
  157. Epstein, Barbara, 1991, Political Protest and Cultural Revolution: Nonviolent Direct Action in the 1970s and 1980s. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  158. Epstein, Seymour, 1994. ‘Integration of the Cognitive and the Psychodynamic Unconscious’. American Psychologist, 49(8): 709-724.
  159. Estrin, Mark W., 2002, Orson Welles: Interviews. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
  160. Fackre, Gabriel and Dorothy Fackre, 2007(?), Theology and Culture Newsletter, 47. http://web.archive.org/web/20080211140423/http://gabrielfackre.com/ (Internet Archive Wayback Machine, cached 11 February 2008, accessed 19 January 2010.)
  161. Farson, Richard, 2008, The Power of Design: A Force for Transforming Everything. Norcross, GA: Greenway Communications.
  162. Finucane, Melissa L. et al., 2000, ‘The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits’. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13(1): 1-17.
  163. Förster, Jens, Ronald S. Friedman and Nira Liberman, 2004, ʻTemporal Construal Effects on Abstract and Concrete Thinking: Consequences for Insight and Creative Cognitionʼ. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(2): 177–189.
  164. Foucault, Michel, 1973, The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception (trans. A. M. Sheridan). New York: Pantheon Books.
  165. Foucault, Michel, 1977, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (trans. Alan Sheridan). New York: Pantheon Books.
  166. Foucault, Michel, 1978, The History of Sexuality, Volume 1: An Introduction (trans. Robert Hurley). New York: Pantheon Books.
  167. Freitas, Ryan, 2006, ‘Making the future tangible’. Second Verse blog, 19 April. http://secondverse.wordpress.com/2006/04/19/making-the-future-tangible/
  168. Fuller, Richard Buckminster and E.J. Applewhite, 1975, Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking. New York: Macmillan. [Full text at http://www.rwgrayprojects.com/synergetics/toc/toc.html]
  169. Future Sea Level, San Francisco, Project website. http://www.futuresealevel.org/learn/learn1.ad2
  170. Gaddis, John Lewis, 2002, The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past. New York: Oxford University Press.
  171. Gane, Nicholas, 2005, ‘Radical Post-humanism: Friedrich Kittler and the Primacy of Technology’. Theory, Culture & Society, 22(3): 25–41.
  172. Garreau, Joel, 2006, Radical Evolution: The Promise and Peril of Enhancing Our Minds, Our Bodies — And What It Means To Be Human. New York, Broadway Books.
  173. Garrett, Jesse James, 2002, The Elements of User Experience: User-Centered Design for the Web. Berkeley, CA: New Riders / AIGA.
  174. Garrett, Jesse James, 2009, ‘The State of User Experience’. Closing keynote presentation at UX Week, San Francisco, 18 September. http://vimeo.com/6952223 [video]
  175. Garrett, Martha J., 1999, Health Futures: A Handbook for Health Professionals. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  176. Gilbert, Daniel, 2006a, ‘If Only Gay Sex Caused Global Warming’. Los Angeles Times, 2 July. [Reproduced at Stumbling on Happiness blog, Random House. http://www.randomhouse.com/kvpa/gilbert/blog/200607its_the_end_of_the_world_as_we.html]
  177. Gilbert, Daniel, 2006b, Stumbling on Happiness. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  178. Gilbert, Daniel and Randy Buckner, 2007, ‘Time Travel in the Brain’. Time, 19
  179. January. [Reproduced at Stumbling on Happiness blog, Random House. http://www.randomhouse.com/kvpa/gilbert/blog/200701the_dark_network.html]
  180. Ginzburg, Carlo, 1993, ‘Microhistory: Two or Three Things That I Know about It’ (trans. John Tedeschi & Anne C. Tedeschi). Critical Inquiry, 20(1): 10-35.
  181. Gleick, James, 1999, Faster: The Acceleration of Just About Everything. New York: Pantheon Books.
  182. GBN, 2003, Looking Forward to Learn: Future Scenarios for Testing Different Approaches to Managing Used Nuclear Fuel in Canada. Report submitted by Global Business Network to the Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Canada, November. http://www.nwmo.ca/publications?media_file_id=481&action=downloadfile
  183. Godet, Michel and Fabrice Roubelat, 1996, ‘Creating the Future: The Use and Misuse of Scenarios’. Long Range Planning, 29(2): 164-171.
  184. The Good Guide website. http://www.goodguide.com/about/mobile
  185. Google Goggles website. http://www.google.com/mobile/goggles/#label
  186. Google Goggles, Wikipedia entry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Goggles
  187. Foucault, Michel, 1980, Power / Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977 (ed. Colin Gordon; trans. Colin Gordon et al.). New York: Pantheon Books.
  188. Graeber, David, 2004, Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. http://www.prickly-paradigm.com/paradigm14.pdf
  189. Graefe, Andreas, Stefan Luckner and Christof Weinhardt, 2010, ‘Prediction markets for foresight’. Futures, 42(4): 394-404.
  190. Green, Kesten C., J. Scott Armstrong and Andreas Graefe, 2007, ‘Methods to Elicit Forecasts from Groups: Delphi and Prediction Markets Compared’. Foresight: The International Journal of Applied Forecasting, 8: 17-20 (Fall). [More detailed version available at http://www.forecastingprinciples.com/paperpdf/Delphi-WPv33.pdf]
  191. Gregory, Erika, n.d., ‘Communicating Scenarios: Setting the Stage for Conversation’. In: Erika Gregory, Gerald Harris, and Jay Ogilvy, n.d., ‘After the Scenarios,Then What? Strategic Conversation, Early Indicators, and the Art of Communication Scenarios’, Presearch: Provoking Strategic Conversation, 2(1), 15-26. http://www.gbn.com/consulting/article_details.php?id=30&breadcrumb=ideas
  192. Gregory, W. Larry and Anne Duran, 2001, ‘Scenarios and Acceptance of Forecasts’. In: J. Scott Armstrong (ed.), Principles of Forecasting. A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 519-540.
  193. Griffith, Lesa, 2007, ‘Sunny (or spooky) greetings from your future!’, Honolulu Advertiser, 27 May. http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2007/May/27/il/FP705270317.html.
  194. Grosz, Elizabeth (ed.), 1999, Becomings: Explorations in Time, Memory, and Futures. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  195. Grusin, Richard, 2004, ‘Premediation’. Criticism, 46(1): 17-39.
  196. Guba, Egon G. and Yvonna S. Lincoln, 2005, ‘Paradigmatic Controversies, Contradictions, and Emerging Confluences’. In: Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln (eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 191-215.
  197. Guggenheim, Davis (dir.), 2006, An Inconvenient Truth (Documentary). United States: Lawrence Bender Productions.
  198. Hager, Steven, 2005, The Octopus Conspiracy and Other Vignettes of the Counterculture. Walterville OR: TrineDay.
  199. Hancock, Trevor and Clement Bezold, 1994, ‘Possible futures, preferable futures’. Healthcare Forum Journal, 37(2), 23-29.
  200. Hanisch, Carol, 1969, ‘The Personal is Political’. In: Shulamith Firestone (ed.), 1970, Notes from the Second Year: Women’s Liberation: Major Writings of the Radical Feminists. New York: Radical Feminism. [Available via http://www.carolhanisch.org/CHwritings/PersonalisPol.pdf]
  201. Haraway, Donna J., 1994, ‘A Game of Cat’s Cradle: Science Studies, Feminist Theory, Cultural Studies’. Configurations, 2.1, 59-71.
  202. Harris, Sam, 2004, The End of Faith. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  203. Hawaii State Legislature, 2008, Hawaii 2050 Sustainability Plan, January. http://www.hawaii2050.org/images/uploads/Hawaii2050_Plan_FINAL.pdf
  204. Hawken, Paul, 2005 [1993], The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability. New York: Collins Business.
  205. Hawken, Paul, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, 2005 [2000], Natural Capitalism: The Next Industrial Revolution (revised ed.). London: Earthscan.
  206. Hawking, Stephen W., 1988, A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. New York: Bantam Books.
  207. Hayles, N. Katherine, 2001, ‘Desiring Agency: Limiting Metaphors and Enabling Constraints in Dawkins and Deleuze/Guattari’. SubStance, # 94/95, 144-159.
  208. Hayward, Peter C., 2005, From Individual to Social Foresight. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Australian Graduate School of Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Business and Enterprise, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia. http://adt.lib.swin.edu.au/public/adt-VSWT20061108.153623/
  209. Henchey, Norman, 1978, ‘Making Sense of Future Studies’. Alternatives, 7(2): 24-29.
  210. Higgs, Robert, 2003, ‘On Crackpot Realism: An Homage to C. Wright Mills’. The Independent Institute, 18 February. http://www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=798
  211. Highmore, Ben, 2006, Michel de Certeau: Analysing Culture. London: Continuum.
  212. HighWaterLine, New York City, Project website. http://www.seachange-nyc.org/science.html
  213. Hillcoat, John (dir.), 2009, The Road (Motion Picture). United States: Dimension Films.
  214. Home, Stewart (ed.), 1996, What Is Situationism? A Reader. Edinburgh: AK Press.
  215. Home, Stewart (ed.), 1997, Mind Invaders: A Reader in Psychic Warfare, Cultural Sabotage and Semiotic Terrorism. London: Serpent’s Tail.
  216. Hughes, James, 2004, Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  217. Hunt, Lynn (ed.), 1989, The New Cultural History, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  218. Hurley, Karen, 2009, Daring to Envision Ecologically Sound and Socially Just Futures: An Interdisciplinary Exploration of Contemporary Film. Unpublished doctoral dissertation in Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Victoria, Canada.
  219. Hutchins, Edwin, 1995, Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  220. Huxley, Aldous, 1932, Brave New World. London: Chatto and Windus.
  221. Ignatieff, Michael, 2001, Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond. New York: Picador.
  222. Inayatullah, Sohail, 1998, ‘Causal Layered Analysis: Poststructuralism as Method’. Futures, 30(8): 815-829.
  223. Inayatullah, Sohail, 2004, The Causal Layered Analysis (CLA) Reader: Theory and Case Studies of an Integrative and Transformative Methodology. Taipei, Taiwan: Tamkang University Press.
  224. Inayatullah, Sohail, 2008, ‘Six Pillars: Futures Thinking for Transforming’. Foresight, 10(1): 4-21.
  225. Interrogative Design Group website, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. http://interrogative.mit.edu/
  226. 343Iowa Electronic Health Markets website. http://iehm.uiowa.edu/iehm/trnmt/index.html
  227. IPCC, 2000, Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: Summary for Policymakers, A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/spm/sres-en.pdf [Full SRES Report available via http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/]
  228. IPCC, 2007: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-spm.pdf
  229. James, P.D., 1992, The Children of Men. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  230. Jensen, Rolf, 1999, The Dream Society: How the Coming Shift from Information to Imagination Will Transform Your Business. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  231. Joerges, Bernward, 1999, ‘Do Politics Have Artefacts?’. Social Studies of Science, 29(3): 411-431.
  232. Joey Skaggs personal website, Retrospective section. http://www.joeyskaggs.com/html/retsub.html
  233. Johnson, Steven, 2005, Everything Bad is Good for You: How Today’s Popular Culture is Actually Making Us Smarter. New York: Riverhead / Penguin.
  234. Jones, Christopher B., 1992, ‘The Manoa School of Futures Studies’. Futures Research Quarterly, 8(4): 19-25 (Winter).
  235. Jones, Matt, 2009, ‘Stuart Candy on Ambient Futures at Long Now London’. Magical Nihilism blog, 16 March. http://magicalnihilism.com/2009/03/16/stuart-candy-on-ambient-futures-at-long-now-london/
  236. Joy, Bill, 2000, ‘Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us’. Wired, 8.04, April. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.04/joy.html
  237. Judge, Mike (dir.), 2007, Idiocracy (Motion Picture). United States: 20th Century Fox.
  238. Jungk, Robert and Norbert Müllert, 1987, Future Workshops: How to Create Desirable Futures. London: Institute for Social Inventions.
  239. Jungk, Robert, 1958, Brighter than a Thousand Suns: The Story of the Men Who Made the Bomb (trans. James Cleugh). New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
  240. Kahn, Herman and Anthony J. Weiner, 1967, The Year 2000: A Framework for Speculation on the Next Thirty-Three Years. New York: The Macmillan Company.
  241. Kaplan, Robert D., 2000, The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War. New York: Vintage Books.
  242. Kelley, Tom, with Jonathan Littman, 2001, The Art of Innovation. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  243. Kelly, Kevin, 1995, ‘Gossip Is Philosophy’, Interview with Brian Eno. Wired, 3.05, May. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/3.05/eno.html
  244. Kim, Leland, 2008, ‘Demonstration Held Over Changing Global Climate’. KHNL News, Honolulu, 31 January. http://www.khnl.com/Global/story.asp?S=7800939
  245. King, David Lee, 2008, Designing the Digital Experience: How to Use Experience Design Tools and Techniques to Build Websites Customers Love. Medford, NJ: Information Today.
  246. Kittler, Friedrich A., 1990, Discourse Networks 1800/1900 (trans. Michael Metteer with Chris Cullens). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  247. Kittler, Friedrich A., 1999, Gramophone, Film, Typewriter (trans. Geoffrey Winthrop-Young and Michael Wutz). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  248. Knabb, Ken (ed.), 2006, Situationist International Anthology (revised ed.). Berkeley, CA: Bureau of Public Secrets. [Also available online http://www.bopsecrets.org/SI/]
  249. Knabb, Richard D., Jamie R. Rhome, and Daniel P. Brown, 2005, ‘Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina 23-30 August 2005’. National Hurricane Center, 20 December (updated 10 August 2006). http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL122005_Katrina.pdf
  250. Kosko, Bart, 1993, Fuzzy Thinking: The New Science of Fuzzy Logic. New York: Hyperion.
  251. Kroeger, Michael, 2008, Paul Rand: Conversations with Students. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
  252. Kubrick, Stanley (dir.), 1964, Dr Strangelove, or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (Motion Picture). United Kingdom: Columbia Pictures.
  253. Kubrick, Stanley (dir.), 1968, 2001: A Space Odyssey (Motion Picture). United Kingdom / United States: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
  254. Kunstler, James Howard, 2006, The Long Emergency: Surviving the End of Oil, Climate Change, and Other Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Grove Press.
  255. Kurzweil, Ray, 2005, The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology, New York: Viking.
  256. Lago, Colin, 2006, Race, Culture, and Counselling: The Ongoing Challenge (2nd ed.). Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press.
  257. Lakoff, George, 2009, The Political Mind: A Cognitive Scientist’s Guide to Your Brain and Its Politics. New York: Penguin.
  258. Lambert, Steve, 2009, ‘Best Case Scenario’. Fillip, 9 (Winter). http://fillip.ca/content/best-case-scenario
  259. Lambert, Steve, 2010, ‘Utopia’. Presentation at Transmediale.10 Conference ‘Futurity Now!’, Berlin, 7 February. http://vimeo.com/9565094 [video]
  260. Lambert, Steve, n.d., ‘Emma Goldman Institute for Anarchist Studies: June 2005’, Steve Lambert personal website. http://visitsteve.com/work/emma/
  261. Lampedusa, Giuseppe Tomasi di, 1960, The Leopard (trans. Archibald Colquhoun). New York: Pantheon Books / Random House.
  262. Lanier, Jaron, 2010, You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto. New York: Borzoi Books / Alfred A. Knopf.
  263. Lanier, Jaron, n.d., Interview at Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/You-Are-Not-Gadget-Manifesto/dp/0307269647/
  264. Lasn, Kalle, 2000, Culture Jam. New York: Quill.
  265. Latour, Bruno, 1987, Science in Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  266. Latour, Bruno, 2005, ‘From Realpolitik to Dingpolitik or How to Make Things Public’. In: Bruno Latour and Peter Weibel (eds.), Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 4-31.
  267. Le Cuyer, A. Grey, 1996, ‘L.A. Speak: Disneyland Employees’. Los Angeles Times Magazine, 10 November, 8.
  268. Lee, Laura, 2000, Bad Predictions. Rochester, MI: Elsewhere Press.
  269. Lee, Spike (dir.), 2006, When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts (Documentary Series). United States: 40 Acres & A Mule Filmworks / Home Box Office (HBO).
  270. Lewis, Michael, 2010, ‘Greed Never Left’. Vanity Fair, no. 596, 126-129 (April).
  271. lightblueline, Santa Barbara CA, Project website. http://lbline.org
  272. Lindqvist, Sven, 1992, Exterminate All The Brutes. London: Granta Books.
  273. Lindqvist, Sven, 2001, A History of Bombing (trans. Linda Rugg). London: Granta Books.
  274. Linkins, Jason, 2008, ‘New York Times Pranksters on How They Pulled Off Hoax’. The Huffington Post, 19 November. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/11/19/inew-york-timesi-prankers_n_144910.html
  275. Live|work, 2005(?), ‘Orange: Tangible evidence’ (Case study). http://web.archive.org/web/20050320052033/http://www.livework.co.uk/home/projects/orangeevidence.html (Internet Archive Wayback Machine, cached 20 March 2005, accessed 29 April 2010.)
  276. Live|work, 2008, ‘Evidence’, servicedesign.org. http://www.servicedesign.org/glossary/evidence/
  277. Loewenstein, George F., et al., 2001, ‘Risk as feelings’. Psychological Bulletin, 127(2): 267-286.
  278. The Long Now Foundation home page. http://www.longnow.org/about/
  279. Lubertozzi, Alex and Brian Holmsten, 2005, The War of the Worlds: Mars’ Invasion of Earth, Inciting Panic and Inspiring Terror from H.G. Wells to Orson Wells and Beyond. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks.
  280. Lum, Richard Kaipo, 2009, ‘Towards a Framework for Political Design’. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Dept of Political Science, University of Hawaii at Manoa, defended 8 July.
  281. Magnusson, Sigurdur Gylfi, 2006, ‘What Is Microhistory?’. History News Network, George Mason University, 8 May. http://hnn.us/articles/23720.html
  282. Manaugh, Geoff, 2009, ‘Watermarks’. BLDGBLOG, 7 February. http://bldgblog.blogspot.com/2009/02/watermarks.html
  283. Margolin, Victor, 2007, ‘Design, the Future and the Human Spirit’. Design Issues, 23(3), 4-15.
  284. Marton, Ference, 1986, ‘Phenomenography — A Research Approach to Investigating Different Understandings of Reality’. Journal of Thought, 21(3): 23-49.
  285. Maruyama, Magoroh and James A. Dator (eds.), 1971, Human Futuristics. Honolulu: Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii.
  286. Marx, Karl, 1859, Critique of Political Economy. [Full text at http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1859/critique-pol-economy/ch01.htm]
  287. Massive Change website. http://www.massivechange.com/about
  288. Mau, Bruce and the Institute without Boundaries, 2004, Massive Change. New York: Phaidon Press.
  289. Mazria, Edward, 2008, Stephen and Marylyn Pauley Seminar in Sustainability, School of Architecture, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 8 October.
  290. McCarthy, Cormac, 2006, The Road. New York: Vintage Books.
  291. McDonough, William and Michael Braungart, 2002, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. New York: North Point Press.
  292. McDonough, William, 2001, ‘Green Design’, Interview by Robyn Williams. The Science Show, ABC Radio (Australia), 5 May. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ss/stories/s289293.htm
  293. McGonigal, Jane, 2009, ‘Superstruct: Welcome back, Super-Empowered Hopeful Individuals!’. Institute for the Future blog, 22 April. http://www.iftf.org/node/2737
  294. McHale, John, 1970, Typological Survey of Futures Research in the U.S. Contract No. HSM-42-69-47, National Institute of Mental Health.
  295. McKenna, Terence, 1991, The Archaic Revival. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.
  296. McKibben, Bill, 2006, ‘Year One of the Next Earth’. In: Chris Jordan, In Katrina’s Wake: Portraits of Loss from an Unnatural Disaster. New York: Pamphlet Architecture / Princeton Architectural Press, 9-15.
  297. McLuhan, Marshall and Quentin Fiore with Jerome Agel, 2001 [1967], The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects. Corte Madera CA: Gingko Press.
  298. McLuhan, Marshall, and Quentin Fiore with Jerome Agel, 1968, The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects (Long playing record, produced by John Simon). United States: Columbia Records. [Audio version of McLuhan and Fiore 2001 (1967). Available in full via http://www.ubu.com/sound/mcluhan.html]
  299. Meadows, Donella H. et al., 1972, The Limits to Growth (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Potomac Associates.
  300. Meadows, Donella, 1997, ‘Places to Intervene in a System’, Whole Earth, 91: 78-84 (Winter). http://wholeearth.com/issue-electronic-edition.php?iss=2091
  301. Menand, Louis (ed.), 1997, Pragmatism: A Reader. New York: Vintage.
  302. Merholz, Peter, 2006, ‘A Conversation with Michael Bierut’. Adaptive Path blog, 7 August. http://www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/essays/archives/000647.php
  303. Merholz, Peter, 2008, ‘Designing Futures’. Adaptive Path blog, 5 May http://www.adaptivepath.com/blog/2008/05/05/designing-futures/
  304. Merholz, Peter et al., 2008, Subject to Change: Creating Great Products and Services for an Uncertain World. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly.
  305. Michael Rakowitz personal website, paraSITE project. http://michaelrakowitz.com/parasite/
  306. Michael Rakowitz Faculty Biography, Department of Art Theory and Practice, Northwestern University (Illinois). http://www.art.northwestern.edu/programs/faculty/rakowitz.html
  307. Microsoft Office Labs: Future of personal health concept, 2008, YouTube, 10 March. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6F1u36Y-qlE
  308. Milgram, Stanley, 1973, ‘The Perils of Obedience’, Harper’s, 247: 62-66; 75-77 (December). http://harpers.org/archive/1973/12/page/0064 [subscription required]
  309. Miller, George (dir.), 1979, Mad Max (Motion Picture). Australia: Kennedy Miller Productions.
  310. Miller, Riel, 2007, ‘Futures literacy: A Hybrid Strategic Scenario Method’. Futures, 39(4): 341-362.
  311. Moggridge, Bill, 2007, Designing Interactions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  312. Moore, Michael (dir.), 1989, Roger & Me (Documentary). United States: Dog Eat Dog Films / Warner Brothers.
  313. More, Thomas, 2001 [1516], Utopia (trans. Clarence H. Miller). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  314. Morgan, Dennis, 2008, ‘American culture, corporate culture, and the transformation of business practice: the role of social foresight in a restorative economy’. Foresight, 10(4): 31-42.
  315. Morris, Glenn, 1995, ‘For the Next Seven Generations: Indigenous Americans and Communalism’, Fellowship for Intentional Community, Communities Directory 1995. http://www.ic.org/pnp/cdir/1995/30morris.php
  316. Morville, Peter and Jeffery Callender, 2010, Search Patterns: Design for Discovery. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media.
  317. Murch, Walter, 2001, In the Blink of an Eye: A Perspective on Film Editing (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Silman-James Press.
  318. Nandy, Ashis, 1996, ‘Bearing Witness to the Future’. Futures, 28(6-7): 636-639.
  319. Nandy, Ashis, 2004a, ‘Cultural Frames for Social Transformation: A Credo’. In: Ashis Nandy, Bonfire of Creeds: The Essential Ashis Nandy. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 17-29.
  320. Nandy, Ashis, 2004b, ‘Towards a Third World Utopia’. In: Ashis Nandy, Bonfire of Creeds: The Essential Ashis Nandy. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 440-469.
  321. NationMaster website: World Statistics, Country Comparisons. http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/gov_con-government-constitution
  322. New York Times, 1938, ‘Radio Listeners in Panic, Taking War Drama as Fact’. 31 October. Full text at http://www.war-of-the-worlds.org/Radio/Newspapers/Oct31/NYT.html
  323. New York Times, 1991, ‘Culture Jammers; Distinguished Antecedents’. Letter to the Editor, 13 January. http://www.nytimes.com/1991/01/13/arts/l-culture-jammers-distinguished-antecedents-168391.html?pagewanted=1
  324. Niccol, Andrew (dir.), 1997, Gattaca (Motion Picture). United States: Columbia Pictures.
  325. Nixon, Elisabeth Ann, 2006, Playing Devil’s Advocate on the Path to Heaven: Evangelical Hell Houses and the Play of Politics, Fear, and Faith. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Anthropology Graduate Studies Program. http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Nixon_Elisabeth_Ann.pdf?osu1158195173
  326. Nokia Morph Concept (short), 2008, YouTube, 25 February. http://youtube.com/watch?v=Zto6aTZM9t0
  327. Norwegian Nobel Committee, 2007, Nobel Peace Prize 2007 Press Release, 12 October. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2007/press.html
  328. Nova, Nicolas, 2008, ‘Crafting stuff to engage people with the future’. Pasta&Vinegar blog, LiftLab, 25 August. http://liftlab.com/think/nova/2008/08/25/crafting-stuff-to-engage-people-with-the-future/
  329. Null, Christopher, 2006, ‘5 hot products for the future’. Business 2.0 / CNNMoney.com, 9 June. http://money.cnn.com/2006/06/08/technology/business2_bigsellers/index.htm
  330. Nussbaum, Shiri, Nira Liberman and Yaacov Trope, 2006, ‘Predicting the Near and Distant Future’. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135(2): 152-161.
  331. Official Site of Raymond Loewy, 2003(?), Biography. http://www.raymondloewy.com/about/bio.html
  332. Ogilvy, James A., 2002, Creating Better Futures: Scenario Planning as a Tool for a Better Tomorrow. New York: Oxford University Press.
  333. Okrent, Daniel, 2009, ‘Detroit: The Death — and Possible Life — of a Great City’.
  334. Time, 24 September. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1925796,00.html
  335. Ollman, Dan, Sarah Price and Chris Smith (dir.), 2003, The Yes Men (Documentary). United States: Yes Men Films / United Artists.
  336. Open the Future blog. http://openthefuture.com/
  337. Orwell, George, 1949, Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Novel. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co.
  338. Paleofuture website. http://paleo-future.blogspot.com/
  339. Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim, 2009a, ‘Futures 2.0: Rethinking the Discipline’. Relevant History blog, http://askpang.typepad.com/articles/pang-futures21.pdf (Version 2.4, revised 9 November 2009, accessed 12 February 2010).
  340. Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim, 2009, ‘Thoughts on design + futures’. Relevant History blog, 4 January. http://askpang.typepad.com/relevant_history/2009/01/thoughts-on-design-futures.html
  341. Peake, Stephen, 2008, ‘Thinking About Climate Change’. Seminar hosted by idenk, Cambridge, UK, 8 July. http://www.idenk.co.uk/climate/ [Slide deck available as pdf document.]
  342. Penn, Mark with E. Kinney Zalesne, 2007, Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow’s Big Changes. New York: Hachette Book Group.
  343. Pinchbeck, Daniel, 2007, 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher / Penguin.
  344. Pine II, B. Joseph and James H. Gilmore, 1999, The Experience Economy: Work is Theatre and Every Business a Stage. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
  345. Polak, Fred L., 1961, The Image of the Future: Enlightening the Past, Orientating the Present, Forecasting the Future (2 vols., trans. Elise Boulding). Leyden: A.W. Sythoff.
  346. Polak, Fred, 1973, The Image of the Future (trans. and abridged by Elise Boulding). Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing.
  347. Pombo, Jamy, 2007, ‘TV Network Takes Responsibility For ‘Hoax Devices’, WCVB-TV / TheBostonChannel.com, 31 January. http:// www.thebostonchannel.com/news/10890113/detail.html
  348. Radford, Michael (dir.), 1984, Nineteen Eighty-Four (Motion Picture). United Kingdom: Umbrella-Rosenblum Films / Virgin.
  349. Raford, Noah, 2010, ‘Large-Scale Participatory Futures Systems: Harnessing Collective Intelligence for Crowdsourced Scenario Planning’. Presentation given at MIT, 9 April. http://news.noahraford.com/?p=487
  350. Ramos, Jose, 2006, ‘Consciousness, culture and the communication of foresight’. Futures, 38(9): 1119-1124.
  351. Rancière, Jacques, 2003, ‘The Thinking of Dissensus: Politics and Aesthetics’. Paper presented at the conference ‘Fidelity to the Disagreement: Jacques Rancière and the Political’, Political Studies Association of the UK, Goldsmiths College, London, 16-17 September. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20060218121456/http://homepages.gold.ac.uk/psrpsg/ranciere.doc (Internet Archive Wayback Machine, cached 18 February 2006, accessed 1 May 2010.)
  352. Rancière, Jacques, 2004, The Politics of Aesthetics: The Distribution of the Sensible (trans. Gabriel Rockhill). London: Continuum.
  353. Ratliff, George (dir.), 2001, Hell House (Documentary). United States: GreenHouse Pictures.
  354. Raymond, Eric, 2001, The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary (revised ed.). Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly.
  355. RCA 2007, Design Interactions 2007. London: Royal College of Art.
  356. RCA, 2009, Tribal Futures Project website. Design Interactions Department, Royal College of Art, London. http://beta.interaction.rca.ac.uk/ft/
  357. Reason, Peter and Hilary Bradbury, 2001, ‘Inquiry and Participation in Search of a World Worthy of Human Aspiration’. In: P. Reason and H. Bradbury (eds.), 2001, Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice. London: Sage, 1-14.
  358. Reed, John, 2009, ‘The travails of Detroit’. Financial Times (UK), 6 March. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/2b815a94-0863-11de-8a33-0000779fd2ac.html
  359. Reese, Laura A., 2006, ‘Economic Versus Natural Disasters: If Detroit Had a Hurricane…’ Economic Development Quarterly, 20(3): 219-233.
  360. Rejeski, David and Robert L. Olson, 2006, ‘Has futurism failed?’. Wilson Quarterly, 30(1): 14-21.
  361. Reynolds, Kevin (dir.), 1995, Waterworld (Motion Picture). United States: Universal Pictures.
  362. Richard Hammond presents Bloody Omaha (The Graphics), 2007, YouTube, 20 December. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WRS9cpOMYv0
  363. Ringland, Gill, 1998, Scenario Planning: Managing for the Future. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
  364. Robinson, J., 1982, ‘Energy backcasting: a proposed method of policy analysis’. Energy Policy, 10(4): 337–344.
  365. Robinson, J., 2003, ‘Future subjunctive: backcasting as social learning’. Futures, 35(8): 839-856.
  366. Rohter, Ira, 1992, A Green Hawaiʻi: Sourcebook for Development Alternatives. Honolulu: Na Kane O Ka Malo Press. [Introduction by Jim Dator available at http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/dator/hawaii/greenintro.html]
  367. Royal Philips Electronics (Netherlands) website, ‘What are design probes?’. http://www.design.philips.com/probes/whataredesignprobes/index.page
  368. Ruby’s Bequest website. http://www.rubysbequest.org.
  369. Rushkoff, Douglas, 1994, Media Virus: Hidden Agendas in Popular Culture. New York: Ballantine Books.
  370. Said, Edward, 1984, ‘The Mind of Winter: Reflections on Life in Exile’. Harper’s, 269: 49-55 (September).
  371. Salam, Reihan, 2006, ‘The Future of Futurism’. Slate, 29 June. http://www.slate.com/id/2144775/
  372. Samuelson, Robert, 2008, ‘How to Bail Out GM’. Washington Post, 17 November. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2008/11/16/ ST2008111602000.html.
  373. Santa Cruz Independent Media Center, 2005, ‘Santa Cruz Billboard Shows Remarkable Candor’. Santa Cruz Indymedia, 7 October. http://santacruz.indymedia.org/newswire/display/18718/index.php
  374. Sardar, Ziauddin, 1993, ‘Colonizing the Future: The “Other” Dimension of Futures Studies’. Futures, 25(2): 179-187.
  375. Sardar, Ziauddin, 1999a, ‘Dissenting futures and dissent in the future’. Futures, 31(2): 139-146.
  376. Sardar, Ziauddin (ed.), 1999b, Rescuing All Our Futures: The Future of Futures Studies. Westport, CT: Praeger.
  377. Sardar, Ziauddin, 2010, ‘The Namesake: Futures; Futures Studies; Futurology; Futuristic; Foresight — What’s in a Name?’. Futures, 42(3): 177-184.
  378. Schechner, Richard, 2002, Performance Studies: An Introduction (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
  379. Schrage, Michael, 2000, Serious Play: How the World’s Best Companies Simulate to Innovate. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
  380. Schultz, Wendy, 2005, ‘The Intersection Between Arts, Design, Innovation, Turbulence and Scenario Building’. Global Futurists Podcast / Lecture Series convened by Natasha Vita-More. http://www.natasha.cc/wendyschultz.htm [audio]
  381. Schultz, Wendy, n.d.a, ‘Scenario Building: An Introduction to the Tools’. Infinite Futures. http://www.infinitefutures.com/tools/sb.shtml
  382. Schultz, Wendy, n.d.b, ‘Scenario Building: The Harman Fan’. Infinite Futures. http://www.infinitefutures.com/tools/sbharman.shtml
  383. Schultz, Wendy, n.d.c, ‘Scenario Building: The Manoa Approach’. Infinite Futures. http://www.infinitefutures.com/tools/sbmanoa.shtml
  384. Schultz, Wendy, n.d.d, ‘Scenario Building: The Schwartz/GBN Approach’. Infinite Futures. http://www.infinitefutures.com/tools/sbschwartz.shtml
  385. Schultz, Wendy, n.d.e, ‘Scenario Building: The Sociovision Approach’. Infinite Futures. http://www.infinitefutures.com/tools/sbdevries.shtml
  386. Schultz, Wendy, n.d.f, ‘Scenario Incasting: Exploring Possible Alternative Futures’. Infinite Futures. http://www.infinitefutures.com/tools/inclassic.shtml
  387. Schwartz, Peter, 1991, The Art of the Long View. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  388. Schwartz, Peter, Peter Leyden and Joel Hyatt, 2000, The Long Boom: A Vision for the Coming Age of Prosperity. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
  389. Shaw, William, 2009, ‘Come Hell or High Water: Visualising Climate’. RSA Arts and Ecology blog, Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, 5 February. http://www.artsandecology.rsablogs.org.uk/2009/02/come-hell-or-high-water-visualising-climate/
  390. Shedroff, Nathan and Chris Noessel, Forthcoming 2010, Make It So: Interaction Design Lessons from Science Fiction Interfaces. http://www.experiencedesignbooks.com/MIS/index.html
  391. Shedroff, Nathan, 2001, Experience Design 1. Indianapolis: New Riders.
  392. Sheetz, Chuck (dir.), 2007, The Simpsons, Season 19, Episode 5, ‘Treehouse of Horror XVIII’ (Television Program). United States: Gracie Films / 20th Century Fox.
  393. Silver, Curtis, 2009, ‘Neurocinema Aims to Change the Way Movies are Made’. GeekDad blog, Wired.com, 23 September. http://www.wired.com/geekdad/2009/09/neurocinema-aims-to-change-the-way-movies-are-made/
  394. Simon, Julian Lincoln, 1996, The Ultimate Resource 2 (revised ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  395. Slater, Mel et al., 2006, ‘A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments’, PLoS ONE, 1(1): e39. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000039. http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0000039
  396. Slaughter, Rick, 1991, ‘The Future Has a Long Fuse’, Interview with Jim Dator. 21C, October. http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/dator/futures/longfuse.html
  397. Slaughter, Richard A., 1996a, ‘Futures Studies: From Individual to Social Capacity’. Futures, 28(8): 751-762. [Republished in Richard A. Slaughter, 1999, Futures for the Third Millennium: Enabling the Forward View. St Leonards, NSW: Prospect, 305-318; also Richard A. Slaughter, 2004, Futures Beyond Dystopia: Creating Social Foresight. London: RoutledgeFalmer, Chapter 12, 171-185.]
  398. Slaughter, Richard A. (ed.), 1996b, The Knowledge Base of Futures Studies (3 vols). Hawthorn, Victoria: DDM Media Group.
  399. Slaughter, Richard A.,1998, ‘Futures Beyond Dystopia’ Futures, 30(10): 993–1002.
  400. Slaughter, Richard A., 1999, ‘An Outline of Critical Futures Studies’. In: Richard A. Slaughter, 1999, Futures for the Third Millennium: Enabling the Forward View, St Leonards, NSW: Prospect, pp. 203-230. [First published as Richard A. Slaughter, 1994, ‘An Outline of Critical Futures Studies: Toward a Critical Futurism,’ World Future Society Bulletin, 18(4): 19-25; 18(5): 11-21.]
  401. Slaughter, Richard A., 2002a, ‘Beyond the Mundane: Reconciling Breadth and Depth in Futures Enquiry’. Futures, 34(6): 493-507.
  402. Slaughter, Richard A., 2002b, ‘Future Shock Re-Assessed’, Futures Bulletin (The Newsletter of the World Futures Studies Federation), 27(2): 4-7. [Also available at Metafuture.org, http://www.metafuture.org/articlesbycolleagues/RichardSlaughter/futureshock.htm]
  403. Slaughter, Richard A., 2006, Pathways and Impediments to Social Foresight, Strategic Foresight Program Monograph Series, No. 10, Melbourne: Swinburne University of Technology. http://www.swinburne.edu.au/business/research/our-research/research-reports.htm#2
  404. Slaughter, Richard and Chris Riedy, 2009, Guest editorial, Foresight, 11(5).
  405. Sloman, Steven A., 1996, ‘The Empirical Case for Two Systems of Reasoning’. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1): 3-22.
  406. Solnit, Rebecca, 2005, ‘The uses of disaster: Notes on bad weather and good government’. Harper’s, 311: 31-37 (October). http://www.harpers.org/archive/2005/10/0080774
  407. Sorrel, Charlie, 2009, ‘Art Project Forecasts Floods of Doom’. Gadget Lab blog, Wired.com, 13 February. http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2009/02/art-project-pro/
  408. Spielberg, Steven (dir.), 2002, Minority Report (Motion Picture). United States: 20th Century Fox / Dreamworks SKG.
  409. Spoto, Donald, 1984, The Dark Side of the Genius: The Life of Alfred Hitchcock, New York: Ballantine.
  410. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2001 (rev. 2009) ‘Charles Sanders Peirce’. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/peirce/
  411. Sterling, Bruce, 2003, Interview by Jennifer Leonard, Massive Change Radio, December. http://www.massivechange.com/interviews.html [Audio on file with author.]
  412. Sterling, Bruce, 2005, Shaping Things. Cambridge, MA: Mediawork / MIT Press.
  413. Sterling, Bruce, 2006a, ‘Design and Futurism’. Graduate Studies Lecture Series, California College of the Arts, 26 September. http://fora.tv/2006/09/26/Bruce_Sterling [video]
  414. Sterling, Bruce, 2006b, ‘The State of the World’. Closing keynote presentation at South by Southwest Interactive, Austin, TX, 14 March. [Audio on file with author. Unofficial transcript available via http://ocaption.blogspot.com/2006/03/bruce-sterlings-state-of-world-address_22.html]
  415. Sterling, Bruce, 2006c, Visionary in Residence: Stories. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press.
  416. Sterling, Bruce, 2009, ‘Design Fiction’. interactions, XVI.3 (May/June). http://interactions.acm.org/content/?p=1244
  417. Stone, Alluquère Rosanne, 1996, The War of Desire and Technology at the Close of the Mechanical Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  418. Stork, David G. (ed.), 1997, HAL’s Legacy: 2001’s Computer as Dream and Reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  419. Stross, Charles, 2005, Accelerando. New York: Ace. [Available online at http://www.antipope.org/charlie/blog-static/fiction/accelerando/accelerando-intro.html]
  420. Sturgeon’s Law, Wikipedia entry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturgeon’s_Law
  421. Superstruct website. http://www.superstructgame.org/
  422. Surowiecki, James, 2004, The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations. New York: Doubleday.
  423. Taleb, Nassim Nicholas, 2007, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable. New York: Random House.
  424. Tarantino, Quentin (dir.), 1992, Reservoir Dogs (Motion Picture). United States: Live Entertainment / Dog Eat Dog Productions. [10th Anniversary DVD issued 2002 by Live / Artisan contains director’s feature commentary and interview with the director.]
  425. Taylor, Charles W., 1993, Alternative World Scenarios for A New Order of Nations (revised ed.). Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB245.pdf
  426. Taylor, Charles W., 1994, ‘Creating Strategic Visions’. In: C. Richard Cothern and N. Phillip Ross (eds.), 1994, Environmental Statistics, Assessment, and Forecasting. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers / CRC Press, 259-266.
  427. Temple, Julien (dir.), 2010, Requiem for Detroit? (Documentary). United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Corporation.
  428. Tester, Jason, 2007, ‘The Case for Human-Future Interaction’. Future Now blog, Institute for the Future, 16 February. http://future.iftf.org/2007/02/the_case_for_hu.html
  429. Tetlock, Philip E., 2005, Expert political judgment: How Good Is It? How Can We Know? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  430. Thackara, John, 2005, ‘How Design Evolves’. Doors of Perception blog, 21 May. http://www.doorsofperception.com/archives/2005/05/how_design_evol.php
  431. Thaler, Richard H. and Cass R. Sunstein, 2008, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  432. Tharp, Bruce M. and Stephanie M. Tharp, 2009, ‘The 4 Fields of Industrial Design’. Core77, 5 January. http://www.core77.com/blog/featured_items/the_4_fields_of_industrial_design_no_not_furniture_trans_consumer_electronics_toys_by_bruce_m_tharp_and_stephanie_m_tharp__12232.asp#mor
  433. Thompson, Nato and Gregory Sholette (eds.), 2004, The Interventionists: Users’6 Manual for the Creative Disruption of Everyday Life. North Adams, MA: MASS MoCA.
  434. Tickner, J. Ann, 1992, Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security. New York: Columbia University Press.
  435. Toffler, Alvin, 1965, ‘The future as a way of life’. In: Glen Gaviglio and David E. Raye (eds.), 1971, Society As It Is: A Reader. New York: Macmillan, pp. 450-461. [Originally published in 1965, Horizon 7(3): 108-115.]
  436. Toffler, Alvin, 1970, Future Shock. New York: Random House.
  437. Traces of Hope website. http://tracesofhope.com
  438. Trocchi, Alexander, 1963, ‘A Revolutionary Proposal: Invisible Insurrection of a Million Minds’. Internationale Situationniste, 8: 1-12 (January). [Republished in: Andrew Murray Scott (ed.), 1991, Invisible Insurrection of a Million Minds: A Trocchi Reader. Edinburgh: Polygon, 177-191. Available at http://www.notbored.org/invisible.html]
  439. Trope, Yaacov and Nira Liberman, 2003, ‘Temporal Construal’. Psychological Review, 110(3): 403-421.
  440. Tufte, Edward R., 2006, Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
  441. Tufte, Edward, 2007, ‘Presenting Data and Information’ Seminar, Grand Hyatt San Francisco, 17 July.
  442. Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman, 1973, ‘Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability’. Cognitive Psychology, 5(2): 207-232. [Reprinted in: Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic and Amos Tversky (eds.), 1982, Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 163-178.]
  443. Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman, 1983, ‘Extensional Versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment’. Psychological Review, 90(4): 293-315.
  444. US House of Representatives, 2006, A Failure of Initiative, Final Report of the Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. US Government Printing Office, 15 February. http://www.npr.org/documents/2006/feb/katrina/house_report/katrina_report_full.pdf
  445. Vaihinger, Hans, 1968 [1924], The Philosophy of ‘As If’ (trans. C.K. Ogden). New York: Barnes & Noble.
  446. van der Heijden, Kees et al., 2002, The Sixth Sense: Accelerating Organizational Learning with Scenarios. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
  447. van der Heijden, Kees, 2004, ‘Can internally generated futures accelerate organizational learning?’ Futures, 36(2): 145-159.
  448. van der Heijden, Kees, 2005, Scenarios: The Art of Strategic Conversation (2nd ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
  449. van der Helm, Ruud, 2005, ‘The future according to Frederik Lodewijk Polak: Finding the Roots of Contemporary Futures Studies’. Futures, 37(6): 505-519.
  450. Verhoeven, Paul (dir.), 1987, RoboCop (Motion Picture). United States: Orion Pictures.
  451. Virilio, Paul, 1999, Politics of the Very Worst: An interview by Philippe Petit (trans. Michael Cavaliere, ed. Sylvère Lotringer). New York: Semiotext(e).
  452. Visvanathan, Shiv, 1991, ‘Mrs Bruntland’s* Disenchanted Cosmos’. Alternatives, 16(3): 377-384. [* sic. Note the typographical error in this title as originally published, which may interfere with efforts to locate the article. The correct spelling, as it appears throughout the text, is Brundtland.]
  453. Vlasic, Bill and Nick Bunkley, 2008, ‘Hazardous Conditions for the Auto Industry’. New York Times, 1 October. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/02/business/02sales.html
  454. Voltaire, Francois, 2004 [1759], Candide. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
  455. Vonnegut, Kurt, 1965, Wampeters, Foma, & Granfalloons (Opinions). New York: Delta.
  456. Vonnegut, Kurt, 1976, Slapstick: or, Lonesome no more! New York: Delacorte Press / Seymour Lawrence.
  457. Voros, Joseph, 2003, ‘A Generic Foresight Process Framework’. Foresight, 5(3): 10-21.
  458. Voros, Joseph, 2008, ‘Integral Futures: An Approach to Futures Inquiry’, Futures, 40(2): 190-201.
  459. Vorsino, Mary, 2007, ‘Pranksters want debate on Hawaii’s Chinatown’. Honolulu Advertiser, 15 October. http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2007/Oct/15/ln/hawaii710150349.html
  460. Wachowski, Lana and Andy Wachowski (dir.), 1999, The Matrix (Motion Picture). United States: Silver Pictures / Village Roadshow / Warner Brothers.
  461. Wack, Pierre, 1985a, ‘Scenarios: Uncharted Waters Ahead’. Harvard Business Review, 63(5): 73-89.
  462. Wack, Pierre, 1985b, ‘Shooting the Rapids’. Harvard Business Review, 63(6): 139-150.
  463. Wakslak, Cheryl J. et al., 2006, ‘Seeing the Forest When Entry Is Unlikely: Probability and the Mental Representation of Events’. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 135(4): 641-653.
  464. Wakslak, Cheryl J., Yaacov Trope and Nira Liberman, 2006, ‘Transcending the Now: Time as a Dimension of Psychological Distance’. In: J. Glicksohn & M. Myslobodsky (eds.), Timing the Future: A Case for Time-Cued Prospective Memory. River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing, 171-189.
  465. Wark, McKenzie, 2004, A Hacker Manifesto. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  466. Watermark: Visualizing the Effects of Climate Change in Seattle, Project website. http://www.watermarkseattle.org/
  467. Watts, Alan, 1960, ‘The Value of Psychotic Experience’. Transcript from broadcast on KSAN radio, San Francisco. http://deoxy.org/w_value.htm
  468. 1Weber, Elke, 2006, ‘Experience-Based and Description-Based Perceptions of Long-Term Risk: Why Global Warming Does Not Scare Us (Yet)’. Climatic Change, 77(1-2): 103-120.
  469. Welles, Orson et al., 1938, ‘The War of the Worlds’. CBS radio drama broadcast 30 October. [Audio available via Internet Archive. http://www.archive.org/details/OrsonWellesMrBruns]
  470. Wells, Herbert George, 2003 [1898], The War of the Worlds. New York: Bantam Dell.
  471. Welsh, Nick, 2007, ‘White Flag on Blue Line’. The Santa Barbara Independent, 23 August. http://www.independent.com/news/2007/aug/23/white-flag-blue-line/
  472. Wetmore Jr., Kevin J., ‘Intelligent Design (after Julie Taymor): Opposing Darwinism in The Crystal Cathedral’s Creation: Once Upon All Time’. Journal of Religion and Theatre, 6(2). http://www.rtjournal.org/vol_6/no_2/wetmore.html
  473. Whirlpool (UK) website, project f: Fabric Care Futures. http://www.project-f.whirlpool.co.uk/
  474. White, Hayden, 1973, Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth- Century Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  475. Whitehead, Alfred North, 1967 [1925], Science and the Modern World. New York: The Free Press.
  476. William McDonough and Partners, company website, Design philosophy. http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/design_approach/philosophy
  477. Wilson, Daniel H., 2007, Where’s My Jetpack?: A Guide to the Amazing Science Fiction Future that Never Arrived. New York: Bloomsbury.
  478. Wing, Nick, 2010, ‘Murray Hill PR Firm Plans (Satirical) Run For Maryland Congressional Seat’. The Huffington Post, 28 January. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/01/28/murray-hill-pr-firm-plans_n_441094.html
  479. Winner, Langdon, 1986, The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  480. Wired magazine, ‘Found: Artifacts from the Future’, monthly back-page feature. [Collected online at http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/09/compleat-wired-future-artifacts-gallery.html]
  481. 362WNYC, 2008, ‘War of the Worlds’. Radiolab broadcast, New York, 7 March. http://www.wnyc.org/shows/radiolab/episodes/2008/03/07
  482. Wodiczko, Krzysztof, 1999, Critical Vehicles: Writings, Projects, Interviews. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  483. Wolfe, Tom, 1969, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. New York: Picador.
  484. Wong Kar Wai (dir.), 2004, 2046 (Motion Picture). China / France / Germany: Arte.
  485. World Social Forum, Wikipedia entry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
  486. World_Social_Forum ‘World Without Oil’ Alternate Reality Game, Wikipedia entry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Without_Oil
  487. World Without Oil website. http://www.worldwithoutoil.org
  488. ‘Year Zero’ Alternate Reality Game, Wikipedia entry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Year_Zero_(game)
  489. The Yes Men et al., 2008, New York Times Special Edition. http://www.nytimes-se.com/ [Also available via the Internet Archive http://www.archive.org/details/nytimes-se]
  490. The Yes Men, 2004, The Yes Men: The True Story of the End of the World Trade Organization. New York: The Disinformation Company.
  491. The Yes Men, n.d.a, ‘Dow Ethics’ website. http://www.dowethics.com/
  492. The Yes Men, n.d.b, Project page: Dow. http://theyesmen.org/hijinks/dow
  493. Zajonc, R.B., 1968, ‘Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9(2, Pt. 2): 1-27.
  494. Zeitchik, Steven, 2009, ‘Ridley Scott, DiCaprio travel to “Brave New World”’. Reuters, 6 August. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE5750WZ20090806
  495. Ziarek, Krzysztof, 2004, The Force of Art. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  496. Zjawinski, Sonja, 2007, ‘Masterpieces of Disaster’. Metrophile blog, Wired.com, 20 March. http://www.wired.com/metrophile/2007/03/masterpieces_of/