Bluetooth seen working on the Dell M3800 with Fedora 21 and Broadcom’s Bluetooth brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd binary blob

tl;dr

$ cd /usr/lib/firmware/brcm
$ sudo ln -sr /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702{A0,A1}-0a5c-216f.hcd

$ ls -l
total 9700
-r--r--r--. 1 root root  35080 Jul 25 11:25 BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
-r--r--r--. 1 root root  34700 Jul 25 09:56 BCM20702A0-0a5c-21e8.hcd
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root     24 Sep 23 13:41 BCM20702A1-0a5c-216f.hcd -> BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
<snip/>

You need the symlink.

Summary

  • When loaded, the blob seems to work (bluetooth works).
  • Yet it can fail in place; perhaps after a suspend-resume cycle.

Revision

  • Something else is going on.
  • Sometimes the firmware loads.
  • Sometimes the firmware fails to load.
  • It may have something to do with the crashes, hangs & heating observed in multiple suspend-resume cycles.

Frustration

Trending towards: Does Not Work With Linux
This is still a hobbyist’s & enthusiast’s machine; it can’t be used for production work except in the factory-install configuration.
Dell delivered a working machine.  Aftermarket conversion to Fedora is nearly unuseable.
If it weren’t for the 4K display, this machine would be AVOID.

Following up from: Experiences with the Dell M3800 with Fedora 21 and Broadcom’s Bluetooth brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd binary blob

Indeed, the gear does work with the factory-prepared Ubuntu 14.04 LTE that Dell installed.  But it has so much blobbery and idiosyncratic non-open hardware that you won’t be able to upgrade beyond what the Dell team was able to assemble.  It is unknown how they were able to assemble a working configuration.

It’s 2015 and GPUs still don’t “just work.”

I did mention it has a 4K2K display, right?  That’s why we’re here.  That’s a can’t-live-without thing nowadays.

Goal

  • “just works”
  • bluetooth “just works”
  • graphics “just works”
  • suspend “just works”

Mentions

  • There is a blob
  • You have to get the correct blob
  • You need to make a symlink nearby to the blob.
  • Debugging whether the blob loaded or was caused to load-but-failed  is murky.
  • Something about the udev subsystem.

Folklore

  • How to fix Dell XPS 13 (2015) for Ubuntu 15.04; Tiago Cogumbreiro; In His Notes; 2015-08-15.
    • Covers
      • High DPI; in Arch Linux Wiki
      • Suspend Error; kermel patch for Ubuntu bcmwl-kernel-source
      • Bluetooth Problems (relevant here)
      • TLP
    • Actualities for BIOS revision A05
      Hardware name: Dell Inc. XPS 13 9343/0310JH, BIOS A05 07/14/2015
    • Dell XPS 13 (2015) – Bluetooth; in Arch Linux Wiki
    • Especially reminding about the need to create the symlink
      ln -rs /lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A1-0a5c-216f.hcd /lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
      which will be /usr/lib/firmware/brcm on Fedora 21

References

  • Section 14.8Dealing with Firmware; In Some Linux Kernel Documentation.
    • Describes the upcall to userland request_firmware(…)
    • Does not describe how userland receives the upcall or acts upon it.
  • Firmware; In Ubuntu Wiki
  • Dell XPS 13 (2015) – Bluetooth; in Arch Linux Wiki

Evidences

The symlink is required to make the firmware load.

Actions

$ cd /usr/lib/firmware/brcm
$ sudo ln -sr /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702{A0,A1}-0a5c-216f.hcd

$ ls -l
total 9700
-r--r--r--. 1 root root  35080 Jul 25 11:25 BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
-r--r--r--. 1 root root  34700 Jul 25 09:56 BCM20702A0-0a5c-21e8.hcd
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root     24 Sep 23 13:41 BCM20702A1-0a5c-216f.hcd -> BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
<snip/>

Evidences

Sep 23 10:41:37 devbox kernel: bluetooth hci0: firmware: brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd will not be loaded
Sep 23 10:41:37 devbox kernel: Bluetooth: hci0: BCM: patch brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd not found
$ find /usr/lib/firmware -name '*216f.hcd'
/usr/lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
$ ls -ldZ /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
-r--r--r--. root root system_u:object_r:lib_t:s0       /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
$ find /usr/lib -path '*brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd' -ls
660333   36 -r--r--r--   1 root     root        35080 Jul 25 11:25 /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
$ lsusb -t
/:  Bus 04.Port 1: Dev 1,, Driver=ehci-pci/2p, 480M
|__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0,, Driver=hub/8p, 480M
/:  Bus 03.Port 1: Dev 1,, Driver=ehci-pci/2p, 480M
|__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0,, Driver=hub/6p, 480M
/:  Bus 02.Port 1: Dev 1,, Driver=xhci_hcd/6p, 5000M
|__ Port 2: Dev 13, If 0,, Driver=hub/1p, 5000M
|__ Port 1: Dev 14, If 0, Specific Class, Driver=, 5000M
|__ Port 1: Dev 14, If 1, Specific Interface, Driver=, 5000M
|__ Port 1: Dev 14, If 2,, Driver=snd-usb-audio, 5000M
|__ Port 1: Dev 14, If 3,, Driver=snd-usb-audio, 5000M
|__ Port 1: Dev 14, If 4,, Driver=snd-usb-audio, 5000M
|__ Port 1: Dev 14, If 5,, Driver=cdc_ncm, 5000M
|__ Port 1: Dev 14, If 6, Data, Driver=cdc_ncm, 5000M
/:  Bus 01.Port 1: Dev 1,, Driver=xhci_hcd/14p, 480M
|__ Port 2: Dev 20, If 0,, Driver=hub/4p, 480M
|__ Port 3: Dev 21, If 0, Interface Device, Driver=usbhid, 1.5M
|__ Port 4: Dev 22, If 0, Interface Device, Driver=usbhid, 1.5M
|__ Port 6: Dev 5, If 0, Interface Device, Driver=usbhid, 12M
|__ Port 9: Dev 6, If 0, Specific Class, Driver=btusb, 12M
|__ Port 9: Dev 6, If 1, Specific Class, Driver=btusb, 12M
|__ Port 9: Dev 6, If 2, Specific Class, Driver=, 12M
|__ Port 9: Dev 6, If 3, Specific Interface, Driver=, 12M
|__ Port 11: Dev 7, If 0,, Driver=uvcvideo, 480M
|__ Port 11: Dev 7, If 1,, Driver=uvcvideo, 480M
$ lsusb
Bus 004 Device 002: ID 8087:8000 Intel Corp.
Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 003 Device 002: ID 8087:8008 Intel Corp.
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 002 Device 014: ID 17e9:436f DisplayLink
Bus 002 Device 013: ID 2109:0210 VIA Labs, Inc.
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 006: ID 0a5c:216f Broadcom Corp.
Bus 001 Device 005: ID 04f3:21f9 Elan Microelectronics Corp.
Bus 001 Device 022: ID 03f0:0024 Hewlett-Packard KU-0316 Keyboard
Bus 001 Device 021: ID 046d:c018 Logitech, Inc. Optical Wheel Mouse
Bus 001 Device 020: ID 2109:2210 VIA Labs, Inc.
Bus 001 Device 007: ID 0bda:573c Realtek Semiconductor Corp.
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

From /var/log/messages

Hardware name: Dell Inc. Dell Precision M3800/Dell Precision M3800, BIOS A09 01/08/2015

How Much of Your Audience is Fake? | Bloomberg

How Much of Your Audience is Fake?; Ben Elgin, Michael Riley, David Kocieniewski, and Joshua Brustein; In Bloomberg Business; 2015-09-23.
Teaser: Marketers thought the Web would allow perfectly targeted ads. Hasn’t worked out that way.

tl;dr →traffic fraud is everywhere and nobody cares; chum bucketers: Taboola, Outbrain; exemplar MyTopFace, Boris Media Group buys from Viant, MySpace who sourcemake it.

Mentions

  • Google
  • Yahoo!
  • programmatic
  • audience buying
  • Ford Motor
  • Metrics
    attributed to Ron Amram, Heineken on $150M yearly spend

    • Return on Ad Spend (ROAS)
      • Digital → 2:1
      • TV → 6:1 ($6 increase in sales for $1 advertising spend)
    • Viewability
      • 20%
    • Non-Human Traffic (NHT)
      • 11% of view are bots,attributed to WhiteOps.
      • $6.3B/year
  • Association of National Advertisers (ANA)
  • <quote>Consumers, meanwhile, to the extent they pay attention to targeted ads at all, hate them: The top paid iPhone app on Apple’s App Store is an ad blocker.</quote>
  • Bonnier
    • Swedish
    • media conglomerate.
    • 21-years old
    • Who
      • Sean Holzman, chief digital revenue officer.
      • Paul Maya, global head of digital
    • operates
      • savent.tv
      • video sites
        • Outdoor Life,
        • Popular Science.
        • Saveur
        • Working Mother
    • <quote>About half of Saveur.tv’s home page is taken up by a player that automatically plays videos with simple kitchen tips. In early September, the spots (How to Stir a Cocktail, Step One: “Hold the spoon between pointer and middle finger …”), were preceded by ads from Snapple and Mrs. Meyer’s household cleaning products.</quote>
  • Chum Bucketers
    • purchased traffic
      generated traffic
    • Exemplars
      • Taboola
      • Outbrain
    • 2% CTR
  • DoubleVerify
  • Buying & Selling TRAFFIC; a forum on LinkedIn
  • SiteScout
    • traffic protection estimation
    • <quote>locks several of these new Bonnier sites for “excessive nonhuman traffic.</quote>
  • SimilarWeb
    • traffic protection estimation
  • Techniques of Low-Quality Traffic
    • popups
    • tab-unders
    • video autoplay
  • Advertise.com
    • a traffic supplier
    • Sherman Oaks, CA.
    • Daniel Yomtobian, chief executive officer
  • Benjamin Edelman
    • activist
    • advice
    • professor, School of Business, Harvard
  • Boris Media Group
    • MyTopFace.com
    • Owner
      • Boris Boris
      • age 28
      • wife
      • son, age 1month
      • Ukraine
    • makeup advice
    • Pricing
      • $0.73 →$10 CPM
    • Inventory
      • stale content
      • milled content
      • video (autoplay)
    • Advertisers
      • American Express
      • Hebrew National Hot Dogs
    • Traffic Sources
      • MySpace
      • Facebook (at 100x cost, so … not much)
    • Quality
      • 94% bots
      • <quote>Bloomberg BusinessWeek asked two traffic-fraud-detection firms to assess recent traffic to MyTopFace; they agreed on the condition that their names not be used.</quote»
  • MySpace
    • Viant, owner
    • relaunched in 2013
    • video
      • exclusives
      • commissioned work
      • milled content
      • user-generated content
    • Chris Vanderhook, chief operating officer
    • Affiliate Program
      • video player syndication
    • Claim
      • syndicated video player shows blocked content preceded by ads
      • blocked content of MySpace plays
        • Hitboy
        • Surfing
    • Advertisers
      • Chevrolet
      • Kozy Shack pudding
      • Procter & Gamble
        • Always
        • Tampax
      • Unilever
  • Telemetry
    • fraud detection
  • Sovrn Holdings
    • an ad exchange
    • Walter Knapp, CEO

Referenced

Quoted

For color, background & verisimilitude.

  • Ron Amram
    • Heineken, USA
    • ex-media director, prepaid cellular, Sprint
  • Fernando Arriola, vice president for media and integration at ConAgra Foods.
  • Perri Dorset,press relations, Bonnier.
  • Jim Kiszka, senior manager for digital strategy, Kellogg’s.
  • Walter Knapp, CEO, Sovrn Holdings,
  • Sean Holzman, chief digital revenue officer,, Bonnier.
  • Paul Maya, global head of digita, Bonnier.
  • Chris Vanderhook, chief operating officer, Viant
  • Eileen Wunderlich,press relations, Chrysler.
  • Daniel Yomtobian, chief executive officer, Advertise.com

Somewhere around Fedora 18, kernel-3.8.x, NetworkManager-0.9.8 static assignment of EUI-64 shaped addresses ceased to work

No Longer Works

  • Fedora 20
  • Fedora 19

Ceased to work at

  • Fedora 18
  • kernel-3.8.11-200.fc18
  • NetworkManager-0.9.8.1-1.git20130327.fc18.i686

Previously worked

  • Fedora 17
  • kernel-3.6.6-1.fc17.i686
  • NetworkManager-0.9.6.4-1.fc17.i686

And prior

  • Fedora 16

Scheme

  • Static assignment of IPv6 addresses
  • AND running radvd to assign EUI-64 shaped addresses via SLAAC

The expectation here is that radvd will be running on this host, so it will tag all the nearby machines with an EUI-64 shaped address. This host, therefore, must define its own address(es).  The choice is made to have two addresses

  1. Shaped like the SLAAC-assigned address
  2. Shaped somewhat like the SLAAC-assigned addresses, except differing in the absence of the internal FF:FE.

The choice is somewhat arbitrary, but the intent is that both addresses should be (must be) available on the interface in question.

Objective

Assign both the addresses

2001:0db8:0000:0000:0217:4200:0038:43c0/64
2001:0db8:0000:0000:0217:42ff:fe38:43c0/64

Symptoms

The address 2001:0db8:0000:0000:0217:4200:0038:43c0/64 never gets assigned to the interface. It can be manually assigned, but it is never assigned by NetworkManager or the (legacy) ifup/ifdown scheme. The behavior is as if the address does not exist; it does not “take.”

Workaround

Mention the address in a the interface’s addr6 file

Actualities

/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-p2p1

<snip/>
IPV6ADDR=2001:0db8:0000:0000:0217:4200:0038:43c0/64
# WATCHOUT - this must be on a single line, 841391
IPV6ADDR_SECONDARIES="2001:0db8:0000:0000:0217:42ff:fe9a:4833/64 2001:0db8:0000:0000:0001:0001:0002:0001/64 2001:0db8:0000:0000:0001:0001:0004:1001/64 fe80::1/64"

/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/addr6-p2p1

# This will be evaluated by /sbin/ifup-local
# This will be called
#    NetworkManager  => /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher-d/01-local
#    !NetworkManager => /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifup-post (via ifup-eth)
#
# Syntax: arguments for the 'ip addr' command
# 
# This file will be evaluated by:
#    { cat "$file" ; echo ; } | while read act rest; do
#       if [[ ! "$act${rest:+ $rest}" =~ $MATCH ]]; then
#           case $act in
#           ( change )
#               /sbin/ip -6 addr $act $line
#               ;;
#           ( * )
#               /sbin/ip -6 addr add $act $line
#               ;;
#           esac
#        fi
#    done
#

# Seems to be required after Fedora 18, kernel-3.8.x
# Here: Fedora 16 [kernel 3.6.6-1.fc16.i686.PAE]
# need to mention these so they "stick," otherwise they disappear ...
change 2001:0db8:0000:0000:0217:4200:0038:43c0/64 preferred_lft forever dev p2p1

sei.cmu.com | This Connection is Untrusted

Nothing says “The Web is Misconfigured” quite like a low-level security protocol failure notice from a software theoretician: The Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University
https://sei.cmu.edu/news/article.cfm?assetid=77817&article=268&year=2013

Move Over, Millennials, Here Comes Generation Z | NYT

Move Over, Millennials, Here Comes Generation Z; Alex Williams; In The New York Times (NYT); 2015-09-18.
How To Spot a Member of Generation Z; Alex Williams; In The New York Times (NYT); 2015-09-18.

 Mentions

  • Generation Z
  • “millennials on steroids”, attributed to Lucie Greene
  • Avatars
    attributed to Lucie Greene

    • Millennial, Generation Y → Hannah Horvath from ‘Girls’ (a television sitcom)
      • self-involved
      • dependent
      • flailing financially
      • dream fantasy collide with reality
    • Generation Z →Alex Dunphy from ‘Modern Family’
      • conscientious
      • hard-working
      • somewhat anxious
      • mindful of the future
  • Social Media
    • Secret
    • Snapchat
    • Whisper
    • (they avoid) Facebook
  • personal brand
  • Generations
    the definitions, the boundaries

    • “others” → 1995, Generation Z
    • Neil Howe → start 2004, Homeland Generation, Silent Generation (grandparents of Homelanders)
  • Generation X
    • 1970s
    • latchkey kids
    • jaded
    • funk
    • post-Watergate
    • post-Vietnam
    • Nirvana
    • slasher movies
  • Generation Z
    • children of Generation X
    • safety concerns; antecdotes given via mommy blogs
    • pragmatism
    • entrepreneurs
    • Fashion, via companion.
      • Gender-Neutral (androgynous)
      • Rocker Redux
      • Normcore
  • pragmatism
    supported by of quotes-as-evidence & antecdotes-as-evidence
  • <quote>This vision of a generation with wired brains, making their way in an ethnic-stew society of the future, makes them sound like the replicants from “Blade Runner.”</quote>
  • Silent Generation
    framing by Neil How

    • Grandparents of Generation Z (Homelanders)
    • Great Depression
    • New Dealers
    • work within the system
    • richest
    • the man in the grey flannel suit.
    • Exemplars
      • Martin Luther King Jr.
      • Elvis Presley
      • Andy Warhol

Exemplars

  • Emily Citarella, age 16, student: high school, Atlanta, GA.
  • Hannah Payne, age 18, student: U.C.L.A., bloggiest, lifestyle genre.
  • Ruby Karp, age 15, New York, bloggist HelloGiggles.
  • Anthony Richard Jr., age 17, Gretna, LA.
  • Seimi Park, age 17, student: high school (senior), Virginia Beach, VA.
  • Andrew Schoonover, age 15-year, Olathe, KS.

Quoted

For color, background  & verisimilitude

Factoids

Towards diversity

variously from United States Census summarizations..
  • The count of Americans self-identifying as
    • mixed white-and-black biracial rose 134%.
    • mixed white and Asian descent grew by 87%.
  • From 2000 and 2010, the Hispanic population grew at four times the rate of the total population.

Towards pragmatism (contra risk behavior)

variously from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (uncited)
  • the percentage of high school students who had had at least one drink of alcohol in their lives declined to about 66 percent in 2013, from about 82 percent in 1991.
  • The number who reported never or rarely wearing a seatbelt in a car driven by someone else declined to about 8 percent, compared with about 26 percent in 1991.

Referenced

On the reuse of ssh-agent’s SSH_AUTH_SOCK when establishing multiple ssh+gnome-terminal remote sessions

tl;dr

Add this to your ~/.bash_profile

if [ -n "$SSH_AUTH_SOCK" ] ; then
    if [ ! -e "$SSH_AUTH_SOCK" ] ; then
        declare -a guess=($(find /tmp -path '/tmp/ssh-*/agent.*' -user $USER -print 2>/dev/null))
        if [ -e $guess ] ; then
            echo "Repairing SSH_AUTH_SOCK from the dead ${SSH_AUTH_SOCK##*/} to the living ${guess##*/}"
            export SSH_AUTH_SOCK="$guess"
        fi
    fi
fi

Problem

Multiple sessions of ssh -Y server.example.com gnome-terminal< result in all but the first such instance having access to the ssh-agent.

Continued Compendium on Ad Blocking in Advertising Age through 2015-09-15

Continued from the Compendium through 2015-12-xxx

In Advertising Age circa 2015-09-14

Previously

Compendium on Ad Blocking in Advertising Age through 2015-09-05

Currently


Why Ad-Blocking Is Good News for Almost Everyone; (Havas); 2015-09-15.
Teaser: Apple’s Move to Block Mobile Ads Will Force Advertisers to Rethink Mobile

Tom Goodwin,
senior VP-strategy and innovation, Havas Media, New York.
ex-founder, director, Tomorrow Group, London.

Mentioned

  • a contrarian view
  • Apple
  • iO 9
  • <quote>The surprisingly, rarely challenged, assumption in advertising has always been that there should be a relatively close correlation between time spent in a channel and the advertising spend within it. So as we spend more of our lives staring into our smartphones, the need for marketers to spend more money on mobile grows by the day.</quote>

Tactics

as a listicle

  1. Premium mobile advertising
    e.g. Superbowl ads, Vogue (magazine) ads
  2. insidious advertising
    native ads, advertorials branded content
  3. Branded utility
    apps; e.g. Michelin guide

So Which Ad-Blocking Parasite Are You Going to Go After?; ; 2015-09-14.
Teaser: Convince Consumers or Sue the Ad-Blocking Companies; You Have to Do Something
Ken Wheaton, editor, Advertising Age

tl;dr → equates ad blocking with theft.

Mentioned

  • very shrill [very very shrill], very angry
  • <quote>But it’s a bad idea to believe that consumers care much about the plight of marketers or publishers.</quote>
  • <quote>The worst possible response, however, is paying an ad-blocking company or an anti-ad-blocking company money to get ads past filters and in front of the viewer. </quote>
  • <quote>I can’t quite believe I’m saying this, but how about suing the ad blockers out of existence?</quote>
  • <quote>But as WPP Digital President and Xaxis Chairman David Moore, who also serves as chairman of the board of directors for the IAB Tech Lab, points out, the ad blockers “are interfering with websites’ ability to display all the pixels that are part of that website; arguably there’s some sort of law that prohibits that.</quote>
  • <quote>But theft is still theft, even if it’s dressed up as some sort of digital Robin Hood act. You’re not just interfering with pixels, you’re interfering with business.</quote>

Memes, Argot

  • the consumer is in control
  • ad skipping
  • hyper-targeted, data-fueled ad environment
  • banner blindness
  • extortion

Yes, There Is a War on Advertising. Now What?; , ; 2015-09-14.
Teaser: Ads Are Being Cast as the Enemy as Consumers Find More and More Ways to Block Them

Mentioned

  • Apple
  • iOS 9
  • Numerics towards the prevalence of ad blocking are recited.
    • Brian Wieser, staff, Pivotal Research Group.
    • ComScore’s U.S. Mobile App Report.
    • eMarketer
  • AdBlock Mobile
  • Eyeo
  • Adblock Plus
  • Howard Stern
    promoted Ad ad blocking, as a concept, on his show.
  • Responses
    • Hulu → block consumers who block ads
    • Washington Post → some trials, push consumers to subscribe, to whitelist the site & its ads
  • Countermeasures
    • PageFair
    • Secret Media
    • Sourcepoint
    • Yavli
  • TrueX
    • Acquired by Fox Networks Group, 2014-12.
    • Joe Marchese, founder
  • Fox Networks Group
    • branded content
    • show: “MasterChef Junior”
      sponsored by: California Milk Advisory Board.

Referenced

credulously, as authoritative

Yet

Quoted

for color, background & verisimilitude

  • Dan Jaffe, lobbyist, Association of National Advertisers (ANA)
  • Scott Cunningham, senior VP, Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB); general manager, Tech Lab, Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB).
  • David Moore, President, WPP Digital; Chairman, Xaxis; Chairman of the Board of Directors, Tech Lab, Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB).
  • Joe Marchese, president-advanced ad products, Fox Networks Group.
  • Brian Wieser, staff, Pivotal Research Group.

Confusion Reigns as Apple Puts the Spotlight on Mobile Ad Blocking; Maureen Morrison; In Ad Age; 2015-09-08.
Teaser: Mobile Ad Blocking Is Present and Effective Before Apple Updates a Thing

tl;dr → reprise, same material

 

Via: backfill.

UNSOLVED: Dell M3800 Fedora 21 – more hangs and spews ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41 profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b

Previously

The machine is rapidly becoming unusable. Especially delicate is that screensaver & display blanking faults require a power cycle.

  • Upon screensaver, the graphics faults and is “hung” → one must power cycle to recover control.
  • Upon suspend, the CPU (GPU?) runs hard, it gets hot and hangs → one must power down to recover control.

(UNSOLVED) Dell M3800 under Fedora 21 (but not Dell-Factory Ubuntu 14) does not suspend, runs super-hot, hangs

Indications

Sep 15 14:56:07 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:13 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:13 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:19 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:19 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:25 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:25 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:31 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:31 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:37 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:37 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:43 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:43 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:49 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:49 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:55 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:56:55 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:57:01 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:57:01 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:57:07 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:57:07 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:57:13 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:57:13 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 15 14:57:19 example.com kernel: ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address, mac = c0:c1:c0:07:86:41   profile =00:25:9c:63:75:8b
Sep 16 11:06:18 sonsie kernel: [   31.704603] ACPI Warning: \_SB_.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._DSM: Argument #4 type mismatch - Found [Buffer], ACPI requires [Pac
kage] (20150204/nsarguments-95)
Sep 16 11:06:18 sonsie kernel: [   31.704708] ACPI: \_SB_.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP: failed to evaluate _DSM
Sep 16 11:06:18 sonsie kernel: [   31.704713] ACPI Warning: \_SB_.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._DSM: Argument #4 type mismatch - Found [Buffer], ACPI requires [Pac
kage] (20150204/nsarguments-95)
Sep 16 11:06:24 sonsie kernel: [   37.509492] nouveau E[    PBUS][0000:02:00.0] MMIO write of 0x00000002 FAULT at 0x4188ac [ IBUS ]
Sep 16 11:06:26 sonsie kernel: [   39.665225] tun: Universal TUN/TAP device driver, 1.6
Sep 16 11:06:26 sonsie kernel: [   39.665227] tun: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky 
Sep 16 11:06:30 sonsie kernel: [   43.707905] ACPI Warning: \_SB_.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._DSM: Argument #4 type mismatch - Found [Buffer], ACPI requires [Pac
kage] (20150204/nsarguments-95)
Sep 16 11:06:30 sonsie kernel: [   43.707989] ACPI: \_SB_.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP: failed to evaluate _DSM
Sep 16 11:06:30 sonsie kernel: [   43.707992] ACPI Warning: \_SB_.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._DSM: Argument #4 type mismatch - Found [Buffer], ACPI requires [Pac
kage] (20150204/nsarguments-95)
Sep 16 11:06:32 sonsie kernel: [   46.042587] Adjusting tsc more than 11% (6262765 vs 8115577)
Sep 16 11:06:35 sonsie kernel: [   48.859093] fuse init (API version 7.23)
Sep 16 11:06:35 sonsie kernel: [   49.724054] nouveau E[    PBUS][0000:02:00.0] MMIO write of 0x00000002 FAULT at 0x4188ac [ IBUS ]
Sep 16 11:06:36 sonsie kernel: [   50.561330] Bluetooth: RFCOMM TTY layer initialized
Sep 16 11:06:36 sonsie kernel: [   50.561337] Bluetooth: RFCOMM socket layer initialized
Sep 16 11:06:36 sonsie kernel: [   50.561382] Bluetooth: RFCOMM ver 1.11
Sep 16 11:06:41 sonsie kernel: [   55.150323] ACPI Warning: \_SB_.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._DSM: Argument #4 type mismatch - Found [Buffer], ACPI requires [Pac
kage] (20150204/nsarguments-95)
Sep 16 11:06:41 sonsie kernel: [   55.150423] ACPI: \_SB_.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP: failed to evaluate _DSM
Sep 16 11:06:41 sonsie kernel: [   55.150429] ACPI Warning: \_SB_.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._DSM: Argument #4 type mismatch - Found [Buffer], ACPI requires [Pac
kage] (20150204/nsarguments-95)
Sep 16 11:19:33 sonsie rsyslogd-2177: imjournal: 584788 messages lost due to rate-limiting

Context

$ lspci -v | grep Broad
06:00.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4352 802.11ac Wireless Network Adapter (rev 03)
$ rpm -q -a | grep -i broadc
broadcom-wl-6.30.223.248-3.fc21.noarch
$ uname -a
Linux box.example.com 4.0.7-200.fc21.x86_64 #1 SMP Mon Jun 29 22:11:52 UTC 2015 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
$ dmesg | grep Broadcom
[ 2.953312] usb 1-9: Manufacturer: Broadcom Corp
[ 25.747449] eth0: Broadcom BCM43b1 802.11 Hybrid Wireless Controller 6.30.223.248 (r487574)

Reports

  • 914975@wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address; In Red Hat Bugzilla; 2013-02.
    tl;dr → CLOSED CANTFIX → Broadcom is not FOSS, it is not supported; was reported against Fedora 18.
  • 1163401[11125.005426] ERROR @wl_cfg80211_get_station : Wrong Mac address ; In Ubuntu Launchpad; 2013-04-02.
    tl;dr → declared a duplicate of 1097519
  • 1097519bcmwl-kernel-source_6.20 update breaks for BCM4313; In Ubuntu Launchpad; 2013-01-08.

Folklore

  • Nick Groenen; Fixing the Broadcom BCM4331 wireless drivers on Ubuntu 13.10; In His Blog; 2013-11-09.
    tl;dr → covers bcmwl-kernel-source_6.20.155.1+bdcom-0ubuntu6_amd64.deb
  • bcmwl-kernel-source of Ubuntu Packages
  • Something about two drivers that almost work …
    • brcmsmac
    • wl
  • Something about the broadcoam-sta-* package(s).
  • Something about the b43driver which is “in tree”
    • that it could or should work or should be made to work
    • Comment 7Re: Use brcmsmac driver for BCM4313

Sleeping Through a Revolution | Jonathan Taplin

  • Jonathan Taplin; The Technology Revolution Impacts and Reduces the Workforce; On YouTube; 2015-03-10; 5:06.
  • Jonathan Taplin; Sleeping Through a Revolution; on Vimeo; 2015-03-10; 44:10.
    Teaser: The Moral Framework of the Technology Revolution
  • Jonathan Taplin (USC); Sleeping Through a Revolution; In Medium; 2015-04-22.
    Teaser: Letter to the Millennials 2

tl;dr → internet advertising is bad; internet surveillance is bad; an extended defense of high-copyright cultural products industries (music, film, etc.).  Google is bad.

Proposal

Platform for the Renaissance
  • 1GB/s symmetric network
  • Network Neutrality
  • Regulation
  • Copyright on everything
  • Public broadcasting
  • Micropayments
On the micropayments concept
  • which is not advertising
  • with no embedded clearance fees
    cited as e.g. Visa, PayPal, Bitcoin, etc.
    ahem, because … the moneychangers don’t create.
  • with fees for cultural product presentment
    cited as, e.g. $0.25/view to read the video/audio/linkbait/UGC ($250 CPM).
    ahem, sounds very Randian

Mentions

(discursive, rambling)

  • Annenberg Innovation Lab, University of Southern California.
  • Recitation of the ’60s and ’70s counterculture as a time of greatness
    • Chroniclers
      • Fred Turner
      • John Markoff
      • Nicholas Negroponte
    • Whole Earth Lectronic Link (WELL)
    • commune
    • Ken Kesey
    • Stewart Brand
  • Recitation of the ’80s and beyond as a time of badness
    • Peter Thiel, PayPall
    • the Stanford University cohort
    • Silicon Valley
    • Ayn Rand
    • The PayPal Mafia
      • all men, as an epithet
    • The Cato Institute
    • male makers
    • Larry Page, ex-CEO, Google
    • Jeff Bezos, CEO, Amazon
    • Napster
    • internet platform
  • Scott Timberg; Culture Crash: The Killing of the Creative Class; Yale University Press; 2015-01-13; 320 pages; kindle: $13, paper: $12+SHT.
  • Ethan Zuckerman; Rewire: Digital Cosmopolitans in the Age of Connection; W. W. Norton & Company; 2013-06-17; 288 pages; kindle: $10, paper: $8+SHT.
  • Robert Scheer; They Know Everything About You: How Data-Collecting Corporations and Snooping Government Agencies Are Destroying Democracy; Nation Books; 2015-02-24; 272 pages; kindle: $15, paper: $10+SHT.
  • Monopolies
    • Government-defined monopolies → good (AT&T, etc.)
    • Unregulated (natural) monopolies → bad (Apple, Comcast, Facebook, Google, etc.)
  • Epithets
    • Digital Bandits
      • Kim Dotcom
    • Svengali
      • David Plouffe
  • George Akerlof → market for lemons
  • YouTube isn’t quality content, those people aren’t true artists.
    Hollywood film is quality content made by true artists.
  • Quoted
    for color, background & verisimilitude

    • Nils Gilman, Associate Chancellor, UC Berkeley
    • Larry Summers, Harvard
  • Nils Gilman (UCB); The Twin Insurgency; In The American Interest; Volume 9, Number 6; 2014-06-15.
    Teaser: The postmodern state is under siege from plutocrats and criminals who unknowingly compound each other’s insidiousness.
    <quote>The postmodern state is under siege from plutocrats and criminals who unknowingly compound each other’s insidiousness.</quote>
  • Cited, as exemplars of extreme good or evil
    • Abraham Lincoln
    • ISIS
  • sharing economy
  • Airbnb
  • TaskRabbit
  • Uber
  • David Plouffe, lobbyist, ex-Obama 2012
  • The Koch Brothers
  • Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA)
    • was good
    • crude, but
  • Some article, The Economist (uncited)
    the ability to substitute capital for labor (has profound implications)
  • Reagan, Reagan-era
  • John Maynard Keynes
    opined about substituting capital for labor (the 15 hour work week)
  • Martin Luther King
    credited with the quote “asleep at the reolution”
  • Julie Cohen, professor, Georgetown University
    • opined about privacy
    • popularization, summarization
      Why does Privacy Matter?  One Scholar’s Answer; Jathan Sadowski; In The Atlantic; 2013-02-26.
      Teaser: If we want to protect privacy, we should be more clear about why it is import
      tl;dr → <quote>Privacy is not just something we enjoy. It is something that is necessary for us to: develop who we are; form an identity that is not dictated by the social conditions that directly or indirectly influence our thinking, decisions, and behaviors; and decide what type of society we want to live in.</quote>
  • Aldous Huxley
  • Virtual Reality’s Potential Displayed at Game Developers’ Conference; In The New York Times (NYT); 2015-03-06.
  • Nir Eyal; Hooked: How to Build Habit Forming Products; Nir Eyal, via Amazon; 2013-12-30; 156 pages; kindle: $14, paper: $12+SHT.
  • Sundance Courts a New Celebrity Crowd; some cub reporter; In The New York Times (NYT); 2015-02-01.
    tl;dr → Sundance Film Festival, grift, bribes for promotion
  • Liberty
    • Libertarian liberty → bad
      the absence of non-consensual oversight
    • Thomas Jefferson liberty → good
      of Life, Liberty & the Pursuit of Happiness
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Government has a role to play
  • American renaissance: 1935→1975.
  • Plato
  • Vox Media
  • BuzzFeed
  • Argot
    • native advertising
    • brand integration
  • Facebook
  • Artists
    the good guys

    • Bob Dylan
    • George Harrison
    • Martin Scorsese

Via: backfill, backfill.

On using SSL Certificates for auth in MySQL and LAMP in general

Context

mariadb-10.0.20-1.fc21.x86_64
php-5.6.10-1.fc21.x86_64
php-pdo-5.6.10-1.fc21.x86_64

Complaints

On the use MariaDB v10.0 (MySQL)

of localhost
  • MySQL treats localhost as meaning “use the Unix domain socket” rather than “use TCP on the loopback interface.”  This affects the use of SSL.
  • Arguably, one shouldn’t use SSL on the Unix domain socket since that neither more nor less secure than certificates and certificate keys lying around in the filesystem.
of SSL (OpenSSL)
  • MySQL allows SSL certificates to be in PEM format or in TXT format (!!!); the file suffix is irrelevant; contrast with PHP which requires PEM format

On the use of PHP v5.6

of PHP PDO
  • Doesn’t accept \PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_CAPATH
    • The warning is emitted
      PHP Warning:  no valid certs found cafile stream: filename
  • Does accept \PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_CA
    • so one must use a bundled certificate file for the certificate path
  • Seems like the issue is that PDO doesn’t communicate down to the openssl layer
of PHP OpenSSL
  • PHP requires SSL certificates to be in PEM format; contrast with MySQL which supports TXT data (!!!) even misnamed into a .pem suffix file)
  • PHP doesn’t support capath (ssl-capath), it only supports cafile (“ssl-ca”); see …/ext/openssl/xp_ssl.c
  • Added openssl_get_cert_locations() in v5.6
    and run php < dump.php (see below)
  • PHP doesn’t support Subject Alternative Name (SAN)
    <quote ref=”cite“>SAN support for PHP will be introduced in PHP 5.6.</quote>
  • PHP runs HTTP over CURL or its own PHP Socket & PHP Streams.

ArrestDB in PHP

  • Stock implementation is alixaxel/ArrestDB
    • does not support null or empty password.
    • does not support IPv6 address syntax.
    • has limited error reporting
      • does not return exception messaging in the REST output
      • returns 503 with no further logging or messaging.

OpenSSL

  • Differences in support levels between PHP and MySQL (MariaDB)

References

Actualities

<?php
try {
    $dbh = new PDO('mysql:host=ipv6-address;port=port;dbname=dbname', dbusername, dbpassword);
} catch (PDOException $e) {
    print "Error!: " . $e->getMessage() . "
";
    die();
}
?>
array(8) {
  ["default_cert_file"]=>
  string(21) "/etc/pki/tls/cert.pem"
  ["default_cert_file_env"]=>
  string(13) "SSL_CERT_FILE"
  ["default_cert_dir"]=>
  string(18) "/etc/pki/tls/certs"
  ["default_cert_dir_env"]=>
  string(12) "SSL_CERT_DIR"
  ["default_private_dir"]=>
  string(20) "/etc/pki/tls/private"
  ["default_default_cert_area"]=>
  string(12) "/etc/pki/tls"
  ["ini_cafile"]=>
  string(0) ""
  ["ini_capath"]=>
  string(0) ""
}

Diagnosing Gnome Terminal failure to start over ssh from merely the cryptic message: Error constructing proxy for org.gnome.Terminal:/org/gnome/Terminal/Factory0: Could not connect: Connection refused

tl;dr

The contents of /etc/machine-id was the same on both machines

Remediation

uuidgen | sed -e 's/-//g' | sudo tee /etc/machine-id

Complications

  • Some machine ‘s gnome-terminal “just works”
  • Some machine’s gnome-terminal “fails silently”
  • They are “the same”
    • Same package set
    • Same Fedora 22
    • Same VM
    • Same hosting service
    • VMs created within hours of each other
    • etc.

say that again

Same hosting service, same OS, the VMs created within hours of each other,

Indications

localhost $ ssh -Y server.example.com
remotehost $ gnome-terminal
** (gnome-terminal:4508): WARNING **: Couldn't connect to accessibility bus: Failed to connect to socket /tmp/dbus-8BIJ2Pi6pY: Connection refused
Error constructing proxy for org.gnome.Terminal:/org/gnome/Terminal/Factory0: Could not connect: Connection refused

Diagnosis

  • The user-level dbus-daemon has not started. Fix that.
  • Someone or some thing is not creating ~/.dbus/session-bus.
  • Someone or some thing is not allowing dbus-launch to do anything at all

Differences

Packages

Recall, that one VM “just works” and one VM exhibits the problem. Of course, both are “the same” being Fedora 22, the same kernel 4.1.5, created within hours of each other, etc. The differences in packages between the two

$ diff o.broken-vm-package.list o.working-vm-package.list
78d77
broken> elfutils-default-yama-scope
422a422
working> python2-firewall
433d432
broken> python-firewall
439d437
broken> python-pip
442d439
broken> python-setuptools

This not indicative of anything.

Machine ID

The Machine IDs of the two machines are “the same” becaues they were created from the same VM cloud image; the Machine ID wasn’t regenerated when the instance was activated.

working.example.com $ ls -lZ /etc/machine*
-r--r--r-- 1 root root ? 33 May 26 09:28 /etc/machine-id
working.exampe.com $ cat /etc/machine-id 
8aed69c9cc314c318b2af5672573b109
failing.example.com $ ls -lZ /etc/machine*
-r--r--r-- 1 root root ? 33 May 26 09:28 /etc/machine-id
failing.example.com$ cat /etc/machine-id.orig
8aed69c9cc314c318b2af5672573b109

Same contents in the files, same (very old) date in on the files; the date pertains to when the cloud VM image was created.

Remediation
uuidgen | sed -e 's/-//g' | sudo tee /etc/machine-id

Unhelpful

  • Did you reboot?
    No, rebooting, whatever that might mean, doesn’t help.
  • You need to start dbus-daemon --session.
    No, that is supposed to be started by dbus-launch, automatically.

References

Free Desktop Documentation

Folklore

Helpful

  • 834347gnome-terminal through ssh session fails because of stale X server property; In Red Hat Bugzilla; 2013-08-06-21 → 2013-08-01.
    tl;dr → filed against Fedora 17, yet was helpful for Fedora 22.
    Suggests: dbus-launch --exit-with-session gnome-terminal
  • dbus-launch – Utility to start a message bus from a shell script; In Free Desktop Documentation
    Describes
  • DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS environment variable
  • The --autolaunch behavior
  • Default behavior is as if DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS=autolaunch: was set
  • Unclear
    • The behavior when ssh’ing to a remote machine; is vague about what does or should happen.
    • How the ~/.dbus/session-bus/machine-id files get created
    • <quote>If DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS is not set for a process that tries to use D-Bus, by default the process will attempt to invoke dbus-launch with the --autolaunch option to start up a new session bus or find the existing bus address on the X display or in a file in ~/.dbus/session-bus/</quote>

Misdirection

Apparently there are problems with gnome-terminal and locales. This is not that problem.
This is a different issue, not described here.

Error constructing proxy for org.gnome.Terminal:/org/gnome/Terminal/Factory0: Error calling StartServiceByName for org.gnome.Terminal: GDBus.Error:org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.Spawn.ChildExited: Process org.gnome.Terminal exited with status 8

2)

Actualities

You should see two dbus instances

  • dbus-daemon --system
  • dbus-daemon --session
$ ps -ef | grep dbus
dbus      2559     1  0 12:08 ?        00:00:01 /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=systemd: --nofork --nopidfile --systemd-activation
wbaker    4749     1  0 13:05 ?        00:00:00 /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --fork --print-pid 4 --print-address 6 --session
wbaker    5107  4780  0 13:19 pts/5    00:00:00 grep --color=auto dbus

To be placed in & around the ~/.bash_profile; interesting but unnecessary in modern Fedora.

# set dbus for remote SSH connections
if [ -n "$SSH_CLIENT" -a -n "$DISPLAY" ]; then
    machine_id=$(LANGUAGE=C hostnamectl|grep 'Machine ID:'| sed 's/^.*: //')
    x_display=$(echo $DISPLAY|sed 's/^.*:\([0-9]\+\)\(\.[0-9]\+\)*$/\1/')
    dbus_session_file="$HOME/.dbus/session-bus/${machine_id}-${x_display}"
    if [ -r "$dbus_session_file" ]; then
            export $(grep '^DBUS.*=' "$dbus_session_file")
            # check if PID still running, if not launch dbus
            ps $DBUS_SESSION_BUS_PID | tail -1 | grep dbus-daemon >& /dev/null
            [ "$?" != "0" ] && export $(dbus-launch) >& /dev/null
    else
            export $(dbus-launch) >& /dev/null
    fi
fi

RFC 7624 – Confidentiality in the Face of Pervasive Surveillance: A Threat Model and Problem Statement

RFC 7624Confidentiality in the Face of Pervasive Surveillance: A Threat Model and Problem Statement; R. Barnes, B. Schneier, C. Jennings, T. Hardie, B. Trammell, C. Huitema, D. Borkmann; IETF; 2015-08.

tl;dr
  • state-level actors
    (police- & military-focused)
  • some mention of adtrade tracking
    (is passive, pervasive & persistent but nominally T&C, N&C, etc.)

Abstract

Since the initial revelations of pervasive surveillance in 2013, several classes of attacks on Internet communications have been discovered. In this document, we develop a threat model that describes these attacks on Internet confidentiality. We assume an attacker that is interested in undetected, indiscriminate eavesdropping. The threat model is based on published, verified attacks.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Terminology
3. An Idealized Passive Pervasive Attacker
3.1. Information Subject to Direct Observation
3.2. Information Useful for Inference
3.3. An Illustration of an Ideal Passive Pervasive Attack
3.3.1. Analysis of IP Headers
3.3.2. Correlation of IP Addresses to User Identities
3.3.3. Monitoring Messaging Clients for IP Address Correlation
3.3.4. Retrieving IP Addresses from Mail Headers
3.3.5. Tracking Address Usage with Web Cookies
3.3.6. Graph-Based Approaches to Address Correlation
3.3.7. Tracking of Link-Layer Identifiers
4. Reported Instances of Large-Scale Attacks
5. Threat Model
5.1. Attacker Capabilities
5.2. Attacker Costs
6. Security Considerations
7. References
7.1. Normative References
7.2. Informative References
IAB Members at the Time of Approval
Acknowledgements
Authors’ Addresses

Mentioned

Concepts

  • Encryption
  • Snowden
  • National Security Agency (NSA)
    • FOXACID
    • PRISM
    • QUANTUM
    • XKEYSCORE

<quote>
3.3.2. Correlation of IP Addresses to User Identities

The correlation of IP addresses with specific users can be done in various ways. For example, tools like reverse DNS lookup can be used to retrieve the DNS names of servers. Since the addresses of servers tend to be quite stable and since servers are relatively less numerous than users, an attacker could easily maintain its own copy of the DNS for well-known or popular servers to accelerate such lookups.

On the other hand, the reverse lookup of IP addresses of users is generally less informative. For example, a lookup of the address currently used by one author’s home network returns a name of the form “c-192-000-002-033.hsd1.wa.comcast.net”. This particular type of reverse DNS lookup generally reveals only coarse-grained location or provider information, equivalent to that available from geolocation databases.

In many jurisdictions, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are required to provide identification on a case-by-case basis of the “owner” of a specific IP address for law enforcement purposes. This is a reasonably expedient process for targeted investigations, but pervasive surveillance requires something more efficient. This provides an incentive for the attacker to secure the cooperation of the ISP in order to automate this correlation.

Even if the ISP does not cooperate, user identity can often be obtained via inference. POP3 [RFC1939] and IMAP [RFC3501] are used to retrieve mail from mail servers, while a variant of SMTP is used to submit messages through mail servers. IMAP connections originate from the client, and typically start with an authentication exchange in which the client proves its identity by answering a password challenge. The same holds for the SIP protocol [RFC3261] and many instant messaging services operating over the Internet using proprietary protocols.

The username is directly observable if any of these protocols operate in cleartext; the username can then be directly associated with the source address.

3.3.4. Retrieving IP Addresses from Mail Headers

SMTP [RFC5321] requires that each successive SMTP relay adds a “Received” header to the mail headers. The purpose of these headers is to enable audit of mail transmission, and perhaps to distinguish between regular mail and spam. Here is an extract from the headers of a message recently received from the perpass mailing list:

Received: from 192-000-002-044.zone13.example.org (HELO ?192.168.1.100?) (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx)
    by lvps192-000-002-219.example.net
    with ESMTPSA (DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA encrypted, authenticated); 27 Oct 2013 21:47:14 +0100
Message-ID: >526D7BD2.7070908@example.org>
Date: Sun, 27 Oct 2013 20:47:14 +0000
From: Some One <some.one@example.org>

This is the first “Received” header attached to the message by the first SMTP relay; for privacy reasons, the field values have been anonymized. We learn here that the message was submitted by “Some One” on October 27, from a host behind a NAT (192.168.1.100) [RFC1918] that used the IP address 192.0.2.44. The information remained in the message and is accessible by all recipients of the perpass mailing list, or indeed by any attacker that sees at least one copy of the message.

An attacker that can observe sufficient email traffic can regularly update the mapping between public IP addresses and individual email identities. Even if the SMTP traffic was encrypted on submission and relaying, the attacker can still receive a copy of public mailing lists like perpass.

3.3.5. Tracking Address Usage with Web Cookies

Many web sites only encrypt a small fraction of their transactions. A popular pattern is to use HTTPS for the login information, and then use a “cookie” to associate following cleartext transactions with the user’s identity. Cookies are also used by various advertisement services to quickly identify the users and serve them with “personalized” advertisements. Such cookies are particularly useful if the advertisement services want to keep tracking the user across multiple sessions that may use different IP addresses.

As cookies are sent in cleartext, an attacker can build a database that associates cookies to IP addresses for non-HTTPS traffic. If the IP address is already identified, the cookie can be linked to the user identify. After that, if the same cookie appears on a new IP address, the new IP address can be immediately associated with the predetermined identity.

3.3.6. Graph-Based Approaches to Address Correlation

An attacker can track traffic from an IP address not yet associated with an individual to various public services (e.g., web sites, mail servers, game servers) and exploit patterns in the observed traffic to correlate this address with other addresses that show similar patterns. For example, any two addresses that show connections to the same IMAP or webmail services, the same set of favorite web sites, and game servers at similar times of day may be associated with the same individual. Correlated addresses can then be tied to an individual through one of the techniques above, walking the “network graph” to expand the set of attributable traffic.

3.3.7. Tracking of Link-Layer Identifiers

Moving back down the stack, technologies like Ethernet or Wi-Fi use MAC (Media Access Control) addresses to identify link-level destinations. MAC addresses assigned according to IEEE 802 standards are globally unique identifiers for the device. If the link is publicly accessible, an attacker can eavesdrop and perform tracking. For example, the attacker can track the wireless traffic at publicly accessible Wi-Fi networks. Simple devices can monitor the traffic and reveal which MAC addresses are present. Also, devices do not need to be connected to a network to expose link-layer identifiers. Active service discovery always discloses the MAC address of the user, and sometimes the Service Set Identifiers (SSIDs) of previously visited networks. For instance, certain techniques such as the use of “hidden SSIDs” require the mobile device to broadcast the network identifier together with the device identifier. This combination can further expose the user to inference attacks, as more information can be derived from the combination of MAC address, SSID being probed, time, and current location. For example, a user actively probing for a semi-unique SSID on a flight out of a certain city can imply that the user is no longer at the physical location of the corresponding AP. Given that large-scale databases of the MAC addresses of wireless access points for geolocation purposes have been known to exist for some time, the attacker could easily build a database that maps link-layer identifiers and time with device or user identities, and use it to track the movement of devices and of their owners. On the other hand, if the network does not use some form of Wi-Fi encryption, or if the attacker can access the decrypted traffic, the analysis will also provide the correlation between link-layer identifiers such as MAC addresses and IP addresses. Additional monitoring using techniques exposed in the previous sections will reveal the correlation between MAC addresses, IP addresses, and user identity. For instance, similarly to the use of web cookies, MAC addresses provide identity information that can be used to associate a user to different IP addresses.

</quote>

References

Normative

  • RFC 6973Privacy Considerations for Internet Protocols, A. Cooper, H. Tschofenig, B. Aboba, J. Peterson, J. Morris, M. Hansen, R. Smith, DOI 10.17487/RFC6973, 2013-07.

Informative

Mostly newspaper articles (expos’ees) & techreport whitepapers.

  • RFC 1035Domain names – implementation and specification, P. Mockapetris, STD 13, RFC 1035, doi:10.17487/RFC1035, 1987-11.
  • RFC 1918Address Allocation for Private Internets, Y. Rekhter, B. Moskowitz, D. Karrenberg, G. de Groot, E. Lear, BCP 5, RFC 1918, doi:10.17487/RFC1918, 1996-02.
  • RFC 1939Post Office Protocol – Version 3, J. Myers, M. Rose, STD 53, RFC 1939, doi:10.17487/RFC1939, 1996-05.
  • RFC 3261SIP: Session Initiation Protocol, J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, E. Schooler, RFC 3261, doi:10.17487/RFC3261, 2002-06.
  • RFC 3365Strong Security Requirements for Internet Engineering Task Force Standard Protocols, J. Schiller, BCP 61, RFC 3365, doi:10.17487/RFC3365, 2002-08.
  • RFC 3501INTERNET MESSAGE ACCESS PROTOCOL – VERSION 4rev1, M. Crispin, RFC 3501, doi:10.17487/RFC3501, 2003-03.
  • RFC 4033DNS Security Introduction and Requirements, R. Arends, Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, RFC 4033, doi:10.17487/RFC4033, 2005-03.
  • RFC 4303IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), S. Kent, RFC 4303, doi:10.17487/RFC4303, 2005-12.
  • RFC 4949Internet Security Glossary, Version 2, R. Shirey, FYI 36, RFC 4949, doi:10.17487/RFC4949, 2007-08.
  • RFC 5246The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2, T. Dierks, E. Rescorla, RFC 5246, doi:10.17487/RFC5246, 2008-08.
  • RFC 5321Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, J. Klensin, RFC 5321, doi:10.17487/RFC5321, 2008-10.
  • RFC 6962Certificate Transparency, B. Laurie, A. Langley, E. Kasper, RFC 6962, doi:10.17487/RFC6962, 2013-06.
  • RFC 7011Specification of the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of Flow Information, B. Claise, B. Trammell, (editors), P. Aitken, STD 77, RFC 7011, doi:10.17487/RFC7011, 2013-09.
  • RFC 7258Pervasive Monitoring Is an Attack, S. Farrell, H. Tschofenig, BCP 188, RFC 7258, doi:10.17487/RFC7258, 2014-05.

Via: backfill.

sendmail, still, intermittently, gives “host map: lookup ($domain): deferred”

Previously

sendmail gives “host map: lookup ($domain): deferred”, 2015-03-04.

Continuing

And yet it continues to happen intermittently

  • Has something to do with IPv6 vs IPv4
  • Once sendmail is in that state, it never recovers
    i.e.

    • the queue never clears
    • its growth is unbounded
  • the only remedies are manual intervention
    • sendmail -q (manually)
    • systemctl restart sendmail (manually)

Debug

$ sendmail -v -d8.32 -qIMessageID

Actualities

$ sudo sendmail -v -d8.32 -qIt85HF6hG025984
Running /var/spool/mqueue/t85HF6hG025984 (sequence 1 of 1)
dns_getcanonname(sender.example.com, trymx=1)
dns_getcanonname: trying sender.example.com. (AAAA)
	NO: errno=0, h_errno=4
dns_getcanonname: trying sender.example.com. (A)
	YES
dns_getcanonname: sender.example.com
dns_getcanonname(emerson.baker.org, trymx=1)
dns_getcanonname: trying emerson.baker.org. (AAAA)
	NO: errno=0, h_errno=4
dns_getcanonname: trying emerson.baker.org. (A)
	NO: errno=0, h_errno=4
dns_getcanonname: trying emerson.baker.org. (MX)
	YES
dns_getcanonname: emerson.baker.org
getmxrr(smart.mail.example.emerson.baker.org, droplocalhost=1)
getmxrr: res_search(smart.mail.example.emerson.baker.org) failed (errno=0, h_errno=4)
dns_getcanonname(smart.mail.example.emerson.baker.org, trymx=0)
dns_getcanonname: trying smart.mail.example.emerson.baker.org. (AAAA)
	NO: errno=0, h_errno=4
dns_getcanonname: trying smart.mail.example.emerson.baker.org. (A)
	YES
dns_getcanonname: smart.mail.example.emerson.baker.org
... Connecting to smart.mail.example.emerson.baker.org. via relay...
220 mta.emerson.baker.org ESMTP Sendmail 8.14.5/8.14.5; Thu, 10 Sep 2015 10:17:26 -0700
>>> EHLO sender.example.com
250-mta.emerson.baker.org Hello sender.example.emerson.baker.org [192.0.2.19], pleased to meet you
250-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES
250-PIPELINING
250-EXPN
250-VERB
250-8BITMIME
250-SIZE
250-DSN
250-ETRN
250-STARTTLS
250-DELIVERBY
250 HELP
>>> STARTTLS
220 2.0.0 Ready to start TLS
>>> EHLO sender.example.com
250-mta.emerson.baker.org Hello sender.example.emerson.baker.org [192.0.2.19], pleased to meet you
250-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES
250-PIPELINING
250-EXPN
250-VERB
250-8BITMIME
250-SIZE
250-DSN
250-ETRN
250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
250-DELIVERBY
250 HELP
>>> MAIL From: SIZE=845
250 2.1.0 ... Sender ok
>>> RCPT To:
>>> DATA
250 2.1.5 ... Recipient ok
354 Enter mail, end with "." on a line by itself
>>> .
250 2.0.0 t8AHHQ0v004865 Message accepted for delivery
... Sent (t8AHHQ0v004865 Message accepted for delivery)
Closing connection to smart.mail.example.emerson.baker.org.
>>> QUIT
221 2.0.0 mta.emerson.baker.org closing connection

Fifth Generation Intel NUC (Broadwell-U) – Series NUC5i7, NUC5i5, NUC5i3

Intel NUC Board NUC5i5RYB and Intel NUC Board NUC5i3RYB; Technical Product Specifications; Intel, 2015-06, 79 pages.

NUCtI3YRK (i3, thin, no SATA bay)

Intel® NUC Kit NUC5i3RYH i3-5010U thick 2.5″ SATA bay
Intel® NUC Kit NUC5i3RYK i3-5010U thin no bay
Intel® NUC Kit NUC5i5RYH i5-5250U thick 2.5″ SATA bay
Intel® NUC Kit NUC5i5RYK i5-5250U thin no bay

System Memory
For 16GB

  • Crucial CT8G3S160BM 8GB each piece
    Kingston KHX18LS11P1K2/16 8 GB x 2 piece

Via: Next Unit of Computing, Jimi Wales Wiki

Kit Board CPU TDP GPU HDMI1 Mini DisplayPort2 eDP Wireless connectivity 2.5″ SATA3 bay Charging port Infrared sensor
NUC5i7RYH NUC5i7RYB i7-5557U 28W Iris 6100 Yes Yes No IEEE 802.11ac, Bluetooth 4.0, Intel Wireless Display Yes Yes Yes
NUC5i5RYH NUC5i5RYB i5-5250U 15W HD 6000 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
NUC5i5RYK Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
NUC5i3RYH NUC5i3RYB i3-5010U HD 5500 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
NUC5i3RYK Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
NUC5i3MYHE NUC5i3MYBE No Yes (×2) Yes M.2 E-Keyed 22×30 wireless card slot Yes No No
NUC5i5MYHE

Is Silicon Valley in Another Bubble … and What Could Burst It? | Vanity Fair

Is Silicon Valley in Another Bubble … and What Could Burst It?; In Vanity Fair; 2015-09-01.
Teaser: With the tech industry awash in cash and 100 “unicorn” start-ups now valued at $1 billion or more, Silicon Valley can’t escape the question. Nick Bilton [opines]

tl;dr → yes, anything or nothing

  • yes it is a bubble
  • it could pop at any time
    • cessation of QE could pop it
    • or anything else at all
    • or it could deflate slowly

only time will tell.

Mentions

  • Written for an east-coast audience.
  • Cares
    Silicon Valley vs Rest of Country

    • Silicon Valley
      • is it a bubble?
    • Elsewhere
      • Deflategate
      • Obamacare
  • Nick Bilton
    • New York Times
    • Moves to San Francisco (“the bay area”) in 2011

Sources

  • tweets
  • press releases
  • cocktail party conversations
  • hearsay
  • prudent judgement
  • books; e.g. Boombustology, 2011

Diagnosis

  • Too much money
Cause
  • Federal Reserve
  • Quantitative Easing
Quoted

For color, background & verisimilitude

  • Christopher Thornberg
    • Christopher Thornberg, Founding Partner of Beacon Economics, LLC, a research boutique.
    • claim: predicted 2007 (subprime mortgage) crash.
    • <quote>The whole world is awash with money</quote>
  • An unnamed CEO
    • vignette about deriving the $1B out of thin air (making it up).
    • <quote>One successful venture capitalist told me that he recently met with a unicorn that was seeking a new round of funding.</quote>, three levels of unsourced anonymity.
  • Instacart
    • vignette about restricting access to the prospectus & financials
    • unsourced.
  • Noah Smith
    • assistant professor, finance, Stony Brook University.
    • Noah Smith, Bloomberg
    • Noahpinion, a blog
    • <quote>the danger is not that we’re in a tech bubble but rather that we’re in an “everything bubble,” in which any one of these events could be the domino that makes it all fall down.</quote>, attributed from comments in 2015-07.

Antecdotes

  • The Nouveau Riche 250 (TNR250)
    • Facebook IPO winners
  • Buildings
    • Apple headquarters, “The Spaceship”
    • Google campus, update
    • Salesforce tower, 415 Mission Street, San Francisco; 1,070 feet.
  • Vikram Mansharamani; Boombustology: Spotting Financial Bubbles Before They Burst; Wiley, 1st edition; 2011-03-08; 272 pages.; kindle: $16, paper: $20+SHT.
    Vikram Mansharamani, lecturer, Yale
  • Compensation
    • Stories of improbable pay packages are recited.
    • Quoted, for color, background & verisimilitude
      • Jana Rich, founder of Rich Talent Group.
  • Burning Man
    • Stories of improbable conspicuous luxury are recited
    • The Celebrity CEOs go to Burning Man
      • “Billionaires’ Row”
      • “Sherpas”
        • wait staff
        • <quote>waiting on tech elite at a three-to-one ratio.</quote>
    • Names dropped
      [employees from the companies now attend Burning Man]

      • Airbnb
      • Dropbox
      • Facebook
      • Google
      • Twitter
      • Uber
  • Celebrity Meet & Greet Events
    • recruiting invites for workers (“entrepreneurs”)
    • Exemplars
      • Richard Branson’s Necker Island
      • Four Seasons in Punta Mita, Mexico
      • a pub crawl through Dublin with Bono.

Quotes

colorful & biting.

<quote>And then, toward the end of his reassuring soliloquy, the ANDREESSEN HOROWITZ sign fell from the wall and landed on the floor with an ominous thud. As the investors looked on, some partners in the Rosewood ballroom laughed awkwardly. Others did not seem so amused.</quote>, attributed to Nick Bilton, who represents that he experienced this.

<quote>“The biggest of all losers will be anyone who has borrowed money to invest in private companies, You were stupid. You blew it. You lost. That simple.”</quote>, attributed to Mark Cuban.

<quote>There’s also a precocious indicator some economists refer to as the Prostitute Bubble, where the filles de joie flock to increasingly frothy markets.</quote>, attributed to Nick Bilton [which economists?]

<quote>“You know there’s a bubble, when the pretty people show up.”</quote>, attributed to General Cultural Knowledge.

<quote> “SF tech culture is focused on solving one problem: What is my mother no longer doing for me?”</qoute>, attributed to a tweet.

Names Dropped

For color, background & verisimilitude

Architects
  • Sir Norman Foster, Apple campus
  • Bjarke Ingels & Thomas Heatherwick, Google campus
Cars
  • Bentley
  • Tesla
Companiies
sellers
  • Caviar
  • DoorDash
  • Instacart
  • Luxe
  • Lyft
  • Munchery
  • Postmates
  • Shyp
  • Sidecar
  • Slack
  • SpoonRocket
  • Sprig
  • Square
  • TaskRabbit
  • Tinder
  • Uber
  • Washio
buyers
  • Amazon
    • Amazon Fresh
  • Apple
  • Facebook
  • Google
    • Google Express
  • LinkedIn
Venture Capital
  • Andreessen Horowitz (A16z)
  • Draper Fisher Jurvetson
  • Greylock Partners
  • Sequoia Capital
  • Singapore Investment Corporation
  • Tiger Global Management, NY
[Industry] Market Research Boutiques
  • Bloomberg
  • Capital IQ
  • CB Insights
  • McKinsey & Co.
  • National Venture Capital Association.
Persons
  • Michael Arrington, <quote>once a nexus of power in Silicon Valley</quote>
  • Mark Cuban, internet personality, sold Broadcast.com to Yahoo, $5.7 billion, 2001.
  • Bill Gurley, a partner, Benchmark Capital.
  • Aileen Lee, founder, Cowboy Ventures, coined “unicorn,” “unicorpse.”
  • Scott Kupor, managing partner, A16z
  • Roger McNamee, co-founder, Elevation Partners
  • Mitt Romney, ex-Governor, MA
Places
  • Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park.
  • Rosewood Hotel, Menlo Park.

Via: backfill.

Why Do Nigerian Scammers Say They Are From Nigeria? | Herley

Cormac Herley (Microsoft); Why do Nigerian Scammers Say They are from Nigeria?; In Workshop on the Economics of Information Security (WEIS); 2012; 14 pages; landing.

Abstract

False positives cause many promising detection technologies to be unworkable in practice. Attackers, we show, face this problem too. In deciding who to attack true positives are targets successfully attacked, while false positives are those that are attacked but yield nothing.

This allows us to view the attacker’s problem as a binary classification. The most profitable strategy requires accurately distinguishing viable from non-viable users, and balancing the relative costs of true and false positives. We show that as victim density decreases the fraction of viable users than can be profitably attacked drops dramatically. For example, a 10× reduction in density can produce a 1000× reduction in the number of victims found. At very low victim densities the attacker faces a seemingly intractable Catch-22: unless he can distinguish viable from non-viable users with great accuracy the attacker cannot find enough victims to be profitable. However, only by finding large numbers of victims can he learn how to accurately distinguish the two.

Finally, this approach suggests an answer to the question in the title. Far-fetched tales of West African riches strike most as comical. Our analysis suggests that is an advantage to the attacker, not a disadvantage. Since his attack has a low density of victims the Nigerian scammer has an over-riding need to reduce false positives. By sending an email that repels all but the most gullible the scammer gets the most promising marks to self-select.

Mentions

  • a theoretical treatment
  • Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC)
  • Optimal Operating Point (OOP)
  • Attacker Model
    • Targeted Attacker with per-user effort.
    • Scalable Attacker with per-population effort.
  • 419 Fraud
    • advance funds fraud
  • Advanced Persistent Threat (APT)

References

  • Fraud at potifos.com [some blog?].
  • 419 Eater.
  • A. Odlyzko. Providing Security With Insecure Systems. In Proceedings of WiSec, 2010.
  • L. Ahn, M. Blum, N. Hopper, J. Langford. Captcha: Using Hard AI Problems For Security. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Theory and Applications Of cryptographic Techniques, pages 294–311. Springer-Verlag, 2003.
  • S. Axelsson. The base-rate fallacy and the difficulty of intrusion detection. In ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC), 3(3):186–205, 2000.
  • C. Dwork, M. Naor. Pricing via Processing or Combatting Junk Mail. In Proceedings of Crypto, 1992.
  • D. Florêncio, C. Herley. Is Everything We Know About Password-stealing Wrong? In IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine. To appear.
  • D. Florêncio, C. Herley. Sex, Lies and Cyber-crime Surveys. In Proceedings of WEIS, 2011, Fairfax.
  • D. Florêncio, C. Herley. Where Do All the Attacks Go? In Proceedings of WEIS, 2011, Fairfax.
  • Ford R., Gordon S. Cent, Five Cent, Ten Cent, Dollar: Hitting Spyware where it Really Hurt$. In Proceedings of NSPW, 2006.
  • D. Geer, R. Bace, P. Gutmann, P. Metzger, C. Pfleeger, J. Quarterman, B. Schneier. Cyber insecurity: The cost of monopoly. Computer and Communications Industry Association (CCIA), Sep, 24, 2003.
  • J. Grossklags, N. Christin, J. Chuang. Secure or insure?: a game-theoretic analysis of information security games. In Proceedings of WWW, 2008.
  • H. R. Varian. System Reliability and Free Riding. In Economics of Information Security, 2004.
  • C. Herley. The Plight of the Targeted Attacker in a World of Scale. In Proceedings of WEIS 2010, Boston.
  • J. Sunshine, S. Egelman, H. Almuhimedi, N. Atri, L. F. Cranor. Crying Wolf: An Empirical Study of SSL Warning Effectiveness. In Proceedings of Usenix Security, 2009.
  • L.A. Gordon, M.P. Loeb. The Economics of Information Security Investment. In ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, 2002.
  • N. Fultz, J. Grossklags. Blue versus Red: Toward a Model of Distributed Security Attacks. In Proceedings of Financial Crypto, 2009.
  • R. Anderson. Why Information Security is Hard. In In Proceedings of ACSAC, 2001.
  • R. Anderson. Security Engineering. second edition, 2008.
  • R. Boehme, T. Moore. The Iterated Weakest-Link: A Model of Adaptive Security Investment. In Proceedings of WEIS, 2009.
  • S. Schechter, M. Smith. How Much Security is Enough to Stop a Thief? In Proceedings of Financial Cryptography, pages 122–137. Springer, 2003.
  • H. L. van Trees. Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory: Part I. Wiley, 1968.

Via: backfill.

Does PiTiVi even work? For any media format? On any platform? For any purpose? At all?

Betteridge’s Law: no.

PiTiVi:  Does. Not. Work.  Avoid.
There are no known success scenarios on any platform, any hardware, any media format.

Scenario

Simple: copyin/copyout.  The simplest possible test case.

  • load a video ~1 min.
  • render that video.

Must be playable, with audio. No crashes, no fried hardware.

This cannot be done.

Common

in increasing order of severity, all are common

  • Cryptic messages about codes & drivers not available.
  • Python exceptions, uncaught
  • X11 client terminations & segfaults
  • Xorg server segfaults
  • Scrambled hardware (hard powercycle required)

Success

Fedora 21

  • input → mp4

  • output → ogg

Failures

Fedora 21

  • hangs in rendering at “Initializing…”
    • input → mp4

    • output → mp4

Fedora 20

  • incomprehensible python messages & exceptions

Fedora 19

  • When executing PiTiVi locally
    • X11 client termination & segfault
  • When executing PiTiVi remotely
    • Xorg server segfaults
    • Hardware required power cycle.

Fedora 19, Catalyst 14.4

$ rpm -q -a | grep -Ee '(xorg|cataly)' | sort
abrt-addon-xorg-2.2.0-1.fc19.x86_64
akmod-catalyst-14.4-1.fc19.x86_64
kmod-catalyst-14.4-1.fc19.1.x86_64
kmod-catalyst-3.13.9-100.fc19.x86_64-14.4-1.fc19.x86_64
kmod-catalyst-3.14.4-100.fc19.x86_64-14.4-1.fc19.1.x86_64
kmod-catalyst-3.9.5-301.fc19.x86_64-13.6-0.1.beta.fc19.3.x86_64
xorg-x11-drv-catalyst-14.4-1.fc19.x86_64
xorg-x11-drv-catalyst-libs-14.4-1.fc19.x86_64
<snip/>
xorg-x11-server-common-1.14.4-3.fc19.x86_64
xorg-x11-server-Xorg-1.14.4-3.fc19.x86_64
/var/log/Xorg.0.log
[1275119.878] Loading extension ATIFGLRXDRI
[1275119.878] (II) fglrx(0): doing swlDriScreenInit
[1275119.878] (II) fglrx(0): swlDriScreenInit for fglrx driver
[1275119.878] ukiDynamicMajor: found major device number 246
[1275119.878] ukiDynamicMajor: found major device number 246
[1275119.878] ukiDynamicMajor: found major device number 246
[1275119.878] ukiOpenByBusid: Searching for BusID PCI:1:0:0
[1275119.878] ukiOpenDevice: node name is /dev/ati/card0
[1275119.878] ukiOpenDevice: open result is 12, (OK)
[1275119.878] ukiOpenByBusid: ukiOpenMinor returns 12
[1275119.878] ukiOpenByBusid: ukiGetBusid reports PCI:1:0:0
[1275119.878] (II) fglrx(0): [uki] DRM interface version 1.0
[1275119.878] (II) fglrx(0): [uki] created "fglrx" driver at busid "PCI:1:0:0"
[1275119.878] (II) fglrx(0): [uki] added 8192 byte SAREA at 0x3f5b4000
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0): [uki] mapped SAREA 0x3f5b4000 to 0x7f5cdadd0000
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0): [uki] framebuffer handle = 0x3f5b5000
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0): [uki] added 1 reserved context for kernel
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0): swlDriScreenInit done
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0): Kernel Module Version Information:
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0):     Name: fglrx
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0):     Version: 14.10.2
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0):     Date: Apr 17 2014
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0):     Desc: AMD FireGL DRM kernel module
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0): Kernel Module version matches driver.
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0): Kernel Module Build Time Information:
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0):     Build-Kernel UTS_RELEASE:        3.14.4-100.fc19.x86_64
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0):     Build-Kernel MODVERSIONS:        no
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0):     Build-Kernel __SMP__:            no
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0):     Build-Kernel PAGE_SIZE:          0x1000
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0): [uki] register handle = 0x3f5b6000
[1275119.879] (II) fglrx(0): FIREGL Board Found
[1275119.879] (EE) fglrx(0): Not enough video memory to allocate primary surface (frame buffer).
[1275119.879] (EE) 
[1275119.879] (EE) Backtrace:
[1275119.879] (EE) 0: /usr/bin/Xorg (OsLookupColor+0x129) [0x46f059]
[1275119.879] (EE) 1: /lib64/libpthread.so.0 (__restore_rt+0x0) [0x3fd500ef9f]
[1275119.880] (EE) 2: /usr/lib64/xorg/modules/drivers/fglrx_drv.so (swlDrmFreeSurfaces+0x42) [0x7f5cd990d432]
[1275119.880] (EE) 3: /usr/lib64/xorg/modules/drivers/fglrx_drv.so (xdl_xs114_atiddxDriCloseScreen+0x14d) [0x7f5cd989c33d]
[1275119.881] (EE) 4: /usr/lib64/xorg/modules/drivers/fglrx_drv.so (xdl_xs114_atiddxDriScreenInit+0x8eb) [0x7f5cd989b9db]
[1275119.881] (EE) 5: /usr/lib64/xorg/modules/drivers/fglrx_drv.so (xdl_xs114_atiddxScreenInit+0xf80) [0x7f5cd9895410]
[1275119.882] (EE) 6: /usr/bin/Xorg (AddScreen+0x71) [0x437441]
[1275119.882] (EE) 7: /usr/bin/Xorg (InitOutput+0x411) [0x48a131]
[1275119.882] (EE) 8: /usr/bin/Xorg (_init+0x38b3) [0x429bc3]
[1275119.882] (EE) 9: /lib64/libc.so.6 (__libc_start_main+0xf5) [0x3fd4821b45]
[1275119.882] (EE) 10: /usr/bin/Xorg (_start+0x29) [0x426a21]
[1275119.882] (EE) 11: ? (?+0x29) [0x29]
[1275119.882] (EE) 
[1275119.882] (EE) Segmentation fault at address 0x8a0
[1275119.882] (EE) 
Fatal server error:
[1275119.882] (EE) Caught signal 11 (Segmentation fault). Server aborting
[1275119.882] (EE) 
[1275119.882] (EE) 
Please consult the Fedora Project support 
	 at http://wiki.x.org
 for help. 
[1275119.882] (EE) Please also check the log file at "/var/log/Xorg.0.log" for additional information.
[1275119.882] (EE) 
[1275119.980] (EE) Server terminated with error (1). Closing log file.

The History of Technological Anxiety and the Future of Economic Growth: Is This Time Different? | Mokyr, Vickers, Ziebarth

Joel Mokyr, Chris Vickers, Nicolas L. Ziebarth. 2015. The History of Technological Anxiety and the Future of Economic Growth: Is This Time Different? In Journal of Economic Perspectives, 29(3): 31-50. DOI:10.1257/jep.29.3.31. landing.

Joel Mokyr is Robert H. Strotz Professor of Arts and Sciences and Professor of Economics and History, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.
Chris Vickers is Assistant Professor of Economics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama.
Nicolas L. Ziebarth is Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

tl/dr → No, it is not different this time.
<quote>From our perspective, the more extreme of modern anxieties about long-term, ineradicable technological unemployment, or a widespread lack of meaning because of changes in work patterns seem highly unlikely to come to pass. As has been true now for more than two centuries, technological advance will continue to improve the standard of living in many dramatic and unforeseeable ways. However, fundamental economic principles will continue to operate. Scarcities will still be with us, most notably of time itself. The law of comparative advantage strongly suggests that most workers will still have useful tasks to perform even in an economy where the capacities of robots and automation have increased considerably. </quote>

Abstract

Technology is widely considered the main source of economic progress, but it has also generated cultural anxiety throughout history. The developed world is now suffering from another bout of such angst. Anxieties over technology can take on several forms, and we focus on three of the most prominent concerns. First, there is the concern that technological progress will cause widespread substitution of machines for labor, which in turn could lead to technological unemployment and a further increase in inequality in the short run, even if the long-run effects are beneficial. Second, there has been anxiety over the moral implications of technological process for human welfare, broadly defined. While, during the Industrial Revolution, the worry was about the dehumanizing effects of work, in modern times, perhaps the greater fear is a world where the elimination of work itself is the source of dehumanization. A third concern cuts in the opposite direction, suggesting that the epoch of major technological progress is behind us. Understanding the history of technological anxiety provides perspective on whether this time is truly different. We consider the role of these three anxieties among economists, primarily focusing on the historical period from the late 18th to the early 20th century, and then compare the historical and current manifestations of these three concerns.

Introduction

<quote>

Technology is widely considered the main source of economic progress, but it has also generated cultural anxiety throughout history. From generation to generation, literature has often portrayed technology as alien, incomprehensible, increasingly powerful and threatening, and possibly uncontrollable (Ellul 1967; Winner 1977). The myth of Prometheus is nothing if not a cautionary tale of these uncontrollable effects of technology. In Civilization and its Discontents, Sigmund Freud (1930 [1961], pp. 38–39) assessed what technology has done to homo sapiens, making him into a kind of God with artificial limbs, “a prosthetic God. When he puts on all his auxiliary organs he is truly magnificent; but those organs have not grown onto him and they still give him much trouble at times.”

So it is surely not without precedent that the developed world is now suffering from another bout of such angst. In fact, these worries about technological change have often appeared at times of flagging economic growth. For example, the Great Depression brought the first models of secular stagnation in Alvin Hansen’s 1938 book Full Recovery or Stagnation? Hansen drew on the macro­economic ideas of John Maynard Keynes in fearing that economic growth was over, with population growth and technological innovation exhausted. Keynes was also drawn into the debate and offered a meditation on the future of technology and unemployment in his well-known essay, “Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren.”

This was originally written as a set of lectures in 1928 after a decade of dismal economic performance in the United Kingdom and then revised in 1930 to incorporate remarks about the Great Depression (Pecchi and Piga 2008, p. 2). Keynes (1930) remained optimistic about the future in the face of staggering unemployment, writing: “We are suffering, not from the rheumatics of old age, but from the growing-pains of over-rapid changes, from the painfulness of readjustment between one economic period and another. The increase of technical efficiency has been taking place faster than we can deal with the problem of labour absorption; the improvement in the standard of life has been a little too quick.” More recently, Winner’s (1977) “Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought” was published during the economic doldrums of the mid and late 1970s. Today, distinguished economists such as Lawrence Summers (2014), in a speech to the National Association of Business Economists, can be heard publicly musing about the possibility of secular stagnation. In his Martin Feldstein lecture, Summers (2013b) discussed a downright “neo-Luddite” (that famous protest movement against technological innovation in nineteenth century England) position on the effects of technology for long-term trends in employment.

Anxieties over technology can take on several forms, and we focus on what we view as three of the most prominent concerns. The first two worries are based on an “optimistic” view that technology will continue to grow and perhaps accelerate. First, one of the most common concerns is that technological progress will cause widespread substitution of machines for labor, which in turn could lead to technological unemployment and a further increase in inequality in the short run, even if the long-run effects are beneficial. Second, there has been anxiety over the moral implications of technological process for human welfare, broadly defined. In the case of the Industrial Revolution, the worry was about the dehumanizing effects of work, particularly the routinized nature of factory labor. In modern times, perhaps the greater fear is a world like that in Kurt Vonnegut’s 1952 novel Player Piano, where the elimination of work itself is the source of dehumanization (for example, Rifkin 1995). As Summers said (as quoted “not perfectly verbatim” in Kaminska 2014), while “[t]he premise of essentially all economics . . . is that leisure is good and work is bad. . . . economics is going to have to find a way to recognize the fundamental human satisfactions that come from making a contribution . . .” A third concern cuts in the opposite direction, suggesting that the epoch of major technological progress is behind us. In recent years, even in the face of seemingly dizzying changes in information technology, pessimists such as Gordon (2012), Vijg (2011), and Cowen (2010) have argued that our greatest worry should be economic and productivity growth that will be too slow because of, for example, insufficient technological progress in the face of “headwinds” facing western economies. Some of these so-called “headwinds,” including slow productivity and population growth, formed the basis of Hansen’s (1939) secular stagnation hypothesis. The argument of this paper is that these worries are not new to the modern era and that understanding the history provides perspective on whether this time is truly different. The next section of the paper considers the role of these three anxieties among economists, primarily focusing on the historical period from the late 18th to the early 20th century, while the final section offers some comparisons between the historical and current manifestations of these three concerns.

</quote>

Mentions

  • in the Rawlsian sense
  • “headwinds” which is apparently a colorful metaphor in the argot.
  • neo-Luddite
  • stagnation
  • Concerns
    1. Short-Term Disruption, Long-Term Benefits
    2. Technology and the Alienation of Labor
    3. Historical Perspectives on a Horizon for Technological Progress
  • Prognostication
    • Technology and the End of Work?
    • Technology and the Characteristics of Work
    • The Technological Horizon
  • Amara’s Law
    • <quote>We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.</quote>
    • Roy Amara,
      • systems engineer
      • president, Institute for the Future:
        • an idea shop
        • for-profit

Referenced

  • John Maynard Keynes; Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren; an essay; 1930.

References

  • Allen, Robert C. 1992. Enclosure and the Yeoman: The Agricultural Development of the South Midlands, 1450–1850. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Allen, Robert C. 2005. “Capital Accumulation, Technological Change, and the Distribution of Income during the British Industrial Revolution.” Department of Economics Discussion Paper 239, Oxford University.
  • Aguiar, Mark, Erik Hurst. 2007. “Measuring Trends in Leisure: The Allocation of Time over Five Decades.” In Quarterly Journal of Economics 122(3): 969–1006.
  • Aguiar, Mark, Erik Hurst, Loukas Karabarbounis. 2013. “Time Use during the Great Recession.” In American Economic Review 103(5): 1664–96.
  • Autor, David H. 2001. “Wiring the Labor Market.” In Journal of Economic Perspectives 15(1): 25–40.
  • Bardasi, Elena, Janet C. Gornick. 2008. “Working for Less: Women’s Part-time Wage Penalties across Countries.” In Feminist Economics 14(1): 37–72.
  • Beaudry, Paul, David A. Green, Benjamin M. Sand. 2013. “The Great Reversal in the Demand for Skill and Cognitive Tasks.” NBER Working Paper 18901.
  • Bentham, Jeremy. 1825. The Rationale of Reward. London, England: John and H. L. Hunt.
  • Berg, Maxine. 1980. The Machinery Question and the Making of Political Economy, 1815–1848. Cambridge University Press.
  • Bloom, Nicholas, James Liang, John Roberts, Zhichun Jenny Ying. 2013 “Does Working from Home Work? Evidence from a Chinese Experiment.” NBER Working Paper 18871.
  • Bythell, Duncan. 1969. The Handloom Weavers: A Study in the English Cotton Industry during the Industrial Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
  • Calhoun, John C. 1837. “The ‘Positive Good’ of Slavery in 1837.” Speech in the U.S. Senate, February 6th.
  • Charles, Kerwin Kofi, Erik Hurst, Matthew J. Notowidigdo. 2014. “Housing Booms, Labor Market Outcomes, and Educational Attainment
  • Clague, Ewan. 1935. “The Problem of Unemployment and the Changing Structure of Industry.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 30(189): 209–214.
  • Council of Economic Advisors. 2010. Work-
  • Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. March.
  • Cowen, Tyler. 2010. The Great Stagnation. New York: Dutton.
  • Clark, Andrew E. 2003. “Unemployment as a Social Norm: Psychological Evidence from Panel Data.” In Journal of Labor Economics 21(2): 323–51.
  • Clark, John Bates. 1907. Essentials of Economic Theory. London: MacMillan.
  • The Economist, staff. 2014. “Why is Everyone So Busy?” In The Economist. December 20.
  • The Economist, staff. 2015. “The Future of Work: There’s an App for That.” In The Economist. January 3.
  • Ellul, Jacques. 1967. The Technological Society. Vintage Books.
  • Elster, Jon (ed.) 1986. Karl Marx: A Reader. Cambridge University Press.
  • Feinstein, Charles H. 1998. “Pessimism Perpetuated: Real Wages and the Standard of Living in Britain during and after the Industrial Revolution.” In Journal of Economic History 58(3): 625–58.
  • Fogel, Robert W. 2009. “Forecasting the Cost of U.S. Health Care in 2040.” In Journal of Policy Modeling 31(4): 482–88.
  • Freeman, Richard B. 2008. “Why Do We Work More than Keynes Expected?” Chap. 9 in Revisiting Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, edited by Lorenzo Pecchi, Gustavo Piga. MIT Press.
  • Freud, Sigmund. [1930] 1961. Civilization and Its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton.
  • Freudenberger, Herman, Gaylord Cummins. 1976. “Health, Work, and Leisure before the Industrial Revolution.” In Explorations in Economic History 13(1): 1–12.
  • Genovese, Eugene D. 1992. The Slaveholders’ Dilemma: Freedom and Progress in Southern Conservative Thought, 1820–1860. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
  • Goldin, Claudia. 2014 “A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter.” American Economic Review 104(4): 1091–1119.
  • Goldin, Claudia, Lawrence F. Katz. 1998. “The Origins of Technology-Skill Complementarity.” In Quarterly Journal of Economics 113(3): 693–732.
  • Gordon, Robert J. 2012. “Is U.S. Economic Growth Over? Faltering Innovation Confronts the Six Headwinds.” NBER Working Paper 18315.
  • Greenhouse, Steven. 2014 “A Push to Give Steadier Shifts to Part-Timers.” In New York Times, July 15.
  • Greif, Avner. 1993. “Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders’ Coalition.” In American Economic Review 83(3): 525–48.
  • Hadley, Arthur T. 1896. Economics. New York: Putnam’s Sons.
  • Hamermesh, Daniel S, Daiji Kawaguchi, Jungmin Lee. 2014. “Does Labor Legislation Benefit Workers? Well-Being after an Hours Reduction.” IZA Discussion Paper 8077.
  • Hansen, Alvin Harvey. 1938. Full Recovery or Stagnation? W.W. Norton.
  • Hansen, Alvin H. 1939. “Economic Progress and Declining Population Growth.” In American Economic Review 29(1): 1–15.
  • Hayden, Erika Check. 2014. “Technology: The $1000 Genome.” In Nature, March 19, 507(7492): 294–95.
  • Illinois, State of. 1895. Report of the Factory Inspectors of Illinois for the Year Ending Dec. 15, 1894. Springfield: Ed. F. Hartman, State Printer.
  • Jaimovich, Nir, Henry E. Siu. 2014. “The Trend is the Cycle: Job Polarization and Jobless Recoveries.” NBER Working Paper 18334, version revised March 20, 2014.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. 1787. Notes on the State of Virginia. University of Virginia American Studies.
  • Kaminska, Izabella. 2014. “Larry Summers on Forwarding the Doozer Economy.” In Financial Times. FT Alphaville blog, April 17.
  • Katz, Lawrence F., Margo, Robert A. 2013. “Technical Change and the Relative Demand for Skilled Labor: The United States in Historical Perspective.” NBER Working Paper 18752.
  • Keynes, John Maynard. 1930. “Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren.” In Essays in Persuasion [1963], pp. 358–73. New York: W.W. Norton.
  • Kuznets, Simon. 1934. National Income, 1929–1932. Senate Document no. 124, 73rd US Congress, 2nd session.
  • Lindert, Peter H. 2000. “When Did Inequality Rise in Britain and America?” In Journal of Income Distribution 9(1): 11–25.
  • Lonigan, Edna. 1939. “The Effect of Modern Technological Conditions upon the Employment of Labor.” In American Economic Review 29(2): 246–59.
  • Lyons, John S. 1989. “Family Response to Economic Decline: Handloom Weavers in Early Nineteenth-Century Lancashire.” In Research in Economic History, Vol.12, pp. 45–91.
  • Maddison, Angus. 2001. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Paris: OECD.
  • Margo, Robert A. 2000. Wages and Labor Markets in the United States, 1820–1860. University of Chicago Press.
  • Marx, Karl. 1844 [1988]. The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. Translated by Martin Milligan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
  • Matos, Kenneth, Ellen Galinsky. 2014. 2014 National Study of Employers. Families and Work Institute.
  • Michelson, Albert A. 1903. Light Waves and Their Uses. University of Chicago Press.
  • Mildmay, William. 1765. The Laws and Policy of England, Relating to Trade, Examined by the Maxims and Principles of Trade in General. London: T. Harrison.
  • Mill, John Stuart. 1848 [1929]. Principles of Political Economy, edited by W. J. Ashley. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
  • Mokyr, Joel. 1988. “Is There Still Life in the Pessimistic Case? Consumption during the Industrial Revolution, 1790–1850.” In Journal of Economic History 48(1): 69–92.
  • Mokyr, Joel. 2002. The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy. Princeton University Press.
  • Mokyr, Joel. 2010. The Enlightened Economy: An Economic History of Britain, 1700–1850. Yale University Press.
  • Mortimer, Thomas. 1772. The Elements of Commerce, Politics and Finances. London: Hooper.
  • Nisbet, Robert. 1980. History of the Idea of Progress. Basic Books.
  • Pecchi, Lorenzo, Gustavo Piga (eds). 2008. Revisiting Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren. MIT Press.
  • Phelps, Edmund S. 2008. “Corporatism and Keynes: His Philosophy of Growth.” In Revisiting Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, edited by Lorenzo Pecchi, Gustavo Piga. MIT Press.
  • Pollard, Sidney. 1963. “Factory Discipline in the Industrial Revolution.” In Economic History Review 16(2): 254–71.
  • Rawls, John. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Belknap/Harvard University Press.
  • Ricardo, David. 1821 [1971]. Principles of Political Economy, 3rd edition, edited by R.M. Hartwell. Harmondsworth: Pelican Classics.
  • Ridley, Matt. 2010. When Ideas Have Sex.
  • Rifkin, Jeremy. 1995. The End of Work. New York: J.B. Putnam.
  • Rifkin, Jeremy. 2014. The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Rodgers, Daniel T. 1978. The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850–1920. Second edition. University of Chicago Press.
  • Sachs, Jeffrey D, Seth G. Benzell, Guillermo LaGarda. 2015. “Robots: Curse or Blessing? A Basic Framework.” NBER Working Paper 21091.
  • Smith, Adam. 1776 [1965]. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. New Rochelle: Arlington House.
  • Sobek, Matthew. 2001. “New Statistics on the U.S. Labor Force, 1850–1990.” In Historical Methods 34(2): 71–81.
  • Steuart, James. 1767. An Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy. London: Printed for A. Millar, T. Cadell.
  • Stevenson, John. 1979. Popular Disturbances in England, 1700–1870. New York: Longman.
  • Summers, Lawrence. 2013a. “Why Stagnation Might Prove to Be the New Normal.” In Financial Times, December 15.
  • Summers, Lawrence H. 2013b. “Economic Possibilities for Our Children.” The 2013 Martin Feldstein Lecture. NBER Reporter no. 4, pp. 1–6.
  • Summers, Lawrence H. 2014. “U.S. Economic Prospects: Secular Stagnation, Hysteresis, and the Zero Lower Bound.” In Business Economics 49(2): 65–73.
  • Thomas, Keith. 1964. “Work and Leisure in Pre-Industrial Society.” In Past & Present no. 29, pp. 50–66.
  • Thomis, Malcolm. 1970. The Luddites. New York: Schocken.
  • Thompson, E. P. 1963. The Making of the English Working Class. Victor Gollancz Ltd.
  • Vickers, Chris, Nicolas L. Ziebarth. 2012. “Economic Development and the Demographics of Criminals in Victorian England.” Unpublished paper, Auburn University and University of Iowa.
  • Vijg, Jan. 2011. The American Technological Challenge: Stagnation and Decline in the 21st Century. New York: Algora Publishing.
  • Voth, Hans-Joachim. 2004. “Living Standards and the Urban Environment.” Chap. 10 in The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain: Volume I. Edited by Roderick Floud, Paul Johnson. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wells, David A. 1889. Recent Economic Changes: And Their Effect on the Production and Distribution of Wealth and the Well-Being of Society. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
  • Whaples, Robert. 2001. “Hours of Work in U.S. History.” In EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples.
  • Wicksell, Knut. 1901 [1934]. Lectures on Political Economy, Vol. I: General Theory<e/m>. Translated by E. Classen. London: George Routledge.
  • Williamson, Jeffrey G. 1981. “Urban Disamenities, Dark Satanic Mills, and the British Standard of Living Debate.” In Journal of Economic History 41(1): 75–83.
  • Wing, Charles. 1837 [1967]. Evils of the Factory System Demonstrated by Parliamentary Evidence. London: Frank Cass reprints.
  • Winner, Langdon. 1977. Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought. MIT Press.
  • Woirol, Gregory R. 1996. The Technological Unemployment and Structural Unemployment Debates. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  • Zucker, Lynne G. 1986. “Production of Trust: Institutional Sources of Economic Structure, 1840–1920.” In Research in Organizational Behavior 8: 53–111.

Via: backfill