The Network is Reliable | ACM Queue

Peter Bailis (UC Berkeley), Kyle Kingsbury (Jepsen Networks); The Network is Reliable; In ACM. Queue; Volume 12, issue 7; 2014-07-23.

Mentions

References

Is a Cambrian Explosion Coming for Robotics? I Gill Pratt

Gill A. Pratt (DARPA). 2015. Is a Cambrian Explosion Coming for Robotics? In Journal of Economic Perspectives, 29(3): 51-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jep.29.3.51. landing.

Gill A. Pratt will be stepping down [2015-09] from his position as a Program Manager of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Arlington, Virginia, where he oversaw the DARPA Robotics Challenge and several other programs in robotics while on leave from the faculty of Franklin W. Olin College, Needham, Massachusetts.

Abstract

About half a billion years ago, life on earth experienced a short period of very rapid diversification called the “Cambrian Explosion.” Many theories have been proposed for the cause of the Cambrian Explosion, one of the most provocative being the evolution of vision, allowing animals to dramatically increase their ability to hunt and find mates. Today, technological developments on several fronts are fomenting a similar explosion in the diversification and applicability of robotics. Many of the base hardware technologies on which robots depend—particularly computing, data storage, and communications—have been improving at exponential growth rates. Two newly blossoming technologies—”Cloud Robotics” and “Deep Learning”—could leverage these base technologies in a virtuous cycle of explosive growth. I examine some key technologies contributing to the present excitement in the robotics field. As with other technological developments, there has been a significant uptick in concerns about the societal implication of robotics and artificial intelligence. Thus, I offer some thoughts about how robotics may affect the economy and some ways to address potential difficulties.

Introduction

<quote>

About half a billion years ago, life on earth experienced a short period of very rapid diversification called the “Cambrian Explosion.” Many theories have been proposed for the cause of the Cambrian Explosion, with one of the most provocative being the evolution of vision, which allowed animals to dramatically increase their ability to hunt and find mates (for discussion, see Parker 2003). Today, technological developments on several fronts are fomenting a similar explosion in the diversification and applicability of robotics. Many of the base hardware technologies on which robots depend—particularly computing, data storage, and communications—have been improving at exponential growth rates. Two newly blossoming technologies—“Cloud Robotics” and “Deep Learning”—could leverage these base technologies in a virtuous cycle of explosive growth. In Cloud Robotics — a term coined by James Kuffner (2010) — every robot learns from the experiences of all robots, which leads to rapid growth of robot competence, particularly as the number of robots grows. Deep Learning algorithms are a method for robots to learn and generalize their associations based on very large (and often cloud-based) “training sets” that typically include millions of examples. Interestingly, Li (2014) noted that one of the robotic capabilities recently enabled by these combined technologies is vision—the same capability that may have played a leading role in the Cambrian Explosion.

</quote>

Mentions

  • A model of technology adoption is presented, page 7.
    Technology creates more supply in some areas, creates new demand in other areas; rinse&repeat; goodness follows.
  • Human services cost more because they entail (human) time which cannot be repleased or scaled.  Hence the craft economy; the services economy.
  • When the robots arrive, do “we” use capitalism or communism to distribute the effusion of abundant bounty?
  • The Personal Preferences Information Economy
    <quote>Internet companies that had their start producing computer tools like search, email, maps and others have monetized the personal preferences about their users gathered by the tools themselves—which are typically given away “for free.” The gathered information is then sold to advertisers who use it to target individuals most likely to purchase specific goods. The business of these companies is fundamentally the arbitrage of personal preference information. Many people today don’t realize the value of their personal preferences, although the substantial profits of the companies that gather and sell such information makes clear its value.</quote>
  • What’s Holding Back Robots?, page 10
    not stated

    • only time will tell
    • the changes will be profound
  • (ahem) “they” don’t yet do enough to earn “their” keep..

Technology Drivers

  1. Moore’s Law
  2. 3D printing
  3. Energy Storage (batteries)
  4. Power management (power density, efficiency)
  5. Packet Radio (wireless, WiFi)
  6. Data Storage
  7. Computation (see #1, something about “embassingly parallel”)

Big Ideas

  1. Memory-based automomy
    delegate to memory in lieu of algorithms
  2. High-Speed experience sharing
    pubsub
  3. Learning from Imagination
    on-device simulation of the external world
  4. Learning from people
    something about social media, trawling photos & videos

Referenced

References

Via: backfill

Header Enrichment or ISP Enrichment? Emerging Privacy Threats in Mobile Networks | Vallina-Rodriguez, Sundaresan, Kreibich, Paxson

Narseo Vallina-Rodriguez, Srikanth Sundaresan, Christian Kreibich, Vern Paxson; Header Enrichment or ISP Enrichment? Emerging Privacy Threats in Mobile Networks; In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Middleboxes and Network Function Virtualization (HotMiddlebox 2015, huh? now you’re just being silly); 2015-08-17; 6 pages; landing.

Abstract

HTTP header enrichment allows mobile operators to annotate HTTP connections via the use of a wide range of request headers. Operators employ proxies to introduce such headers for operational purposes, and—as recently widely publicized—also to assist advertising programs in identifying the subscriber responsible for the originating traffic, with significant consequences for the user’s privacy. In this paper, we use data collected by the Netalyzr network troubleshooting service over 16 months to identify and characterize HTTP header enrichment in modern mobile networks. We present a timeline of HTTP header usage for 299 mobile service providers from 112 countries, observing three main categories:

  1. unique user and device identifiers (e.g., IMEI and IMSI)
  2. headers related to advertising programs, and
  3. headers associated with network operations.

Mentions

  • HTTP header enrichment
  • Netalyzr
    • Netalyzer-for-Android
  • Verizon Precision Marketingt Insights
  • The IETF’s Service Function Chaining (SFC) standards are vague about whether injected headers are good or bad (should be removed).
  • Data
    • Collected: 2013-11 → 2015-03.
    • 112 countries
    • 299 operators
  • CRAWDAD
  • Belief: no M?NO is yet cracking TLS to insert HTTP headers into the encrypted stream.
  • Suggested as an ID-less methods of identification: device-unique allocation of the (routable) IPv6 space to identify the device, in addition to routing to it.
  • RFC 7239Forwarded HTTP Extension; A. Peterson, M. Milsson (Opera); IETF; 2014-06.
  • Cessation Timeline
    • 2014-10 → Vodaphone (ZA) has ceased their practices in 2014-10, nothing to see there, now.
    • 2014-11 → AT&T has ceased their practices 2014-11.
    • 2015-03 → Verion was not respecting opt-out (as evidenced by not inserting the X-UIDH header) through 2015-03.
  • Continuation
    • Verion continues the X-UIDH header insertion.
  • The X-Forwarded-For header carries extra freight in T-Mobile (DE)
  • Carrier-Grade NAT (CGN) at 100.64.0.0/10 per RFC 6598IANA-Reserved IPv4 Prefix for Shared Address Space (2012-04)

Headers

Table 1 & Table 2; Table 3 (not shown)

HTTP Header Operator Country Estimated Purpose
x-up-calling-line-id Vodacom ZA Phone Number
x-up-nai
x-up-vodacomgw-subid
msisdn Orange JO MISDN
x-nokia-msisdn Smart PH
tm_user-id Movistar ES Subscriber ID
x-up-subno
x-up-3gpp-imeisv Vodacom ZA IMEI
lbs-eventtime Smarttone HK Timestamp
lbs-zoneid Location
x-acr AT&T US unstated, an identifier
x-amobee-1 Airtel IN
x-amobee-2 Singtel SG
x-uidh Verizon US
x-vf-acr Vodacom ZA
Vodafone NL

Argot

  • Access Point Name (APN)
  • GPRS
  • HTTP
  • IMSI
  • IMEI
  • J2ME
  • Location-Based Services (LBS)
  • Mobile Country Code (MCC)
  • Mobile Network Code (MNC)
  • Mobile Network Operator (MNO)
  • Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO)
  • MSISDN
  • Hong Kong Metro (subway) (MTR)
  • Service Function Chaining (SFC)
  • SIM
  • Transport-Layer Security (TLS)
  • Unique Identifier (UID); contra the specific UUID or GUID
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN)
  • WAP

References

A significant number of newpaper articles, vulgarizations & bloggist opinements.

UNSOLVED: Dell M3800 under Fedora 21 (but not Factory Ubuntu 14) does not suspend, runs super-hot, hangs

Indications

Fedora 21 is substantially unuseable except in “immobile” modes.  Upon closing the clamshell to transport, the CPU, GPU & fan run hard and it gets extremely hot.  The unit will not respond on the NIC, the keyboard or anything.  A powercycle is required.  To transport, one must power down.

This does not occur with the Dell-installed Ubuntu 14.04 LTS.  That configuration suspends & resumes appropriately.

Estimate

Seems like the Fedora system is using nouveau while the Ubuntu system is using i915 (Intel).  Both systems have a Quadro K1100M GPU.

Also the use of external displays.   I didn’t test Dell-factory Ubuntu with external displays.  I did exercise Fedora 21 nouveau with an external display.

Remediations

  • Fedora → None known.
  • Ubuntu → Stick with the factory-installed Ubuntu, learn Ubuntu, hope it doesn’t break.

Hardware

  • NVIDIA Corporation GK107GLM [Quadro K1100M]

Differences

  • Fedora 21 → uses nouveau
  • Ubuntu 14.04 LTS → extensive blacklisting of nouveau
    • nvidia_340 is used
    • all other nvidia is blacklisted
    • nouveau is blacklisted
    • See /etc/modprobe/modprobe.d

References

  • Precision Mobile Workstation M3800 Keyboard Guide
    • FN+Insert → “hardware sleep” unlabeled
      is apparently different than powerbutton “software sleep”)

      • Effective when the Power button (tap) does not
      • Yet is ineffective when the GNOME screen saver is active.

Folklore

Previously

Actualities

$ lspci
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v3/4th Gen Core Processor DRAM Controller (rev 06)
00:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v3/4th Gen Core Processor PCI Express x16 Controller (rev 06)
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation 4th Gen Core Processor Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 06)
00:03.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v3/4th Gen Core Processor HD Audio Controller (rev 06)
00:04.0 Signal processing controller: Intel Corporation Device 0c03 (rev 06)
00:14.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family USB xHCI (rev 05)
00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family MEI Controller #1 (rev 04)
00:1a.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family USB EHCI #2 (rev 05)
00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset High Definition Audio Controller (rev 05)
00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #1 (rev d5)
00:1c.2 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #3 (rev d5)
00:1c.3 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #4 (rev d5)
00:1c.4 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port #5 (rev d5)
00:1d.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family USB EHCI #1 (rev 05)
00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation HM87 Express LPC Controller (rev 05)
00:1f.2 SATA controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family 6-port SATA Controller 1 [AHCI mode] (rev 05)
00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation 8 Series/C220 Series Chipset Family SMBus Controller (rev 05)
00:1f.6 Signal processing controller: Intel Corporation 8 Series Chipset Family Thermal Management Controller (rev 05)
02:00.0 3D controller: NVIDIA Corporation GK107GLM [Quadro K1100M] (rev a1)
06:00.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4352 802.11ac Wireless Network Adapter (rev 03)
07:00.0 Unassigned class [ff00]: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTS5249 PCI Express Card Reader (rev 01)
grep -le nouveau $(find /etc/modprobe* -type f)
/etc/modprobe.d/nvidia-340_hybrid.conf
$ ls -ld /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia-*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 153 Oct  5  2014 /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia-340_hybrid.conf
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  49 Jul 14 09:59 /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia-graphics-drivers.conf -> /etc/alternatives/x86_64-linux-gnu_nvidia_modconf
$ cat /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia-340_hybrid.conf 
# This file was installed by nvidia-340
# Do not edit this file manually

blacklist nouveau
blacklist lbm-nouveau
alias nouveau off
$ cd /etc/modprobe.d
$ grep -le nouveau *
nvidia-340_hybrid.conf
nvidia-graphics-drivers.conf
$ ls -l nvidia*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 153 Oct  5  2014 nvidia-340_hybrid.conf
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  49 Jul 14 09:59 nvidia-graphics-drivers.conf -> /etc/alternatives/x86_64-linux-gnu_nvidia_modconf
s-drivers.conf
wbaker@bijoux:/etc/modprobe.d$ ls -l nvidia*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 153 Oct  5  2014 nvidia-340_hybrid.conf
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  49 Jul 14 09:59 nvidia-graphics-drivers.conf -> /etc/alternatives/x86_64-linux-gnu_nvidia_modconf
wbaker@bijoux:/etc/modprobe.d$ dpkg -S /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia-*
nvidia-340: /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia-340_hybrid.conf
dpkg-query: no path found matching pattern /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia-graphics-drivers.conf
wbaker@bijoux:/etc/modprobe.d$ dpkg -L nvidia-340
/.
/lib
/lib/udev
/lib/udev/rules.d
/lib/udev/rules.d/69-nvidia-persistenced.rules
/lib/nvidia-340
/lib/nvidia-340/modprobe.conf
/usr
/usr/lib
/usr/lib/vdpau
/usr/lib/xorg
/usr/lib/xorg/modules
/usr/lib/xorg/modules/extensions
/usr/lib/xorg/modules/drivers
/usr/lib/nvidia-340
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ifr.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/vdpau
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/vdpau/libvdpau_nvidia.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-tls.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-eglcore.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libGLESv2.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-fbc.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/tls
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/tls/libnvidia-tls.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/bin
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/bin/nvidia-cuda-mps-control
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/bin/nvidia-debugdump
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/bin/nvidia-smi
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/bin/nvidia-persistenced
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/bin/nvidia-xconfig
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/bin/nvidia-bug-report.sh
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/bin/nvidia-cuda-mps-server
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-encode.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libGL.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/xorg
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/xorg/nvidia_drv.so
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/xorg/libglx.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/alt_ld.so.conf
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-wfb.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ml.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-glsi.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-glcore.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-cfg.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-compiler.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/ld.so.conf
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvcuvid.so.340.46
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libGLESv1_CM.so.340.46
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/xorg
/usr/lib/nvidia-340-prime
/usr/lib/nvidia-340-prime/alt_ld.so.conf
/usr/lib/nvidia-340-prime/ld.so.conf
/usr/bin
/usr/bin/start-nvidia-persistenced
/usr/share
/usr/share/lintian
/usr/share/lintian/overrides
/usr/share/lintian/overrides/nvidia-340.override
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/NVIDIA_Changelog.gz
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/README.txt.gz
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/powermanagement.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/installationandconfiguration.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/programmingmodes.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/configmultxscreens.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/profiles.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/selectdriver.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/introduction.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/configlaptop.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/vdpausupport.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/xineramaglx.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/nvidia-ml.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/dpi.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/addtlresources.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/flippingubb.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/dma_issues.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/sli.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/depth30.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/minimumrequirements.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/i2c.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/newusertips.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/xcompositeextension.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/acknowledgements.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/framelock.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/sdi.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/configtvout.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/xrandrextension.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/nvidia-smi.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/glxsupport.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/commonproblems.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/openglenvvariables.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/gpunames.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/installdriver.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/editxconfig.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/addressingcapabilities.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/appendices.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/knownissues.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/installedcomponents.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/randr14.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/displaydevicenames.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/nvidia-debugdump.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/nvidia-persistenced.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/index.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/audiosupport.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/faq.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/optimus.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/xconfigoptions.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/configtwinview.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/supportedchips.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/nvidiasettings.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/html/procinterface.html
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/README.Debian
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/copyright
/usr/share/doc/nvidia-340/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/nvidia-340
/usr/share/nvidia-340/nvidia-340.grub-gfxpayload
/usr/share/nvidia-340/glamor.conf
/usr/share/nvidia-340/nvidia-application-profiles-340.46-rc
/usr/share/grub-gfxpayload-lists
/usr/share/grub-gfxpayload-lists/blacklist
/usr/share/man
/usr/share/man/man1
/usr/share/man/man1/alt-nvidia-340-xconfig.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/alt-nvidia-340-persistenced.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/alt-nvidia-340-cuda-mps-control.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/alt-nvidia-340-smi.1.gz
/usr/share/nvidia
/usr/src
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv_uvm_interface.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-cray.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/xapi-sdk.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nverror.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-usermap.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/os-usermap.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-frontend.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv_uvm_interface.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-drm.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-vm.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-p2p.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-dma.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/cpuopsys.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/os-pci.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/conftest.sh
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/rmretval.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/os-mlock.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/dkms.conf
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-proto.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-frontend.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-procfs.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/Makefile
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/os-registry.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-chrdev.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-misc.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/gcc-version-check.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-gvi.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/buildfix_kernel_3.11.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/buildfix_kernel_3.0.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/register-VT-switch-requirements.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/allow_sublevel_greater_than_5.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/buildfix_kernel_3.6.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/replace-VM_RESERVED-with-VM_DONTEXPAND-and-VM_DONTDU.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/buildfix_kernel_3.13.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/buildfix_kernel_3.14.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/buildfix_kernel_3.10.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/buildfix_kernel_3.8.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/patches/make-use-of-the-new-uapi-framework.patch
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-p2p.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/os-smp.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-i2c.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/g_nvreadme.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-pat.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-kernel.o
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nvgputypes.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/rmil.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nvtypes.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-linux.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-acpi.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nvidia-modules-common.mk
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-mmap.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/os-interface.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-mempool.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-memdbg.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/os-interface.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-reg.h
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv-vtophys.c
/usr/src/nvidia-340-340.46/nv_gpu_ops.h
/usr/lib32
/usr/lib32/vdpau
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ifr.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/vdpau
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/vdpau/libvdpau_trace.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/vdpau/libvdpau.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/vdpau/libvdpau_nvidia.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-tls.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-fbc.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/tls
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/tls/libnvidia-tls.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-encode.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libGL.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-wfb.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ml.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-glsi.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-glcore.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-cfg.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-compiler.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvcuvid.so.340.46
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libGL.la
/etc
/etc/init
/etc/init/nvidia-persistenced.conf
/etc/modprobe.d
/etc/modprobe.d/nvidia-340_hybrid.conf
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/vdpau/libvdpau_nvidia.so
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/vdpau/libvdpau_nvidia.so.1
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ifr.so
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvcuvid.so.1
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/xorg/libglx.so
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-encode.so
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-compiler.so
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ifr.so.1
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libGL.so.1
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ml.so
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-cfg.so
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvcuvid.so
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libGL.so
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-encode.so.1
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-cfg.so.1
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ml.so.1
/usr/lib/nvidia-340/libnvidia-compiler.so.1
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/vdpau/libvdpau_nvidia.so
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/vdpau/libvdpau_nvidia.so.1
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ifr.so
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvcuvid.so.1
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-encode.so
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-compiler.so
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ifr.so.1
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libGL.so.1
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ml.so
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-cfg.so
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvcuvid.so
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libGL.so
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-encode.so.1
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-cfg.so.1
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-ml.so.1
/usr/lib32/nvidia-340/libnvidia-compiler.so.1

Factual’s approach to Location Data

Location Data Not Only Signals Where You Are, It Signals Who You Are; Cathy Boyle interviews Tyler Bell (Factual); In eMarketer; 2015-05-15; previously filled.
Tyler Bell is Vice President, Product at Factual

Mentioned

  • <quote>general patterns of behavior over time are usually indicative of age and gender, too.</quote>
  • <quote>Ethnicity and household income are hard to get from location. But by using that data we can make a guess as to which census block group a person is located in. The US Census aggregates information in a so-called block group level, which you can think of as one or more city blocks. That information is a pretty good metric for making assumptions about ethnicity in some circumstances, as well as household income.</quote>
  • <quote>Tell me where my customers go so I can better understand their behaviors in the real world?</quote>

Statements

  • Factual doesn’t own location data
    Publishers and their agents, the SSPs, do own the location data
  • Factual merely processes location data as a service provider to owners.
  • <quote>We create the audiences doing our location process, and then we give those audiences back to the partner who gave us the data in the first place.</quote>

Validating Mobile Ad Location Data at Factual; (Factual); In Their Blog; 2014-04-21.
Tyler Bell, GeoPulse Product Lead, Factual
Tom White, GeoPulse Engineering Lead, Factual

Location Validation Stack

Data via RTB and Apps is…
  • Unvalidated
  • Independent
  • Intermittent

Categories

… of errors.
  • Truncation
  • Invalid Coordinates; e.g. (0, 0), country, state, county, city centroid.
  • Matching Coordinates; i.e. (lat equals lon)
  • Out of Bounds
  • Blacklisted; e.g. artificial popularity.
  • Prevarication&Maliciousness; e.g. coordinate randomization, jittering, sharing.
  • Impossible Motion; i.e. devices move & jump between probable & valid locations.
  • Hardware; e.g. jitter.

Remediation

… techniques & systems.
  • built on a statistical model that identifies blacklisted points via a hypothesis testing framework, that learns which points are over-represented based on all points
  • historical dossier of device behavior.
  • motion models

Products

Platform Siphoning: Ad-Avoidance and Media Content | Simon Anderson, Joshua Gans

Simon P. Anderson, Joshua S. Gans; Platform Siphoning: Ad-Avoidance and Media Content; In American Economic Journal: Microeconomics; 2006-04-07 → 2011-03-16; 44 pages; SSRN.  Previously “Tivoed: The Effect of Ad Avoidance Technologies on Content provider Behavior,” Campaigned at the 4th Workshop on Media Economics (Washington, 2006).

tl;dr → since ads are annoying, consumers will use technology to block them; publishers will react with more & crapper content and more & crappier ads; a downward spiral ensues.  Subscriptions won’t work.

Abstract

Content providers rely on advertisers to pay for content. TiVo, remote controls, and popup ad blockers are examples of ad-avoidance technologies that allow consumers to view content without ads, and thereby siphon off the content without paying the ‘price.’ We examine the content provider’s reaction to such technologies, demonstrating that their adoption increases advertising clutter (leading to a potential downward spiral), may reduce total welfare and content quality, and can lead to more mass-market content. We cast doubt on the profitability of using subscriptions to counter the impact of ad- avoidance.

Conclusion

<quote>Platform siphoning benefits those who are most annoyed by ads, and it can enhance their welfare. But it weakens the two-sided business model. The platform’s response is to raise the ad level. This, we stress, is not per se an attempt to recapture the lost revenues, but rather it comes from the revealed preference of those who do not invest in ad avoidance technology: they are revealed to be less sensitive to ad nuisance and so the marginal incentive to raise the ad level is increased. </quote>

Mentions

  • The “proof” is via that symbolic algrebra that they do in upper-division theoretical economics.
  • Focused about TiVo commercial skipping for linear appointment TV.
  • “media” defined as <quote>no marginal costs to the content provider for expanding
    viewership or advertising.</quote>

Argot

  • Ad Avoidance Technology (AAT)
  • Lowest Common Denominator (LCD) Content → you know it when you see it.

Promotions

References

  • Anderson, Simon P. and Stephen Coate (2005), “Market Provision of Broadcasting: A Welfare Analysis,” Review of Economic Studies, 72 (4): 947-972.
  • Anderson, Simon P. and Jean J. Gabszewicz (2006), “The Media and Advertising: A Tale of Two-Sided Markets,” Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, eds. Victor Ginsburgh and David Throsby, Elsevier.
  • Anderson, Simon P. and Joshua S. Gans (2009), Platform Siphoning, available at SSRN:
  • Anderson, Simon P. and Damien J. Neven (1989), “Market Equilibrium with Combinable Products,” European Economic Review, 33 (4): 707-719.
  • Armstrong, Mark (2006), “Competition in Two-Sided Markets”, RAND Journal of Economics, 37(3): 668-691.
  • Armstrong, Mark and Helen Weeds (2007), “Public Service Broadcasting in the Digital World,” The Economic Regulation of Broadcasting Markets, eds. Paul Seabright and Jürgen von Hagen, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
  • Beebe, Jack (1977) “Institutional Structure and Program Choices in Television Markets,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 91(1): 15-37.
  • Caillaud, Bernard and Bruno Jullien (2001), “Competing Cybermediaries,” European Economic Review, 45(4), 797-808.
  • Chen, Yongmin and Michael H. Riordan (2008), “Price-increasing competition,” RAND Journal of Economics, 39(4), 1042-1058.
  • Choi, Jay Pil (2006), “Broadcast Competition and Advertising with Free Entry: Subscription vs. Free-to-Air,” Information Economics and Policy, 18(2), 181-196.
  • Crampes, Claude and Bruno Jullien (2009), “Advertising, Competition and Entry in Media Industries,” Journal of Industrial Economics, 57(1), 7-31.
  • Gabszewicz, Jean, Didier Laussel and Nathalie Sonnac (2004), “Programming and Advertising Competition in the Broadcasting Industry,” Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 13, 657-669.
  • Grabowski, Henry G. and John M. Vernon (1992) “Brand Loyalty, Entry, and Price Competition in Pharmaceuticals after the 1984 Drug Act,” Journal of Law & Economics, 35(2), 331-350.
  • Johnson, Justin P. (2008), “Targeted Advertising and Advertising Avoidance,” mimeo., Cornell.
  • Johnson, Justin P. and David P. Myatt (2006), “On the Simple Economics of Advertising, Marketing and Product Design,” American Economic Review, 96 (3), 756-784.
  • Manjoo, Farhad (2009), Blocked Ads, Clean Conscience, Slate, 2009-05-14.
  • Moriarty, Sandra E. & Shu-Ling Everett (1994), “Commercial Breaks: A Viewing Behavior Study,” Journalism Quarterly, 71 (Summer), 346-355.
  • Myers, Jack (2009), The TiVo Imperative: Education and Entice Viewers to ‘Want to Watch’ Commercials and New TV Series, The Huffington Post, 2009-05-18.
  • Peitz, Martin and Tommaso M. Valletti (2008), “Content and advertising in the media: pay-TV versus free-to-air,” International Journal of Industrial Organization, 26(4), 949 – 965.
  • Rochet, Jean-Charles and Jean Tirole (2006), “Two-Sided Markets: A Progress Report”, RAND Journal of Economics, 37(3), 645-667.
  • Shah, Sunit (2011), “Ad-Skipping and Time-Shifting: A Theoretical Look at the DVR,” mimeo, University of Virginia.
  • Speck, Paul S. and Michael T. Elliott (1997), “Predictors of Advertising Avoidance in Print and Broadcast Media,” Journal of Advertising, 26(3): 61-76.
  • Steinberg, Brian, and Andrew Hampp (2007), “DVR Ad Skipping Happens, but Not Always,” Advertising Age, 2007-05-31.
  • Tag, Joacim (2009), “Paying to Remove Advertisements,” Working Paper, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration.
  • Weyl, E. Glen (2010), “A Price-Theory of Multi-Sided Markets,” forthcoming, American Economic Review.
  • White, Alex (2008), “Search Engines: Left Side Quality versus Right Side Profits,” mimeo., Toulouse.
  • Wilbur, Kenneth C. (2005), Modeling the Effects of Advertisement-Avoidance Technology on Advertisement-Supported Media: the Case of Digital Video Recorders, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia.
  • Wilbur, Kenneth C. (2008a), “A Two-Sided, Empirical Model of Television Advertising and Viewing Markets,” Marketing Science, 27 (3): 356-378.
  • Wilbur, Kenneth C. (2008b), “How the Digital Video Recorder Changes Traditional Television Advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 37 (1): 143-149.

The Wealthiest ZIP Codes in America | Experian

Via: Experian

Sources

Promotions

The Richest Zip Codes in America in One Map; Jeff Desjardins; In Some Blog entitled Visual Capitalist; 2015-08-11.

A Density-Based Algorithm for Discovering Clusters in Large Spatial Databases with Noise (DBSCAN) | Ester, Kriegel, Sander, Xu

Martin Ester, Hans-Peter Kriegel, Jiirg Sander, Xiaowei Xu; A Density-Based Algorithm for Discovering Clusters in Large Spatial Databases with Noise; In Proceedings of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD); 1996; 6 pages.

Abstract

Clustering algorithms are attractive for the task of class identification in spatial databases. However, the application to large spatial databases rises the following requirements for clustering algorithms: minimal requirements of domain knowledge to determine the input parameters, discovery of clusters with arbitrary shape and good efficiency on large databases. The well-known clustering algorithms offer no solution to the combination of these requirements. In this paper, we present the new clustering algorithm DBSCAN relying on a density-based notion of clusters which is designed to discover clusters of arbitrary shape. DBSCAN requires only one input parameter and supports the user in determining an appropriate value for it. We performed an experimental evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of DBSCAN using synthetic data and real data of the SEQUOIA 2000 benchmark. The results of our experiments demonstrate that

  1. DBSCAN is significantly more effective in discovering clusters of arbitrary shape than the well-known algorithm CLARANS, and that
  2. DBSCAN outperforms CLARANS by factor of more than 100 in terms of efficiency.

Installing an SSH Server on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS Trusty Tahr

In support of debugging the use of Fedora 21 on the Dell M3800, being able to ssh into the box was necessary.
Who knew?  Ubuntu doesn’t deliver an SSH server in the client configuration.

Remediation

sudo apt-get install openssh-server

Remediation

  • SSH/OpenSSH/Configuring; In Ubuntu Documentation; Some droid using the self-asserted identity token aeyoun; 2014-09-20.
    tl;dr → sudo apt-get install openssh-server; this seems to install, enable & start the service.

Wardriving with Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) | Context Information Security

The Emergence of Bluetooth Low Energy; Scott Lester (Context Information Security); In Their Blog; 2015-05-21.
tl;dr → guy goes wardriving with his BLE unit, around Canary Warf, London, UK.

nothing to see here.

Via: backfill, backfill.

SOLVED: NFSv4 idmap (rpc.idmapper) does not work, with AUTH_SYS, sec=sys, and perhaps never did?

Status

SOLVED, sortof…
tl;dr → the universal recommendation is to use GSS & Kerberos (an unproven technique).

/etc/modprobe.d/nfs.conf (you create this)
options nfs nfs4_disable_idmapping=0
options nfsd nfs4_disable_idmapping=0

The mapping of UID (GID) in NFSv4 with AUTH_SYS, sec=sys can be “made to work” but you have to set module parameters in client & server. The result is a somewhat confusing world where authorization can fail but the reporting shows the mapped identifiers.

Debugging

Something about adding -v -v -v (three levels of verbosity) to RPCIDMAPDARGS in /etc/sysconfig/nfs Establishing verbosity in /etc/idmapd.conf doesn’t seem to have the same effect (or much of any effect beyond level 1).

RPCIDMAPDARGS="-v -v -v"
sudo vi /etc/sysconfig/nfs 
sudo systemctl restart nfs-config
sudo systemctl restart nfs-idmapd

Separately, be sure to configure your system to actually perform the id mappings:

echo N | sudo tee /sys/module/nfs/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping
echo N | sudo tee /sys/module/nfsd/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping

The service names nfs-idmap and nfs-idmapd (the trailing d in idmap vs idmapd) are synonyms by virtue of a symoblic link.
Under triple-verbose, the nfsidmap does log chatter about name translations when they occur. To wit:

Jul 26 12:47:10 client nfsidmap[13714]: nfs4_name_to_uid: calling nsswitch->name_to_uid
Jul 26 12:47:10 client nfsidmap[13714]: nss_getpwnam: name 'wbaker@example.com' domain 'example.com': resulting localname 'wbaker'
Jul 26 12:47:10 client nfsidmap[13714]: nfs4_name_to_uid: nsswitch->name_to_uid returned 0
Jul 26 12:47:10 client nfsidmap[13714]: nfs4_name_to_uid: final return value is 0
Jul 26 12:47:10 client nfsidmap[13716]: key: 0xac3eb81 type: gid value: source@example.com timeout 600
Jul 26 12:47:10 client nfsidmap[13716]: nfs4_name_to_gid: calling nsswitch->name_to_gid
Jul 26 12:47:10 client nfsidmap[13716]: nfs4_name_to_gid: nsswitch->name_to_gid returned 0
Jul 26 12:47:10 client nfsidmap[13716]: nfs4_name_to_gid: final return value is 0

Partial Resolution

NFSv4 ID mapping is disabled by default in Fedora 18 through Fedora 21 (and back into Fedora 16 with post-release updated kernels).  Apparently id mapping used to “work” in Fedora 16 (kernel-3.2 & prior). Via: Comment 13, Maurizio Paolini. 2013-04-17
Setting these to ‘Y’ can establish ID mapping behaviors.

client (Fedora 21)

$ cat /sys/module/nfsd/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping
Y
$ cat /sys/module/nfs/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping
Y

And persistently in /etc/modprobe.d/nfs.conf (you create this):

options nfs nfs4_disable_idmapping=0
options nfsd nfs4_disable_idmapping=0

server (Fedora 18)

$ cat /sys/module/nfsd/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping
Y
$ cat /sys/module/nfs/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping
cat: /sys/module/nfs/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping: No such file or directory

The (pseudo-)file won’t exist if nfs client services aren’t im play.

Problem

Actual

client$ ls -ld /areas/documents
drwxrwsr-x. 33 500 source 4096 Apr 23 06:34 /areas/documents

Expected

client$ ls -ld /areas/documents
drwxrwsr-x. 33 wbaker source 4096 Apr 23 06:34 /areas/documents

Not looking for an authorization effect here, just looking for a reporting effect.  The expectation is that the User IDs would be matched by name and reported appropriately on the client.
Redeclared: this is not the well-known authorization problem of AUTH_SYS and NFSv4.
Re-redeclared: <known>When kerberos is not in use the client now just sends uid/gid pairs for authorization.</known>

Characterization

  • NFSv4 → yes
    • NFSv3 → no
    • NFSv2 → no
  • Authorization
    • AUTH_GSS → no
    • AUTH_KERB → no (Kerberos)
    • AUTH_SYS → yes (numeric uid matching is the “security” method)
  • Name Service Switch (NSS)
    • LDAP → no (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
    • SSS → no (System Security Services Daemon)
    • files → yes

But does it work?

  • mounts work.
  • I/O works.

Feels like the idmapper is never even being called.

Logging

  • Jack up verbosity outrageously causes no change in the output.
  • /var/log/messages
  • Therefore, ID mapping isn’t occurring at all.

Specimen

From the client

Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2423]: libnfsidmap: using domain: example.com
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2423]: libnfsidmap: Realms list: 'EXAMPLE.COM'
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2423]: libnfsidmap: loaded plugin /lib64/libnfsidmap/nsswitch.so for method nsswitch
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: Expiration time is 600 seconds.
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: Opened /proc/net/rpc/nfs4.nametoid/channel
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: Opened /proc/net/rpc/nfs4.idtoname/channel
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: New client: 16
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: Opened /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs//nfs/clnt16/idmap
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: New client: 1b
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: New client: 1d
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: Opened /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs//nfs/clnt1d/idmap
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: New client: 22
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd: rpc.idmapd: libnfsidmap: using domain: example.com
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd: rpc.idmapd: libnfsidmap: Realms list: 'EXAMPLE.COM'
Jul 25 23:16:39 client rpc.idmapd: rpc.idmapd: libnfsidmap: loaded plugin /lib64/libnfsidmap/nsswitch.so for method nsswitch
<snip/>
Jul 25 23:21:08 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: Stale client: 22
Jul 25 23:21:08 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: -> closed /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs//nfs/clnt22/idmap
Jul 25 23:21:08 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: Stale client: 1d
Jul 25 23:21:08 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: -> closed /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs//nfs/clnt1d/idmap
Jul 25 23:21:08 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: Stale client: 1b
Jul 25 23:21:08 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: -> closed /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs//nfs/clnt1b/idmap
Jul 25 23:21:08 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: Stale client: 16
Jul 25 23:21:08 client rpc.idmapd[2424]: -> closed /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs//nfs/clnt16/idmap

Configurations

client & server (2 machines)

  • NFSv4
  • Firewall (iptables, ip6tables)
    • client → yes (default ruleset)
    • server → no (none)
  • Fedora
    • kernel 3.11
    • kernel 4..0

client

  • wbaker → uid 2500
  • nsswitch → /etc/passwd
  • address → (IPv6) 2001:db8::1234
  • Fedora 21
    $ uname -r
    4.0.8-200.fc21.x86_64
    $ rpm -q -a | grep -Ee '(nfs-utils|kernel)-' | sort
    kernel-4.0.8-200.fc21.x86_64
    kernel-core-4.0.8-200.fc21.x86_64
    kernel-modules-4.0.8-200.fc21.x86_64
    nfs-utils-1.3.1-6.4.fc21.x86_64
  • $ sysctl kernel.keys.root_maxkeys
    kernel.keys.root_maxkeys = 1000000
    $ sysctl kernel.keys.maxkeys
    kernel.keys.maxkeys = 200

server

  • wbaker → uid 500
  • nsswitch → /etc/passwd
  • address → (IPv6) 2001:db8::9876
  • Fedora 18
    $ uname -r
    3.11.10-100.fc18.x86_64
    $ rpm -q -a | grep -Ee '(nfs-utils|kernel)-' | sort
    kernel-3.11.10-100.fc18.x86_64
    nfs-utils-1.2.7-6.fc18.x86_64
  • $ sysctl kernel.keys.root_maxkeys
    kernel.keys.root_maxkeys = 200
    $ sysctl kernel.keys.maxkeys
    kernel.keys.maxkeys = 200

Server

/etc/idmapd.conf

[General]
Verbosity = 10
Domain = example.com
#Local-Realms = 
[Mapping]
#Nobody-User = nobody
#Nobody-Group = nobody
[Translation]
#Method = nsswitch
#GSS-Methods = <alternate method list for translating GSS names>
[Static]
<snip/>

Client

/etc/idmapd.conf

[General]
Verbosity = 100
Domain = example.com
#Local-Realms = 
[Mapping]
#Nobody-User = nobody
#Nobody-Group = nobody
[Translation]
#Method = nsswitch
#GSS-Methods = <alternate method list for translating GSS names>
[Static]
<snip/>

/proc/mounts

client$ grep nfs /proc/mounts
server:/mnt/documents /areas/documents nfs4 rw,relatime,vers=4.0,rsize=1048576,wsize=1048576,namlen=255,hard,proto=tcp6,port=0,timeo=600,retrans=2,sec=sys,clientaddr=2001:db8::1234,local_lock=none,addr=2001:db8::9876 0 0

More readable… (in order of appearance)

rw
relatime
vers=4.0
rsize=1048576
wsize=1048576
namlen=255
hard
proto=tcp6
port=0
timeo=600
retrans=2
sec=sys
clientaddr=2001:db8::1234
local_lock=none
addr=2001:db8::9876

Artifacts

Files

  • /proc
    • /proc/keys
    • /proc/key-users
  • /etc/modprobe.d
    • /etc/modprobe.d/nfs.conf (you create this)
      options nfs nfs4_disable_idmapping=1 (else 0 to enable)
  • /sys/module/nfs/parameters
    • /sys/module/nfs/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping
    • /sys/module/nfsd/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping
  • /etc/idmapd.conf
  • /etc/request-key.conf
  • /etc/request-key.conf.d/
    • /etc/request-key.conf.d/cifs.idmap.conf (CIFS)
    • /etc/request-key.conf.d/cifs.spnego.conf (CIFS)
    • /etc/request-key.conf.d/id_resolver.conf (NFSv4)
  • /lib/systemd/system
    • /lib/systemd/system/nfs-idmapd.service
      /lib/systemd/system/nfs-idmap.service is a symlink to nfs-idmapd.service
  • /run/sysconfig/nfs-utils

Operations

  • nfsidmap -c
  • request-key

Folklore

  • Changes in NFS portended by NFS v4 → NFS v4.1
  • Changes in the Linux kernel circa 3.2 → 3.3

Discussion

  • NFSv4 HOWTO; Some dude using the self-asserted identity token bryanquigley; In Ubuntu Documentation; 2014-06-26
    tl;dr → yet it references Fedora Core 2 for subsequent learning, reminds that in AUTH_SYS that authorization decisions are still done by uid & gid equality whereas reporting may or may not be mapped by idmapper (the statements are inconclusive).
  • 997164rpc.idmapd: nss_getpwnam: name ‘#’ does not map into domain; In Red Hat Bugzilla; 2013-08-14 → 2015-01-26.
  • 876705default maximum number of keys (200) too small for nfs4 uid-user mapping; In Red Hat Bugzilla; 2012-11-14 → 2015-05-22.
    tl;dr → discusses capacity of the kernel keyring, but follow the thread about NFSv4 idmapping enablement (disablement)

    • Comment 13hints that NFSv4 id mapping is (has always been) disabled
      • /sys/module/nfs/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping
        /sys/module/nfsd/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping
    • NFSv4, Name (string) mapping vs. raw UID, idmapd and Kernels >= 3.3; In linux-nfs@vger.kernel.org; 2012-08-23.
      tl;dr → <quote>Yes, newer Linux servers by default do return numeric ID’s (unless Kerberos is used).</quote> where “newer” is defined as >= 3.3.
  • 847084fsidmap failing to show id of some users when using LXDM greeter user list; In Red Hat Bugzilla; 2012-08-09 → 2012-11-15.
    tl;dr → inconclusive, closed as a duplicate of 876705 (a different effect)
  • NFSv4 Client side ID mapping does not work in Tumbleweed kernel 3.3.1-19-desktop; In Novell Bugzilla; 2012-04-12 → 2013-06-19.
    tl;dr → broken circa kernel-3.3, claimed fixed in 3.6
  • 966734nfs4+idmap does not map uids correctly when using AUTH_SYS; In Ubuntu nfs-utils Package, Bugs; 2012-03-28 → 2015-05-12.
    tl;dr → rambles along for three years finally, asserting in Comment 18 that id mapping does not work ever, at all; clearly not for authorization but also not even for the mere reporting case (e.g. the use of /bin/ls).
    Cites syslog message not shown in more recent venues:
    Server's syslog: rpc.idmapd[777]: Server : (user) id "2012" -> name "postie@localdomain"
    Client's syslog: rpc.idmapd[870]: Client 0: (user) name "postie@localdomain" -> id "2014"
  • [SOLVED]nfs idmap problems, nobody is owner of all files; some dude using the self-asserted identity token wmark; In Gentoo Discussion Forums; 2012-02-22.
    tl;dr → inconclusive, early days of NFSv4/NFSv4.1, years ago, a recipe for configuring idmapper (rpc.idmapd) and using the Static clause to override.
  • [PATCH] NFSv4: Change the default setting of the nfs4_disable_idmapping parameter; Trond Myklebust; In linux-nfs@vger.kernel.org; 2012-01-09.
    tl;dr → inconclusive; a discussion concerning whether “numeric sensing” should be returned to default-on status in nfs.nfs4_disable_idmapping, or an export flag, or a proposed idmap config setting ServerNumericMapping. Ends in the word <quote>maybe.</quote>
  • Problem with NFSv4 and idmapd; Some dude using the self-asserted identity token Ping-wine; In Ubuntu Forums; 2011-07-06.
    tl;dr → exhibits syslog messages showing id mapping actually occurring

    • Server
      Jul 5 16:13:00 server rpc.idmapd[824]: libnfsidmap: using domain: dom.ain
      Jul 5 16:13:00 server rpc.idmapd[824]: libnfsidmap: loaded plugin /usr/lib/libnfsidmap/nsswitch.so for method nsswitch
      Jul 5 16:13:00 server rpc.idmapd[827]: Expiration time is 600 seconds.
      Jul 5 16:13:00 server rpc.idmapd[827]: Opened /proc/net/rpc/nfs4.nametoid/channel
      Jul 5 16:13:00 server rpc.idmapd[827]: Opened /proc/net/rpc/nfs4.idtoname/channel
      Jul 5 16:13:25 server rpc.idmapd[827]: nfsdcb: authbuf=client.dom.ain authtype=user
      Jul 5 16:13:25 server rpc.idmapd[827]: nfs4_uid_to_name: calling nsswitch->uid_to_name
      Jul 5 16:13:25 server rpc.idmapd[827]: nfs4_uid_to_name: nsswitch->uid_to_name returned 0
      Jul 5 16:13:25 server rpc.idmapd[827]: nfs4_uid_to_name: final return value is 0
      Jul 5 16:13:25 server rpc.idmapd[827]: Server: (user) id "0" -> name "root@dom.ain"
      Jul 5 16:13:25 server rpc.idmapd[827]: nfsdcb: authbuf=client.dom.ain authtype=group
      Jul 5 16:13:25 server rpc.idmapd[827]: nfs4_gid_to_name: calling nsswitch->gid_to_name
      Jul 5 16:13:25 server rpc.idmapd[827]: nfs4_gid_to_name: nsswitch->gid_to_name returned 0
      Jul 5 16:13:25 server rpc.idmapd[827]: nfs4_gid_to_name: final return value is 0
      Jul 5 16:13:25 server rpc.idmapd[827]: Server: (group) id "0" -> name "root@dom.ain"
    • Client
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_uid: calling nsswitch->name_to_uid
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nss_getpwnam: name 'user1@dom.ain' domain 'dom.ain': resulting localname 'user1'
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_uid: nsswitch->name_to_uid returned 0
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_uid: final return value is 0
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: Client 0: (user) name "user1@dom.ain" -> id "1003"
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_gid: calling nsswitch->name_to_gid
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_gid: nsswitch->name_to_gid returned 0
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_gid: final return value is 0
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: Client 0: (group) name "user1@dom.ain" -> id "1003"
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_uid: calling nsswitch->name_to_uid
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nss_getpwnam: name 'user2@dom.ain' domain 'dom.ain': resulting localname 'user2'
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_uid: nsswitch->name_to_uid returned 0
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_uid: final return value is 0
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: Client 0: (user) name "user2@dom.ain" -> id "1004"
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_gid: calling nsswitch->name_to_gid
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_gid: nsswitch->name_to_gid returned 0
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: nfs4_name_to_gid: final return value is 0
      Jul 5 16:17:34 client rpc.idmapd[770]: Client 0: (group) name "user2@dom.ain" -> id "1004"

References

 

The 2015 Ad Blocking Report: The Cost of Ad Blocking | PageFair, Adobe

The 2015 Ad Blocking Report: The Cost of Ad Blocking; PageFair with Adobe; 2015-08-09; 17 pages; landing

tl;dr → it’s everywhere, it’s bad, really really bad.

Promotions

Previously

Actualities

Via: backfill

True confessions: Chris Stokel-Walker wrote for the Internet content mill London Brokers (MyAMS) | Ars Technica

True confessions: I wrote for an Internet content mill;  Chris Stokel-Walker; In Ars Technica; 2015-07-13.
Chris Stokel-Walker, UK.  Has moved upmarket: still self employed but self-titled as a “journalist,” Byline credits at venues: BBC, The Sunday Times of London.

tl;dr → out of work & low on self esteem, he wrote that trash; he confesses; he has a valid job now.

Mentions

  • Hook:
    • confession
    • 2011-09-19 → 2012-02-24
    • 533 “articles”
    • (mostly) for London Brokers
  • Exemplar
    • Rob Turner
    • age 32
    • 5 years in the trade.
    • quit “recently” → acquired a full-time day job for better pay
  • on-demand workforce
  • Amazon Mechanical Turk
  • Human Intelligence Task (HIT)
    • writing linkbait is a HIT
    • This is what journalists do, even “the pros”
    • Johannes factotum—Jack of all trades, master of none.
  • UpDesk
    • merger of eLance+oDesk
    • 2013-12
  • Claim: media mills still need humans not robots because … love.
    c.f. He Added That Second Ring To My Finger In Key West Florida At Our Beach Wedding
    yet; two cut up, re-authored copies exist

Exemplars

  • MyAMS
    • London Brokers
    • Unique Article Wizard (UAW)
    • backlink-building service
    • pay levels
      • three-sigma pay level is $300/week ($15,000/year pretax)
      • $13.20/hour for high output level; not sustainable beyond a few hours.
    • Concept
      • Write original article
      • Rewrite the article three ways
      • Equivalent paragraphs
      • Algorithms cut up & rearrange
        • paragraphs
        • sentences
      • Needs to look original & grammatical
    • Example: three articles
  • TextBroker
  • ArticleCity
  • Upwork
  • Associated Press
    • robotic articles
    • quarterly earnings reports
    • basketball stories
  • Automated Insights

Configuring Apache httpd on Fedora 22

Problem

Configure Apache httpd to  (temporarily) run out of a ServerRoot other than the default which is /etc/httpd.

Solution

Create the file /etc/systemd/system/httpd.service containing:

.include /lib/systemd/system/httpd.service
Environment="OPTIONS=-d /local/project/onstage/httpd"

Quotes go around the outside

Referenced

References

Actualities

/etc/sysconfig/httpd

#
# This file is no longer used to configure additional environment variables
# for the httpd process.
#
# It has been replaced by systemd. If you want to customize, the best
# way is to create a file "/etc/systemd/system/httpd.service",
# containing
#   .include /lib/systemd/system/httpd.service
#   ...make your changes here...
# For more info about custom unit files, see How do I set automatic login on a virtual console terminal?

# To set OPTIONS environment variable which was set in this file
# in older versions, you need to create a file named
# "/etc/systemd/system/httpd.service" containing:
#       .include /lib/systemd/system/httpd.service
#       [Service]
#       #
#       # To pass additional options (for instance, -D definitions) to the
#       # httpd binary at startup, set OPTIONS here.
#       #
#       Environment=OPTIONS=-DMY_DEFINE

# Note: With previous versions of httpd, the MPM could be changed by
# editing an "HTTPD" variable here.  With the current version, that
# variable is now ignored.  The MPM is a loadable module, and the
# choice of MPM can be changed by editing the configuration file
# /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-mpm.conf.

Systemd Configuration of Apache httpd

$ find /lib/systemd/system/httpd.s*
/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service
/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service.d
/lib/systemd/system/httpd.socket
/lib/systemd/system/httpd.socket.d

/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service

# It's not recommended to modify this file in-place, because it will be
# overwritten during package upgrades.  If you want to customize, the best
# way is to create a file "/etc/systemd/system/httpd.service",
# containing
#   .include /lib/systemd/system/httpd.service
#   ...make your changes here...
# For more info about custom unit files, see
# http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Systemd#How_do_I_customize_a_unit_file.2F_add_a_custom_unit_file.3F

# For example, to pass additional options (for instance, -D definitions) to the
# httpd binary at startup, you need to create a file named
# "/etc/systemd/system/httpd.service" containing:
#	.include /lib/systemd/system/httpd.service
#	[Service]
#	Environment=OPTIONS=-DMY_DEFINE

[Unit]
Description=The Apache HTTP Server
After=network.target remote-fs.target nss-lookup.target

[Service]
Type=notify
Environment=LANG=C

ExecStart=/usr/sbin/httpd $OPTIONS -DFOREGROUND
ExecReload=/usr/sbin/httpd $OPTIONS -k graceful
# Send SIGWINCH for graceful stop
KillSignal=SIGWINCH
KillMode=mixed
PrivateTmp=true

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Experiences with the Dell M3800 with Fedora 21 and the nouveau driver

Whereas

Suspend & graphics are (ahem)interacting poorly on the Dell M3800 under Fedora 21.

Question

But does it work with the Ubuntu shipped from the factory by Dell?   TBD.

Previously

Experiences with the Dell M3800, The Good, The Bad (no Ugly, it’s a beautiful machine)

Evidences

  • Fedora 21
  • Kernel 4.0.7
    Linux devbox.example.com 4.0.7-200.fc21.x86_64 #1 SMP Mon Jun 29 22:11:52 UTC 2015 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
  • $ rpm -q -a | grep nouveau
    xorg-x11-drv-nouveau-1.0.11-1.fc21.x86_64

Actualities

Graphics Crashes

These manifest as the graphics becomes inoperable; the CPU is running hard, the fan is running hard. Even virtual consoles will not work. You must powercycle.

Jul 24 19:52:10 devbox.example.ccom kernel: nouveau E[    PBUS][0000:02:00.0] MMIO write of 0x00000002 FAULT at 0x4188ac [ IBUS ]
Jul 24 19:52:24 devbox.example.com kernel: nouveau E[    PBUS][0000:02:00.0] MMIO write of 0x00000002 FAULT at 0x4188ac [ IBUS ]
Jul 24 19:52:55 devbox.example.com kernel: nouveau E[    PBUS][0000:02:00.0] MMIO write of 0x00000002 FAULT at 0x4188ac [ IBUS ]

 

Experiences with the Dell M3800 with Fedora 21 and Broadcom’s Bluetooth brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd binary blob

tl;dr

You need a blob for the driver BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd

Update 2015-09-28: some success is reported

Whereas

Bluetooth is not working on the Dell M3800 under Fedora 21.

Question

But does it work with the Ubuntu shipped from the factory by Dell?   TBD.

Previously

Experiences with the Dell M3800, The Good, The Bad (no Ugly, it’s a beautiful machine)

Evidences

  • Fedora 21
  • Kernel 4.0.7
    Linux devbox.example.com 4.0.7-200.fc21.x86_64 #1 SMP Mon Jun 29 22:11:52 UTC 2015 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
  • linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch

Recipe

Recipe #1

Via: Dell XPS 13 (2015); staff; In Arch Linux Forums; 2015-07-25

<quote>

Note: Intel WiFi users: If your WiFi card supports Bluetooth, then the BT interface should be available out-of-the-box, as the required firmware is included in linux-firmware.

The Broadcom Bluetooth firmware is not available in the kernel (source), so you will have to retrieve it from the Windows driver. You need to extract the .cab file with cabextract and then convert it to a .hcd file with hex2hcd from bluez-utils:

$ cabextract 20662520_6c535fbfa9dca0d07ab069e8918896086e2af0a7.cab
$ hex2hcd BCM20702A1_001.002.014.1443.1572.hex
# mv BCM20702A1_001.002.014.1443.1572.hcd /lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A1-0a5c-216f.hcd
# ln -rs /lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A1-0a5c-216f.hcd /lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd

After reboot, the firmware should be available for your Bluetooth interface.

</quote>

Recipe #2

Via: Bluetooth not connecting to devices even though it recognizes them; Aaron Weinberg, some dude using the self-asserted identity token Jeremy31, Ian Mackinnon; In Ask  Ubuntu; 2015-05-01 → 2015-07-01.

Recipe #2(a)

<quote>

wget https://www.dropbox.com/s/r2pb41rhx65t9zi/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd sudo cp BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd /lib/firmware/brcm/ sudo modprobe -r btusb sudo modprobe btusb

</quote>

And as recovered by me from the dropbox site.  Proven to work on my Dell M3800 <paranoid>but who knows what I recovered?</paranoid>

$ for i in md5sum sha1sum sha256sum ; do $i BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd; done
356ecc4d52b344109b55b3c96d6ec4d0  BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
6ab9dde1e010bacfd57d371f832477d819fd671a  BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
42677905be180547d4c6f3e670884f6b5bcaf003c1a7c156e2dfc6fdc0397364  BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
Recipe #2(b)

<quote>
Get 20662520_6c535fbfa9dca0d07ab069e8918896086e2af0a7.cab from Microsoft at Broadcom Corporation Bluetooth Controller.
Acquire cabextract via yum (dnf).
Run cabextract 20662520_6c535fbfa9dca0d07ab069e8918896086e2af0a7.cab to recover BCM20702A1_001.002.014.1443.1572.hex.

git clone https://github.com/jessesung/hex2hcd.git
make -C hex2hcd
./hex2hcd/hex2hcd BCM20702A1_001.002.014.1443.1572.hex BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
sudo cp BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd /lib/firmware/brcm/
sudo modprobe -r btusb
sudo modprobe btusb

Folklore

In archaeological order, newer on top, older below.
And recall that the Dell M3800 is “alot like” the Dell XPS 13.

  • Dell XPS 13 (2015); staff; In Arch Linux Forums; 2015-07-25
    tl;dr → see recipe above.  You must to extract the blog out of the Windows driver package yourself, convert the encoding and place the file appropriiately.  Yourself.  No packaging is available at this time.  Construction recipe for:

    • /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
    • /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A1-0a5c-216f.hcd
  • Bluetooth not connecting to devices even though it recognizes them; Aaron Weinberg, some dude using the self-asserted identity token Jeremy31, Ian Mackinnon; In Ask  Ubuntu; 2015-05-01 → 2015-07-01.
    tl;dr → good compendium of the recipes; those being recited above.

    • Concept
      <quote>hex2hcd utility by Jesse Sung that converts Broadcom hex files to hcd for use in newer kernels but you have to use Windows drivers and search the inf files to find the correct hex file to convert.</quote>
    • Resources
      • BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd; at DropBox; prepared by whom? (perhaps en Jeremy31?); no checksum or signature is published nearby.
      • jessesung/hex2hcd at GitHub
      • Broadcom Corporation Bluetooth Controller, software update, At Microsoft; released 2014-06.
        20662520_6c535fbfa9dca0d07ab069e8918896086e2af0a7.cab → some Windows blob you have to use cabstract upon; no checksum or signature is available to you (maybe Microsoft has access to such in their API, who knows).
    • References
      • XPS 13 (9343) Ubuntu Linux; Some Dude; In Sybian Linux; 2015-03-15.
        tl;dr → <quote>whole lot of complaints about the compatibility of this laptop with Linux.</quote> but enumerates the remediations.

        • BIOS update from A0 to A1
        • Ubuntu LTS 14.04.2 with UEFI enabled
        • Broadcom 4352 WiFi (use USB dongle networking to bootstrap it)
        • Broadcom 216F Bluetooth (acquiring BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd
        • Touchpad requires kernel parameters
        • (Analog) Audio requires kernel parameters
      • How can I get the Bluetooth working on my Lenovo  Yoga 3; Some dude using the self-asserted identity token drs; In Stack Exchange; 2015-03-12.
        tl;dr → complete procedure for Broadcom BCM20702A0 including fishing around in the Broadcom Windows Driver Installer to discover BCM20702A1_001.002.014.1443.1496.hex
  • Dell XPS 13 (9343) Developer Edition – Bluetooth Firmware; Some Dude, using the self-asserted identity token Beowulf; In His Blog; 2015-06-23.
    this advice is unrelated ot the Plugable advice (last item)
    tl;dr → asserts a recipe for manually acquiring & installing the module

    • The module is bfusb
    • That the appropriate firmware is available in bt-dw1560-firmware_1.0_all.deb
    • Gives a recipe for copying it into place, manually.
  • Dell XPS 13 (9343) – No Bluetooth; Some dude using the self-asserted identity token red-lichtie; In Arch Linux Forums; 2015-06-20.
    tl;dr → cites the difference in hardware version number in the firmware blob that must be loaded
    brcm/BCM20702A1-0a5c-216f.hcd is what? (possible?)
    brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd is expected but not found.
  • THIS IS A DIFFERENT DEVICE ENTIRELY Plugable USB Bluetooth Adapter: Solving HFP/HSP and A2DP Profiles Issues on Linux; (Plugable); In their Blog; 2014-06-23.
    tl;dr → recommends downloading & installing some unspecified binary blob sourced out of Amazon S3; not even a checksum was uttered to know what was to be expected.
    wget https://s3.amazonaws.com/plugable/bin/fw-0a5c_21e8.hcd
    sudo mv fw-0a5c_21e8.hcd /lib/firmware/brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-21e8.hcd

Actualities

Jul 24 19:52:10 devbox.example.com kernel: bluetooth hci0: firmware: brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd will not be loaded
Jul 24 19:52:10 devbox.example.com kernel: Bluetooth: hci0: BCM: patch brcm/BCM20702A0-0a5c-216f.hcd not found
$ find /usr/lib/firmware/brcm -print | while read file ; do echo "$file $(rpm -q -f $file)" ; done
$ find /usr/lib/firmware/brcm -print | while read file ; do rpm=$(rpm -q -f $file); echo "$rpm $file" ; done
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43570-pcie.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43362-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/bcm4329-fullmac-4.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac4354-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43143.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43340-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43236b.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43602-pcie.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac4334-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/bcm43xx-0.fw
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43241b5-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/bcm43xx_hdr-0.fw
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac4330-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43569.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43143-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43455-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac4335-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43602-pcie.ap.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac4356-pcie.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac4329-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43241b4-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43241b0-sdio.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43242a.bin
linux-firmware-20150521-48.git3161bfa4.fc21.noarch /usr/lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac4339-sdio.bin
$ lsusb
Bus 004 Device 002: ID 8087:8000 Intel Corp.
Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 003 Device 002: ID 8087:8008 Intel Corp.
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 0bda:8153 Realtek Semiconductor Corp.
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0a5c:216f Broadcom Corp.
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 04f3:21f9 Elan Microelectronics Corp.
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 0bda:573c Realtek Semiconductor Corp.
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Couldn't open device, some information will be missing
Couldn't open device, some information will be missing
Couldn't open device, some information will be missing
$ lsusb -t
/:  Bus 04.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=ehci-pci/2p, 480M
    |__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/8p, 480M
/:  Bus 03.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=ehci-pci/2p, 480M
    |__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Hub, Driver=hub/6p, 480M
/:  Bus 02.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=xhci_hcd/6p, 5000M
    |__ Port 2: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Vendor Specific Class, Driver=r8152, 5000M
/:  Bus 01.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=xhci_hcd/14p, 480M
    |__ Port 6: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Human Interface Device, Driver=usbhid, 12M
    |__ Port 9: Dev 3, If 0, Class=Vendor Specific Class, Driver=btusb, 12M
    |__ Port 9: Dev 3, If 1, Class=Vendor Specific Class, Driver=btusb, 12M
    |__ Port 9: Dev 3, If 2, Class=Vendor Specific Class, Driver=, 12M
    |__ Port 9: Dev 3, If 3, Class=Application Specific Interface, Driver=, 12M
    |__ Port 11: Dev 4, If 0, Class=Video, Driver=uvcvideo, 480M
    |__ Port 11: Dev 4, If 1, Class=Video, Driver=uvcvideo, 480M
$ lsusb --verbose
<snip/>
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0a5c:216f Broadcom Corp.
Device Descriptor:
  bLength                18
  bDescriptorType         1
  bcdUSB               2.00
  bDeviceClass          255 Vendor Specific Class
  bDeviceSubClass         1
  bDeviceProtocol         1
  bMaxPacketSize0        64
  idVendor           0x0a5c Broadcom Corp.
  idProduct          0x216f
  bcdDevice            1.12
  iManufacturer           1
  iProduct                2
  iSerial                 3
  bNumConfigurations      1
  Configuration Descriptor:
    bLength                 9
    bDescriptorType         2
    wTotalLength          218
    bNumInterfaces          4
    bConfigurationValue     1
    iConfiguration          0
    bmAttributes         0xe0
      Self Powered
      Remote Wakeup
    MaxPower                0mA
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        0
      bAlternateSetting       0
      bNumEndpoints           3
      bInterfaceClass       255 Vendor Specific Class
      bInterfaceSubClass      1
      bInterfaceProtocol      1
      iInterface              0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x81  EP 1 IN
        bmAttributes            3
          Transfer Type            Interrupt
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0010  1x 16 bytes
        bInterval               1
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x82  EP 2 IN
        bmAttributes            2
          Transfer Type            Bulk
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0040  1x 64 bytes
        bInterval               1
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x02  EP 2 OUT
        bmAttributes            2
          Transfer Type            Bulk
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0040  1x 64 bytes
        bInterval               1
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        1
      bAlternateSetting       0
      bNumEndpoints           2
      bInterfaceClass       255 Vendor Specific Class
      bInterfaceSubClass      1
      bInterfaceProtocol      1
      iInterface              0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x83  EP 3 IN
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0000  1x 0 bytes
        bInterval               1
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x03  EP 3 OUT
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0000  1x 0 bytes
        bInterval               1
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        1
      bAlternateSetting       1
      bNumEndpoints           2
      bInterfaceClass       255 Vendor Specific Class
      bInterfaceSubClass      1
      bInterfaceProtocol      1
      iInterface              0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x83  EP 3 IN
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0009  1x 9 bytes
        bInterval               1
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x03  EP 3 OUT
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0009  1x 9 bytes
        bInterval               1
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        1
      bAlternateSetting       2
      bNumEndpoints           2
      bInterfaceClass       255 Vendor Specific Class
      bInterfaceSubClass      1
      bInterfaceProtocol      1
      iInterface              0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x83  EP 3 IN
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0011  1x 17 bytes
        bInterval               1
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x03  EP 3 OUT
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0011  1x 17 bytes
        bInterval               1
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        1
      bAlternateSetting       3
      bNumEndpoints           2
      bInterfaceClass       255 Vendor Specific Class
      bInterfaceSubClass      1
      bInterfaceProtocol      1
      iInterface              0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x83  EP 3 IN
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0019  1x 25 bytes
        bInterval               1
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x03  EP 3 OUT
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0019  1x 25 bytes
        bInterval               1
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        1
      bAlternateSetting       4
      bNumEndpoints           2
      bInterfaceClass       255 Vendor Specific Class
      bInterfaceSubClass      1
      bInterfaceProtocol      1
      iInterface              0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x83  EP 3 IN
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Couldn't open device, some information will be missing
Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0021  1x 33 bytes
        bInterval               1
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x03  EP 3 OUT
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0021  1x 33 bytes
        bInterval               1
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        1
      bAlternateSetting       5
      bNumEndpoints           2
      bInterfaceClass       255 Vendor Specific Class
      bInterfaceSubClass      1
      bInterfaceProtocol      1
      iInterface              0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x83  EP 3 IN
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0031  1x 49 bytes
        bInterval               1
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x03  EP 3 OUT
        bmAttributes            1
          Transfer Type            Isochronous
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0031  1x 49 bytes
        bInterval               1
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        2
      bAlternateSetting       0
      bNumEndpoints           2
      bInterfaceClass       255 Vendor Specific Class
      bInterfaceSubClass    255 Vendor Specific Subclass
      bInterfaceProtocol    255 Vendor Specific Protocol
      iInterface              0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x84  EP 4 IN
        bmAttributes            2
          Transfer Type            Bulk
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0020  1x 32 bytes
        bInterval               1
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x04  EP 4 OUT
        bmAttributes            2
          Transfer Type            Bulk
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0020  1x 32 bytes
        bInterval               1
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        3
      bAlternateSetting       0
      bNumEndpoints           0
      bInterfaceClass       254 Application Specific Interface
      bInterfaceSubClass      1 Device Firmware Update
      bInterfaceProtocol      1
      iInterface              0
      Device Firmware Upgrade Interface Descriptor:
        bLength                             9
        bDescriptorType                    33
        bmAttributes                        5
          Will Not Detach
          Manifestation Tolerant
          Upload Unsupported
          Download Supported
        wDetachTimeout                   5000 milliseconds
        wTransferSize                      64 bytes
        bcdDFUVersion                   1.10
<snip/>

Do Not Track Compliance Policy, Version v1.0 (dnt-policy-1.0.txt) | Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)

Do Not Track Compliance Policy, Version v1.0 as dnt-policy-1.0.txt

 Background

Signatories

  • Ad Block Plus
  • Disconnect
  • DuckDuckGo
  • Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
  • Medium
  • Mixpanel

Mentioned

  • Recommends using an ad blocker (the house brand, Privacy Badger).
  • Login constitutes consent.
  • Unclear – why is  “mobile” different than “desktop” (officework, clamshell, laptop)
    <quote>This policy was designed for desktop browsers interacting with websites. This policy isn’t necessarily appropriate for the mobile environment. Fig.1 [not shown] Medium.com provides DNT users with clear enough guidance at log-in to obtain consent.</quote>
  • Enforcement
    None.  Vague: threat of Federal Trade commission(FTC & state attorneys general (legal) action if actual operations does not match policy declarations.

Referenced

Previously

In archaeological order…

General

Overview

Table is verbatim from the document.

Privacy Concern

Effect of ‘Do Not Track’

Tracking Stops
Filter Bubble / Customized content Stops or de-identifies*
Social Media Widgets (‘like” buttons, etc) Data sent only when clicked
Ads Allowed if privacy compliant
Targeted ads Stops or de-identifies*
Visitor datasets Can only hold if aggregated and de-identified
Webserver logs 10 days (no cookies or unique IDs other than IP)
User-provided information Unchanged
Browsing anonymity Maybe someday.  In the meantime, use Tor.
Protection against unlawful or mass surveillance No

From the section headings of Understanding…;

  • DNT binds First and Third Parties
  • DNT means AND
    •  Do Not Collect
    • And Do Not Retain
  • Except where Required OR
    • Necessary to Complete a Transation
    • With The Clear Consent of the Consumer
  • Not Appropriate for “Mobile”
    unclear why not.

Promotions

Via: backfill

The Mobile Web Sucks, because of advertising

The Series

The compendium, in archaeological order…

Mentions

  • Ben Thompson; Why Web Pages Suck; In His Blog entitled Stratechery; 2015-07-15.
    riffing against: Gruber’s complaint.
  • John Gruber; Safari Content Blocker, Before and After; In His Blog entitled Daring Fireball; 2015-07-08; separately filled.
    Mentions

    • Apple news site iMore
    • Safari Content Blocker system would cause a “reckoning” for publishers b
    • <quote>With Safari Content Blockers, Apple is poised to allow users to fight back. Apple has zeroed in on what we need: not a way to block ads per se, but a way to block obnoxious JavaScript code. A reckoning is coming.</quote>
  • Whereas The Vergepublishes 40 linkbait packages per day
    • It is not possible to do this on multiple proprietary publishing systems.
    • ergo Web publishing in “standard” HTML and “standard” adtech to monetize.
  • The web is too slow & bloated so, therefore
    • Apple News (iMore)
    • Facebook Instant Articles
  • Mobile/Tablet Browser Market Share; At NetMarketShare.
  • There is some chain of reasoning in the middle that induces a causal relationship between performance and ecosystem health:
    • Chain of Reasoning
      • Bad PC software created the opening for The Web
      • Bad Mobile Web created the opening for Mobile Apps
      • Unvoiced: something about opening the way for Officework/Desktop/EXE/Apps (again).
    • Claim: Microsoft is giving away Windows 10 because Windows 10 exe files will “run anywhere” (ahem: write once, run anywhere).
    • <quote>Apps have become nearly irrelevant on desktops because the web experience is close to perfect, while apps are vitally important on phones because the web experience is dismal. Windows 10 looks like it’s going to be a big step forward for Microsoft, but it won’t be able to bridge that gap. I’m not sure anything can.</quote>

Exemplars

  • Apple News (iMore)
  • Facebook Instant Articles
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Web Fonts

Actualities