This paper studies the importance of consumer-related information to the market for display advertising and, in turn, to the publishers who produce and distribute online content. Our study is based on two primary data sets. The first is a large, impression-level database of advertising placements during a one-week period in August 2013, provided by two anonymous companies that operate advertising exchanges with automated bidding. These data form the basis for an econometric analysis that allows us to measure the premium paid by advertisers for ads served to customers with cookies, and ultimately to assess the added economic value generated by information sharing in the online content market. The second data set, provided by Adomic, measures the relative prevalence of ads generated by different advertising models based on observations of display ad placements for the top 4000 publishers. This data set allows us to assess the relative significance of third party advertising technology models to the industry in general, and to smaller, “long-tail” web sites in particular.
The results of our econometric analysis corroborate and extend an emerging body of empirical work documenting the value of information sharing in online advertising. Our estimates indicate that advertisers place significantly greater value on users for whom more information is available, and our results are highly significant both in a statistical and economic sense: after controlling for other factors, the availability of cookies to capture user-specific information is found to increase the observed exchange transaction price by at least 60 percent relative to the average price (for users with “new” cookies), and by as much as 200 percent (for users with longer-lived cookies). In addition, the Adomic data reveal that even the largest publishers rely on third-party technology models to serve approximately half of their advertising impressions, while “long-tail” publishers rely upon third-party technology models for up to two thirds of their advertising volumes.
We propose a simple method to extract the community structure of large networks. Our method is a heuristic method that is based on modularity optimization. It is shown to outperform all other known community detection method in terms of computation time. Moreover, the quality of the communities detected is very good, as measured by the so-called modularity. This is shown first by identifying language communities in a Belgian mobile phone network of 2.6 million customers and by analyzing a web graph of 118 million nodes and more than one billion links. The accuracy of our algorithm is also verified on ad-hoc modular networks.
Ad networks for mobile apps require inspection of the visual layout of their ads to detect certain types of placement frauds. Doing this manually is error prone, and does not scale to the sizes of today’s app stores. In this paper, we design a system called DECAF to automatically discover various placement frauds scalably and effectively. DECAF uses automated app navigation, together with optimizations to scan through a large number of visual elements within a limited time. It also includes a framework for efficiently detecting whether ads within an app violate an extensible set of rules that govern ad placement and display. We have implemented DECAF for Windows-based mobile platforms, and applied it to 1,150 tablet apps and 50,000 phone apps in order to characterize the prevalence of ad frauds. DECAF has been used by the ad fraud team in Microsoft and has helped find many instances of ad frauds.
Medical/Scientific Foundational Model
[true, fact-based, fabricated or fantastic; this is the machine model, as developed in the presentation]
the amygdala, “is almond-shaped”, can be “activated”, can be “overly vigilant”
the limbic system exists
the prefrontal cortex computes executive functions, they can increase or decrease, they require resources.
dopamine, has a level, causes or is caused by or is the definition of: emotional state.
cortisol, has a level, has a baseline level, lower is better, causes or is caused by or is the definition of: status.
circuitry (humans have), which can be “activated”; reward circuitry, fear circuitry, processing circuitry.
Orbital Frontal Cortex (OFC), computes an “error response” relative to the past.
<quote>The brain is a pattern-recognition machine that is constantly trying to predict the near future.</quote>; analogies of applications follow.
mental maps exist, can be recalled.
oxytocin, <quote>is a hormone produced naturally in the brain, and higher levels of this substance are associatedwith greater affiliative behavior.</quote>
insular, a brain region; can be “activated”, can be “involved in” or not; is “involved in” intense emotions such as disgust.
Enumerated Effects (quoting)
When a human being senses a threat, resources available for overall executive functions in the prefrontal cortex decrease.
When threatened, the increased overall activation in the brain inhibits people
from perceiving the more subtle signals required for solving non-linear problems, involved in the insight or ‘aha!” experience.
With the amygdala activated, the tendency is to generalize more, which increases the likelihood of accidental connections.There is a tendency to err on the safe side, shrinking from opportunities, as they are perceived to be more dangerous.
reduce with self-assessment (which is not self-determination)
defined as: control, agency, choice (perceived choice)
correlation with: health (generalized “outcomes”)
Intervention & Treatment
bound it with policy & principles
ground-level point-of-need decisions
in-group vs out-group; tribes
safe social interactions
absence of which is defined as loneliness
correlated with, causes or is defined as: trust
Intervention & Treatment
reduce its lack (i.e. increase relatedness)
share personal stores
water cooler conversation time (citing Gallup 2008-11)
Commences with money dividing & sharing studies-that-show of Tabibnia & Lieberman “at UCLA”; riffs against the study design.
Unfairness generates a threat response
Something about disgust (causal or correlated).
No (decreased) empathy for the unfair.
Intervention & Treatment
clear ground rules, expectations, objectives
self-determiation, self-direction & local decision-making
<quote>The issue of pay discrepancies in large organizations is a challenging one, and many employees are deeply unhappy to see another person working similar hours earning 100 times their salary. interestingly, it is the perception of fairness that is key, so even a slight reduction in senior executive salaries during a difficult time may go a long way to reducing a sense of unfairness.</quote>
Implications (for practice)
avoid suppression (of the threat response)
<quote>Knowing the domains of SCARF also allows an individual to design ways to motivate themselves more effectively.</quote>
Possibilities for intervention (coaching) against pathologies within the framework
unclear expectations => uncertainty
micromanagement => autonomy
professional distance => relatedness
clear expectations & decisions => fairness
highlighted, cited, quoted within the text; in order of appearance
Evian Gordon, integrative neuroscientist
Lieberman & Eisenberger; The Pains and Pleasures of Social Life; NeuroLeadership JOURNAL; Issue 1; (same issue); 2008.
Malicious activities involving Android applications are rising rapidly. As prior work on cyber-crimes suggests, we need to understand the economic incentives of the criminals to design the most effective defenses. In this paper, we investigate application plagiarism on Android markets at a large scale. We take the first step to characterize plagiarized applications and estimate their impact on the original application developers. We first crawled 265,359 free applications from 17 Android markets around the world and ran a tool to identify similar applications (“clones”). Based on the data, we examined properties of the cloned applica tions, including their distribution across different markets, application categories, and ad libraries. Next, we examined how cloned applications affect the original developers. We captured HTTP advertising traffic generated by mobile ap plications at a tier-1 US cellular carrier for 12 days. To associate each Android application with its advertising traffic, we extracted a unique advertising identifier (called the client ID) from both the applications and the network traces. We estimate a lower bound on the advertising revenue that cloned applications siphon from the original developers, and the user base that cloned applications divert from the original applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large scale study on the characteristics of cloned mobile applications and their impact on the original developers.
Big Data, Privacy Challenges, and the Need to Restore Trust
A Definition of Big Privacy
The Seven Architectural Elements of Big Privacy
Exemplar: Respect Network™ and the OASIS XDI Protocol
How Big Privacy Applies the 7 Foundational Principles of Privacy by Design
C. Moiso, R. Minerva. 2012. “Towards a User-Centric Personal Data Ecosystem,” Paper presented at the 16th International Conference on Intelligence in Next Generation Networks, Berlin, Germany. paywalled.
M. Kuneva. 2009-03-31. Keynote Speech: Roundtable on Online Data Collection, Targeting and Profiling, Brussels.
InCommon Federation, operated by Internet2, provides a secure and privacy-preserving trust fabric for research and higher education, and their partners, in the United States. InCommon operates an identity management federation, a related assurance program, and offers certificate and multifactor authentication services.
No guarantee of continued access after the company folds.
Seems ripe for builtin backdoors [for improper elements].
They’ll build a map of your facilities based on your photos.
And … although Privacy Policies are silly because they are just that “policies” and they can change at any time for any reason, and for no reason … they don’t even seem to have hired up someone to write them a boilerplate.
When would it be ready?
Upload to my own gear, that I own, gear that is stored in my own house.