What Happened to the Crypto Dream? | Arvind Narayanan


Also backfilled

Backend-as-a-Service (BaaS) and Mobile Enterprise Application Platform (MEAP)


  • Applicasa
    • Lior Malenbiom, CEO
    • Features: Database, CMS, SDK, cloud
    • the “Start-App” program.  fremium.
  • Cocoafish (Appcelerator)
    • 10-person team
    • co-working space in San Francisco
    • Michael Goff & Wei Kong, founders
    • iOS, Android, JavaScript and REST
    • Objective-C, Java, PhoneGap, Sencha, HTML5
    • Appcelerator purchase 2012-02-08
      • Jeff Haynie, CEO (circa 2011-09)
      • Scott Schwarzhoff, VP Marketing (circa 2011-09)
      • Spencer Chen, director of bizdev (circa 2013-01)
      • Mountain View
      • Open Mobile Marketplace (like Salesforce AppExchange)
        Modules: Get Glue, PayPal, AdMob, Box.net, Greystripe, Twilio, OpenGL and Urban Airship
      • Titanium Platform
        • Windows, Mac, Linux, HTML5
        • Aptana Studio’s Eclipse-based IDE
        • Integrations
      • Links with StackMob & Parse in Marketplace
  • Crashlytics
    • Acquired by Twitter, 2013-01-28.
    • Jeff Seibert, Wayne Chang, founders
  • FeedHenry
  • Kinvey
    • Sravish Sridhar, CEO, Co-founder
    • Joe Chernov, “head” of marketing
    • Feature: Facebook Open Graph extended to mobile applications.
    • Function: Something about mobile app objects (metadata) hosted on Kinvey servers for Facebook to crawl for insertion on the Timeline.
  • Parse
    • iOS & Android SDKs
    • Y-Combinator “batch”
    • Tikhon Bernstam & James Yu, founders
      • were co-founders at Scribd along with Ilya Sukhar (Ooyala) and Kevin Lacker (Google)
    • Raised $1.1M in Y! Combinator, circa 2011-08
  • PhoneGap
  • Sencha (Sencha.io)
  • StackMob
    • A single integration point to backend services
    • API creation and management
    • Java, Ruby, Python, Lua or any JVM supported language.
    • Analytics across all StackMob services
      • geographic location
      • platform
      • app version
      • demographic info
      • “and more”
    • Messaging
      • Push
      • Email by SendGrid, Inc.
    • Social
      • Integratns: Twitter, Facebook, Google
      • Login (Single Sign-On)
      • Sharing
    • Future (circa 2011-01)
      • Location services
      • Advertising
      • Monetization
      • Android
    • SDKs
      • Open source
      • iOS
      • Android (future)
  • Tiggzi (Appery.io)

The Walled Gardens

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
    • Crashlytics
    • Bluefin
    • Vine
    • Cards

The Conglomerates

  • Apple (iCloud)
  • IBM
  • SAP (Sybase Unwired Platform)


In archaeological order, all from Read Write as they recirculate you through their own past output.



The diagram is in the style of a faux subway map.  Not clear how that metaphor is related to the domain.  Mentioned on the diagram

Service Provider

  • China Mobile
  • Verizon
  • Sprint
  • T-Mobile
  • Airtel
  • Vodaphone
  • Smart
  • AT&T


  • GoGrid
  • Cloud.com (Citrix)
  • Rackspace
  • Terremark
  • HP
  • Flexiscale
  • IBM
  • AT&T
  • Microsoft Azure
  • google


  • SAP NetWeaver Cloud
  • OpenShift, Red Hat
  • AppFog
  • Joyent
  • Cloud Foundry, VMware
  • Engine Yard
  • CloudBees
  • Oracle

MEAP (Mobile Enterprise Application Platform)

  • Sybase Unwired Platform (SAP)
  • Webalo
  • Verivo
  • Kony Solutions
  • Antenna
  • Syclo
  • IBM Worklight


  • Sencha.io
  • iKnode
  • iCloud
  • Deployd
  • CloudyRec
  • FeedHenry
  • Applicasa
  • ScottyApp
  • YorAPI
  • mobDB
  • Flurry AppCloud (TrestleApp)
  • Kumulos
  • Netmera
  • Apstrata
  • AppGlu
  • Usergrid
  • CloudMine
  • Firebase
  • ACS (Cocafish)
  • Buddy
  • Kinvey
  • StackMob
  • Parse
  • Meteor

Mobile Services

  • Facebook
  • iAd
  • Where
  • PayPal, eBay
  • Urban Airship
  • Weibo
  • InfoChimps
  • Brightcove
  • Fiksu
  • Flurry
  • foursquare
  • JumpTap
  • Twitter
  • GooglePlaces
  • AdMob
  • Apigee

Mobile SDK

  • Sencha
  • iOS
  • jQuery Mobile
  • Appcelerator
  • Cabana App
  • PhoneGap, Adobe
  • Tiggzi
  • Trigger.io
  • App Cloud
  • AnyPresence
  • MoSync
  • Marmalade
  • Windows (rly?)
  • bada
  • Haxe
  • Android
  • Qt
  • Symbian
  • Rhomobile

Handset OEM

  • Apple
  • Sony Ericsson
  • ZTE
  • TCL/Alcatel
  • HTC
  • RIM
  • LG
  • Huawei
  • Nokia
  • Samsung
  • Motorola Mobility

What Do People Do At Work? | Michael J. Handel

Michael J. Handel (OECD, Dept. Sociology Northwestern University); What Do People Do At Work?; 2010-06-20; 53 pages.
Teaser: A Profile of U.S. Jobs from the Survey of Workplace Skills, Technology, and Management Practices (STAMP)


The original is less breathless whereas “counting” is considered part of “any math” and “reading an invoice” is a distinct category of study. The category of “computer literacy” is a distinct category. The concept “uses spreadsheets” intersects with both math use and computer use. <quote>An unexpectedly large proportion of clerical and sales workers report spending most of their time doing data entry or filling out forms (31%), which is suggestive of deskilling, but this is very atypical for the workforce as a whole.</quote>


Jordan Weismann; Here’s How Little Math Americans Actually Use at Work; In The Atlantic; 2013-04-24.

Also backfilled

Books on Interviewing Software Engineers & Software Developers

Of the mind puzzle variety.  Snappy questions, snappy answers, rendered on a whiteboard in 45 min.

Archaeological order by publication date.

John MonganNoah SuojanenEric Giguere

John Mongan, Noah Kindler, Eric Giguere; Programming Interviews Exposed: Secrets to Landing Your Next Job; Wrox; 3rd edition; 2012-11-13; 2012-11-13.

Adnan AzizTsung-Hsien LeeAmit Prakash

Adnan Aziz, Amit Prakash, Tsung-Hsien Lee; Elements of Programming Interviews: 300 Questions and Solutions; CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1st edition; 2012-10-11

Narasimha Karumanchi

Narasimha Karumanchi; Coding Interview Questions; CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 2012-05-02; 496 pages.
Gayle Laakmann McDowell

Gayle Laakmann McDowell; Cracking the Coding Interview: 150 Programming Questions and Solutions; CareerCup; 5th edition, revised; 2011-08-22; 508 pages.

Gayle Laakmann McDowell

Gayle Laakmann McDowell; The Google Resume: How to Prepare for a Career and Land a Job at Apple, Microsoft, Google, or any Top Tech Company; Wiley; first edition;  2011-03-01; 280 pages.

The Technocrats vs Austerity

A cat fight, in three acts.  Archaeological order.

The Gloating

Mike Konczal; Researchers Finally Replicated Reinhart-Rogoff, and There Are Serious Problems; Some partisan blog (the New New Deal); 2013-04-16.

and more

The Rebuttals

Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff; Reinhart-Rogoff Response to Critique; In The Wall Street Journal (WSJ); 2013-04-16.

Thomas Herndon, Michael Ash, Robert Pollin; Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogo ff; Working Paper Series No. 322; Political Economy Research Institute (PERI) at University of Massachusetts, Amherst; 2013-04-15; 26 pages; landing.

We replicate Reinhart and Rogoff (2010a and 2010b) and find that coding errors, selective exclusion of available data, and unconventional weighting of summary statistics lead to serious errors that inaccurately represent the relationship between public debt and GDP growth among 20 advanced economies in the post-war period. Our fi nding is that when properly calculated, the average real GDP growth rate for countries carrying a public-debt-to-GDP ratio of over 90 percent is actually 2.2 percent, not 0:1 percent as published in Reinhart and Rogo . That is, contrary to RR, average GDP growth at public debt/GDP ratios over 90 percent is not dramatically di fferent than when debt/GDP ratios are lower. We also show how the relationship between public debt and GDP growth varies signi cantly by time period and country. Overall, the evidence we review contradicts Reinhart and Rogoff’s claim to have identi fied an important stylized fact, that public debt loads greater than 90 percent of GDP consistently reduce GDP growth.

Original Works

Carmen M. Reinhart, Kenneth S. Rogoff; Growth in a Time of Debt; American Economic Review, Papers & Proceedings; Volume 100; 2010-05; pages 573-578; paywalled; ungated copy.

Carmen M. Reinhart, Kenneth Rogoff; This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly; Princeton University Press; 2009; 612 pages; kindle: $10, 2011-07-18.

Carmen M. Reinhart, Kenneth S. Rogoff; Growth in a Time of Debt; Working Paper 15639; 2010-01; 26 pages.

We study economic growth and inflation at different levels of government and external debt. Our analysis is based on new data on forty-four countries spanning about two hundred years. The dataset incorporates over 3,700 annual observations covering a wide range of political systems, institutions, exchange rate arrangements, and historic circumstances. Our main findings are: First, the relationship between government debt and real GDP growth is weak for debt/GDP ratios below a threshold of 90 percent of GDP. Above 90 percent, median growth rates fall by one percent, and average growth falls considerably more. We find that the threshold for public debt is similar in advanced and emerging economies. Second, emerging markets face lower thresholds for external debt (public and private)—which is usually denominated in a foreign currency. When external debt reaches 60 percent of GDP, annual growth declines by about two percent; for higher levels, growth rates are roughly cut in half. Third, there is no apparent contemporaneous link between inflation and public debt levels for the advanced countries as a group (some countries, such as the United States, have experienced higher inflation when debt/GDP is high). The story is entirely different for emerging markets, where inflation rises sharply as debt increases

Google’s evil plan is simple and not so evil | A.J. Kohn

Via: A.J. Kohn; Google’s Evil Plan; In His Blog; 2013-01-27.


  • Thesis:
    • the plan is “Get people to use the internet more”
    • <quote>TL;DR
      Google’s strategy is to get people to use the Internet more. The more time people spend on the Internet the more time they’ll engage in revenue generating activities. As such, nearly every Google effort is focused on increasing Internet speed and access with the goal to shorten the distance between any activity and the Internet.</quote>
  • Product/Project recital
    • Chrome (browser)
    • SPDY
    • Android
    • Motorola
    • Google Now
    • Google Fiber
    • Chromebook
    • Google+
    • Self-Driving Cars
    • Google Glass
    • Google TV

Books on Architecture & Software Process | Luke Hohmann

Luke Hohmann; Journey of the Software Professional: The Sociology of Software Development; Prentice Hall; 1 edition; 1996-10-17.


  • Culture, Values
  • Private vs Public Values
  • Structure, Process, Outcomes
  • Trust issues


  • Use Amazon Marketplace (used) to acquire.

Luke Hohmann; Beyond Software Architecture: Creating and Sustaining Winning Solutions; Addison-Wesley Professional; 1 edition; 2003-02-09.

Industrial Internet: The machines are talking | Jonathan Bruner

O’Reilly Media:
Jonathan Bruner; Industrial Internet; O’Reilly Media, 1st edition; 2013-03; 51 pages; landing.

Jon Bruner
; Industrial Internet; O’Reilly Media, 1st edition; 2013-03-27; 51 pages; kindle: $0.

  • Sponsored by General Electric (GE)
  • See backfill


Coke’s ‘Share of Stomach’ Campaign

Focus on:

Coca Cola; Category Planning Insights to Action; In FMI (a conference?); 2007-05-06; 86 slides.

In archaeological order, youngest on top, older down below

  • ; The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food; In The New York Times (NYT); 2013-02-20; kindle: $13.

    • It’s a book promo
    • Apropos Share of Stomach or Stomach Share
      • Meeting
      • 1999-04-08
      • in Minneapolis, MN
      • at Pillsbury headquarters.
      • Business rivals meet to discuss “obesity epidemic”
    • <quote>Their stature was defined by their skill in fighting one another for what they called “stomach share” — the amount of digestive space that any one company’s brand can grab from the competition.</quote>
    • Michael Mudd, vice psident (of something) at Kraft
    • <quote>Mudd then did the unthinkable. He drew a connection to the last thing in the world the C.E.O.’s wanted linked to their products: cigarettes. First came a quote from a Yale University professor of psychology and public health, Kelly Brownell, who was an especially vocal proponent of the view that the processed-food industry should be seen as a public health menace: “As a culture, we’ve become upset by the tobacco companies advertising to children, but we sit idly by while the food companies do the very same thing. And we could make a claim that the toll taken on the public health by a poor diet rivals that taken by tobacco.”</quote>
  • N.C. Aizenman; Former Coke executive slams ‘share of stomach’ marketing campaign; In The Washington Post; 2012-06-07.

    • Feels like a promotion for Todd Putman at Future Pull Group.
    • Todd Putman
      • age 41
      • “top marketing executive”, Coca Cola, 1997-”mid 2000s”
      • Purdue
      • ex-Proctor&Gamble
      • ex-Disney
      • left Coca Cola “on good terms” for “personal reasons”
      • Future Pull Group
        • his firm, current
        • promises not to promote “unhealthy” products
    • National Soda Summit
      • sponsored by The Center for Science in the Public Interest.
      • Michael R. Bloomberg, mayor, New York City; cited as a sponsoring/blessing dignitary.
    • Ben Sheidler, speaks for Coca Cola
    • Various insinulations that the campaign was targeted at minorities (African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, etc.)
      • Todd Putman declares “It was just a fact that Hispanics and African Americans have higher per capita consumption of sugar-based soft drinks than white Americans. We knew that if we got more products into those environments those segments would drink more.”
      • Ben Sheidler rebuts “in an effort to be respectful and culturally relevant, imagery is sometimes tailored to the people and communities we serve.” But he said that Coca-Cola’s marketing is aimed at all consumers.
    • Quotes
      • <quote>Contacted for a response to Putman’s comments, a spokesman for Coca-Cola, Ben Sheidler, said share of stomach is no longer “part of our company’s strategy.”
        “Todd Putman left Coca-Cola over 12 years ago after working here for only three years,” Sheidler said. “Since Putman left, our business has changed dramatically.”</quote>
      • Coka Cola gets lots of response time on the 2nd page
  • Coca Cola; Category Planning Insights to Action; In FMI (a conference?); 2007-05-06; 86 slides.
    See also: the presentation transcript on page; Share of Stomach slide included below
  • Betsy Morris; New rule: Find a niche, create something new.; In CNN Money; 2006-07-11.
    Teaser: Old rule: Be no. 1 or no. 2 in your market.

    • Mentions Share of Stomach as broad background
    • <quote>Coke executives defined their industry as “share of stomach” – that is, the total ounces of liquid an average person consumes in a day and what percentage of it can be filled with Coke. CEO Roberto Goizueta told Jack Welch in a conversation in FORTUNE a decade ago that the soft drink industry wouldn’t run out of growth until “that faucet in your kitchen sink is used for what God intended” – dispensing Coke from the tap.</quote>
  • David H. Jonanssen; Lwarning to Solve Problems: An Instructional Design Guide; John Wiley & Sons; 2003-12-18; 256 pages; kindle: $40.
    • Mention, page 99, actuality included below.
    • The strategy and name is attributed to Roberto Crispulo Goizueta, then CEO, circa 1980.
  • H. Banks; Stomach share (Coca-Cola in Europe); In Forbes; 1996-11-18; Volume: 158, Issue: 12; pp.184-185; 2 pages; paywalled.


The New Digital Age | Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen; The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business; Knopf; 2013-04-23; 336 pages.


From Amazon.

ERIC SCHMIDT is executive chairman of Google, where he served as chief executive officer from 2001 to 2011. A member of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, Schmidt also chairs the board of the New America Foundation and is a trustee of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

JARED COHEN is director of Google Ideas and an Adjunct Senior Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. He is a Rhodes Scholar and the author of several books, including Children of Jihad and One Hundred Days of Silence. He is a member of the Director’s Advisory Board at the National Counterterrorism Center.


  • and Jared Cohen;Your life in 2033; In The Guardian; 2013-04-12.
    Teaser: ‘You skim through the day’s news on translucent screens while a freshly cleaned suit is retrieved from your automated closet…’ An extract from Google chairman Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen’s new book

    • It’s all good.
    • It’s all from the tech.
    • Lightweight, fast, powerful, fun, safe, meaningful, personal, professional, clean, safe, etc.

A Roundup of Recommended Reading About Neuroscience and Content Strategy | Kevin Howarth, Content Science

Via: Kevin Howarth; Customers, Understand Their Brains; In Some Blog; 2013-04-17.
Teaser: A Roundup of Recommended Reading About Neuroscience and Content Strategy

Eric Gunnar Grisse hacks HostGator, criminal charges in TX

Via: Paul Ducklin; Hosting company Hostgator hacked, suspect arrested after being “rooted with his own rootkit”; In Naked Security; 2013-04-21.


  • Court Documents
  • HostGator
  • Eric Gunnar Grisse
    • age 29
    • ex HostGator
  • Method
    • backdoor named pcre
    • altered ps, netstat
    • stole a corporate ssh key
  • Caught by
    • employee monitoring audit trail
    • screeshot once per min
    • login audit trail
    • network connectivity

Elevator Behaviors: Ethnography & Psychology



If It Wasn’t the Pregnancy Tests, Why *Did* Baby Catalogs Start Arriving at Our House? | Alexis C. Madrigal, The Atlantic

Alexis C. Madrigal; If It Wasn’t the Pregnancy Tests, Why *Did* Baby Catalogs Start Arriving at Our House?; In The Atlantic; 2013-04-18.

He buries the lede:

  • there is no consipracy
  • only coincidence
  • and his troubled mind

To Wit:

<quote>No, as it turned out, it was the Christmas gifts. Back in December, we bought our nieces and nephews some gifts. That put a checkmark next to Children’s Apparel, Children’s Merchandise, and Toys in our database record. Combined with our demographic information, we seemed like a good target to send catalogs of kids’ stuff.

In other words, Right Start and Marketing Genetics lucked out. We’re not parents (yet), but we’ve looked like them on paper in data since the last holiday season. And it just so happens that we are now in the market for baby stuff.</quote>


Chat Apps, Messaging Apps and Teens

A press cycle off the original WSJ piece, picked up by Reuters.

In archaeological order


  • Kik, Waterloo, Ontario, CA; 40M users, launch 2010; Ted Livingston, age 25, CEO
  • SnapChat
  • WhatsApp; subscription $1/year; founded 2009; 18B messages/day; “hundreds of millions” of users
  • MessageMe
  • GroupMe, First Round Capital, investment 2010-late
  • Viber, Talmon Marco, CEO, Viber; Cyprus (!)
  • KakaoTalk, Kakao Inc. (KR, Asia); 80M users; a game platform; Yahoo! Japan takes 50% stake in Kakao JP; Sirgoo Lee, co-CEO; $4M/month revenue from games.
  • LINE, NHN Corp. (CN, Asia); 120M users; Jeanie Han, CEO, Line USA
  • WeChat, Tencent Holdings Ltd. (CN, Asia); 400M users; Zynga partnership
  • ChatOn, Samsung; launch 2011-late
  • Facebook: Instagram & Messenger (was Beluga), Poke, Messenger, Camera
  • Color Quotes
    • Rich Miner, a partner, Google Ventures
    • Charles Hudson, a partner, SoftTech VC
    • Jim Goetz, a partner, Sequoia Capital.
    • Kent Goldman, a partner, First Round, backed MessageMe.
    • Talmon Marco, CEO, Viber; Cyprus (!)
    • Sirgoo Lee, co-CE, Kakao Corp.
    • Peter Deng, director of product management, Facebook
    • Jeanie Han, CEO, Line USA

Some papers on “neuro” and “security” and “legal”

Tamara Denning, Yoky Matsuoka, Tadayoshi Kohno; Neurosecurity: security and privacy for neural devices; In Neurosurgery Focus; Volume 27; 2009-07; 4 pages.

An increasing number of neural implantable devices will become available in the near future due to advances in neural engineering. This discipline holds the potential to improve many patients’ lives dramatically by offering improved—and in some cases entirely new—forms of rehabilitation for conditions ranging from missing limbs to degenerative cognitive diseases. The use of standard engineering practices, medical trials, and neuroethical evaluations during the design process can create systems that are safe and that follow ethical guidelines; unfortunately, none of these disciplines currently ensure that neural devices are robust against adversarial entities trying to exploit these devices to alter, block, or eavesdrop on neural signals. The authors define “neurosecurity”—a version of computer science security principles and methods applied to neural engineering—and discuss why neurosecurity should be a critical consideration in the design of future neural devices.

Nita A. Farahany; Incriminating Thoughts; Stanford Law Review Vol. 64, 351 (2012)
Vanderbilt Public Law Research Paper No. 11-17; 2011-04; 59 pages; available at SSRN.

The neuroscience revolution poses profound challenges to current self-incrimination doctrine and exposes a deep conceptual confusion at the heart of the doctrine. In Schmerber v. California, the Court held that under the Self-Incrimination Clause of the Fifth Amendment, no person shall be compelled to “prove a charge [from] his own mouth,” but a person may be compelled to provide real or physical evidence. This testimonial/physical dichotomy has failed to achieve its intended simplifying purpose. For nearly fifty years scholars and practitioners have lamented its impracticability and its inconsistency with the underlying purpose of the privilege. This Article seeks to reframe the debate. It demonstrates through modern applications from neuroscience the need to redefine the taxonomy of evidence subject to the privilege against self-incrimination. Evidence can arise from the identifying characteristics inherent to individuals; it can arise automatically, without conscious processing; it can arise through memorialized photographs, papers, and memories; or it can arise through responses uttered silently or aloud. This spectrum — identifying, automatic, memorialized, and uttered — is more nuanced and more precise than the traditional testimonial/physical dichotomy, and gives descriptive power to the rationale underpinning the privilege against self-incrimination. Neurological evidence, like more traditional evidence, may be located on this spectrum, and thus doctrinal riddles of self-incrimination, both modern and ancient, may be solved.

M. Ryan Calo; Open Robotics; Maryland Law Review, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2011; 2011-11-09; 42 pages; Available at SSRN.

With millions of home and service robots already on the market, and millions more on the way, robotics is poised to be the next transformative technology. As with personal computers, personal robots are more likely to thrive if they are sufficiently open to third-party contributions of software and hardware. No less than with telephony, cable, computing, and the Internet, an open robotics could foster innovation, spur consumer adoption, and create secondary markets.
But open robots also present the potential for inestimable legal liability, which may lead entrepreneurs and investors to abandon open robots in favor of products with more limited functionality. This possibility flows from a key difference between personal computers and robots. Like PCs, open robots have no set function, run third-party software, and invite modification. But unlike PCs, personal robots are in a position directly to cause physical damage and injury. Thus, norms against suit and expedients to limit liability such as the economic loss doctrine are unlikely to transfer from the PC and consumer software context to that of robotics.
This essay therefore recommends a selective immunity for manufacturers of open robotic platforms for what end users do with these platforms, akin to the immunity enjoyed under federal law by firearms manufacturers and websites. Selective immunity has the potential to preserve the conditions for innovation without compromising incentives for safety. The alternative is to risk being left behind in a key technology by countries with a higher bar to litigation and a serious head start.

Ivan Martinovic, Doug Davies, Mario Frank, Daniele Perito, Tomas Ros, Dawn Song; On the Feasibility of Side-Channel Attacks with Brain-Computer Interfaces; In Proceedings of the USENIX Security Conference; 2012-08-08; landing (with video)

Brain computer interfaces (BCI) are becoming increasingly popular in the gaming and entertainment industries. Consumer-grade BCI devices are available for a few hundred dollars and are used in a variety of applications, such as video games, hands-free keyboards, or as an assistant in relaxation training. There are application stores similar to the ones used for smart phones, where application developers have access to an API to collect data from the BCI devices. The security risks involved in using consumer-grade BCI devices have never been studied and the impact of malicious software with access to the device is unexplored. We take a first step in studying the security implications of such devices and demonstrate that this upcoming technology could be turned against users to reveal their private and secret information. We use inexpensive electroencephalography (EEG) based BCI devices to test the feasibility of simple, yet effective, attacks. The captured EEG signal could reveal the user’s private informa tion about, e.g., bank cards, PIN numbers, area of living, the knowledge of the known persons. This is the first attempt to study the security implications of consumer-grade BCI devices. We show that the entropy of the private information is decreased on the average by approximately 15 – 40 % compared to random guessing attacks.

Referenced Within


Casale Media, Index Quarterly Report, 2012-H2

Index Quarterly Report; Issue 2, 2012-H2 (Q3 & Q4); 21 pages; landing






  • “Quantcast-like demographics” for mobile apps.
  • Mobilewalla’s API; returns apps from demographic query.
  • Use with mobile RTB exchange bidding.



  • Seattle, sales
  • Singapore, eng
  • India, eng


  • Amazon (could be a partner)
  • Microsoft (located nearby)
  • InMobi



  • Changed business plan to supply data for ad analytics & targeting instead of consumer UX rank-n-relate.
  • Started as a search portal for mobile apps
  • Ratings of those apps