Web of Things (WoT), Archivecture, Thing Description, Scripting API | W3C

Documents

Web of Things (WoT) Architecture, 2017-09-14.

Summary
  1. WoT Thing Description
  2. WoT Scripting API
  3. WoT Binding Templates.

Web of Things (WoT) Thing Description, 2017-09-14.

Summary

Describes the metadata and interfaces of Things.

Web of Things (WoT) Scripting API, 2017-09-14.

Summary

Operates on Things characterized by Properties, Actions and Events.

Abstracts

Web of Things (WoT) Architecture

Abstract

The W3C Web of Things (WoT) is intended to enable interoperability across IoT Platforms and application domains. Primarily, it provides mechanisms to formally describe IoT interfaces to allow IoT devices and services to communicate with each other, independent of their underlying implementation, and across multiple networking protocols. Secondarily, it provides a standardized way to define and program IoT behavior.

This document describes the abstract architecture for the W3C Web of Things. It is derived from a set of use cases and can be mapped onto a variety of concrete deployment scenarios, several examples of which are given. This document is focused on the standardization scope of W3C WoT, which consists of three initial building blocks that are briefly introduced and their interplay explained.

The WoT Thing Description (TD) provides a formal mechanism to describe the network interface provided by IoT devices and services, independent of their implementation. Provision of a TD is the primary requirement for a device to participate in the Web of Things. In fact, defining a Thing Description for an existing device allows that device to participate in the Web of Things without having to make any modifications to the device itself. WoT Binding Templates define how a WoT device communicates using a concrete protocol. The WoT Scripting API—whose use is not mandatory—provides a convenient mechanism to discover, consume, and expose Things based on the WoT Thing Description.

Other non-normative architectural blocks and conditions underlying the Web of Things are also described in the context of deployment scenarios. In particular, recommendations for security and privacy are included, while the goal is to preserve and support existing device mechanisms and properties. In general, W3C WoT is designed to describe what exists rather than to prescribe what to implement.

Web of Things (WoT) Thing Description

Abstract

This document describes a formal model and common representation for a Web of Things (WoT) Thing Description. A Thing Description describes the metadata and interfaces of Things, where a Thing is an abstraction of a physical entity that provides interactions to and participates in the Web of Things. Thing Descriptions provide a narrow-waist set of interactions based on a small vocabulary that makes it possible both to integrate diverse devices and to allow diverse applications to interoperate. Thing Descriptions, by default, are encoded in JSON-LD. JSON-LD provides both a powerful foundation to represent knowledge about Things and simplicity, since it allows processing as a JSON document. In addition to physical entities, Things can also represent virtual entities. A Thing Description instance can be hosted by the Thing itself or hosted externally due to Thing’s resource restrictions (e.g. limited memory space) or when a Web of Things-compatible legacy device is retrofitted with a Thing Description.

Web of Things (WoT) Scripting API

Abstract

The Web of Things (WoT) provides layered interoperability between Things by using the WoT Interfaces.

This specification describes a programming interface representing the WoT Interface that allows scripts run on a Thing to discover and consume (retrieve) other Things and to expose Things characterized by properties, Actions and Events.

Scripting is an optional “convenience” building block in WoT and it is typically used in gateways that are able to run a WoT Runtime and script management, providing a convenient way to extend WoT support to new types of endpoints and implement WoT applications like Thing Directory.

Mentions

  • JSON-LD

Argot

The Suitcase Words
  • W3C Web of Things (WoT)
  • IoT Platforms
  • interfaces
  • devices
  • services
  • implementation
  • multiple networking protocols
  • standardized
  • behavior
  • abstract architecture
  • use cases
  • mapped
  • scenarios,
    deployment scenarios,
    concrete deployment scenarios
  • standardization scope
  • WoT Thing Description (TD),
    Thing Description (TD)
  • formal mechanism
  • network interface
  • independent of implementation
  • participate
  • WoT Binding Templates,
    Binding Templates. [no acronym]
  • WoT Scripting API,
    Scripting API.
  • blocks,
    blocks and conditions,
    architectural blocks and conditions,
    non-normative architectural blocks and conditions.
  • scenarios,
    deployment scenarios,
    the context of deployment scenarios,
    in the context of deployment scenarios.
  • Web of Things (WoT)
  • Thing Description
  • narrow-waist
    a narrow-waist set,
    a narrow-waist set of interactions,
    a narrow-waist set of interactions based on a small vocabulary,
    a narrow-waist set of interactions based on a small vocabulary that makes it possible both,
    a narrow-waist set of interactions based on a small vocabulary that makes it possible both to integrate diverse devices and to allow diverse applications to interoperate.
  • JSON-LD
  • foundation … knowledge
  • a Web of Things-compatible legacy device
  • layered interoperability
  • Things
  • WoT Interface
  • Actions
  • Events
  • gateways
  • WoT Runtime
  • script management
  • endpoints
  • Thing Directory

Previously filled.

As IBM Ramps Up Its AI-Powered Advertising, Can Watson Crack the Code of Digital Marketing? | Ad Week

As IBM Ramps Up Its AI-Powered Advertising, Can Watson Crack the Code of Digital Marketing?; ; In Ad Week (Advertising Week); 2017-09-24.
Teaser: Acquisition of The Weather Company fuels a new division

tl;dr → Watson (a service bureau, AI-as-a-Service) is open for business.

Mentions

The Weather Company

  • lines of business
    • location-based targeted audiences, delivered to the trade.
    • weather indica, delivered to consumers.
  • 2.2 billion locations/15 minutes
  • Dates
    • WHEN?, Acquisition by IBM
    • 2016-01, new business strategy,
      “AI” as a service (AIaaS)
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • Cloud Computing
  • Products
    • WeatherFx
    • JourneyFx
  • The Weather Company is a <quote>legacy business<quote> (deprecated).
  • AIaaS is a <quote>cutting-edge advertising powerhouse</quote> (house of power).

Watson Advertising

  • Cognitive Advertising
    • contra Computational Advertising, circa the ‘oughties (2005)
    • something about
      • <buzzzz>transform every aspect of marketing from </buzzz>
      • something about image and voice recognition to big data analysis and custom content.
  • What is it? (What is Watson-as-a-Service?)
    • Count: <quote>dozens</quote>
    • Interfaces
      • API
      • Projects <quote>studio-like</quote>
    • Pricing: <quote>millions of dollars</quote>
    • Structure: four (4) sub-units
  • “<snip/>It’s not been designed to target consumers the same way that Alexa or Siri have been,” attributed to Cameron Clayton.

Units

The 4 pillars of Watson Advertising.
  1. Targeting, Audience construction & activation
  2. Optimization, Bidding & buying
  3. Advertising, Synthesis of copy and creative
  4. Planning, media planning, the buy plan, the execution plan

Audience Targeting

  • the flagship service
  • neural networks
  • scoring users, propensity scoring <quote>based on how likely they are to take an action</quote>
  • towards CPA or CCPV or CPVisit or <more!>
  • Performable on the Weather Company O&O
    • <quote>but on TV, print, radio and other platforms. <quote>
    • Partnerships
      • Cognitiv
      • Equals 3

Optimization

Bidding Optimization
  • Is too boring for details early in the article.
  • Optimize against brand-specific KPIs.
  • Uses <buzzz>deep learning and neural networks</buzzz>
  • Optimize Cost Per Action (CPA).

Advertising

  • Badged as Watson Ads and Watson Advertising
  • Services
    • content creation
    • content copywriting
  • Launched: 2016-06.
  • Is merely: nterest-Based Advertising (IBA)
    which in turn is a but regulatory term of art, that covers a wide range of in-trade practices.
  • Sectors, aspirational
    • <fancy>aviation</fancy> (airline ticket booking?)
    • insurance
    • energy
    • finance
  • Cognitive Media Council,
    • a focus group.
    • a user group, “friends & family” of the business.
    • a group of important customers representatives
      <quote>senior-level executives from agencies and brands</quote>
Reference Customers
Toyota
  • Mirai
  • Prius Prime
  • Benefits
    Attributed to Eunice Kim, Toyota (TMNA), something about…

    • <buzzz>create a one-to-one conversational engagement</buzzz>
    • <buzzz>garner insights about the consumer thought process that could potentially inform our communication strategies elsewhere”</buzzz>
Campbell’s
  • the Soup people
  • Something about creative synthesis
    themed as: recipe generation with flu symptoms with location
H&R Block
  • Something about creative synthesis
    themed as: automated robot tax expert, suggest tax deductions.
UM [You and Em]
  • An agency. Off shore? They have a “U.S. CEO” Maybe one of those English Invasion thingies.
  • Refused to name their client.
  • Something about auto dealerships.
  • <quote>meshing Watson data with client stats to analyze metrics across a large number of car dealerships in a way that optimizes ad spend while also checking local inventory to see whether or not it should personalize an ad to someone in that market.<quote>
  • <quote>combination of weather data, Google searches and pollen counts to trigger when media should be bought in various markets.</quote>

Planning

  • <quote>AI-powered planning</quote>

Partners

Cognitiv
Something about a partnership for understanding marketing texts.
Jeremy Fain, CEO and co-founder
Equals 3
Lucy, a product-service-platform.
Something about <quote>to uncover extra insights and research.<quote>

Fairness & Balance

Promotions

Ogilvy & Mather
  • Honorific <quote>longtime agency<quote> [fof record for IBM].
Stunts
2011
Jeopardy
2015
[Television] campaign, with Bob Dylan.
2016
Synthesis of the trailier for Morgan (a move; genre: science fiction)
2017-02
Performance, an “analysis” of the stylings of Antoni Gaudi, <quote>inspire an art installation </quote> (what does that mean?)
The “art installation” was exhibited at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona.
Statista

…is quoted
the future is boosted.

Sectors
  • “AI services”
  • “Big Data services”

Themes

Problem
  • The people are “afraid” of AI.
  • The people need to be groomed to accept AI.
Remediation

Ensmoothen & enpitchen the Artificial Intelligence (AI) as…

  • humble
  • friendly
  • ”I’m here to help’ type personality”

Attributed to Lou Aversano, Ogilvy.

Detractors

James Kisner, Jeffries

Via: James Kisner, A Report, Jeffries, 2017-07.
Jeffries is an opinion vendor in support of an M&A banking operation.
tl;dr → Watson is a failing product-service. <quote>IBM is being “outgunned” in the race…</quote> (yup, he mixed the metaphor).

  • as evidenced in measured job listings at Monster.com
    Apple had more listings booked thereon than IBM.
  • Customers were interviewed.
    Watson’s performance/price ratio was low (the rate card is very high).
    2016-10, IBM reduced the rate card for API access <quote>by 70 percent</quote>
  • Lots of press
  • Not a lot of monetary results, as evidenced in the quarterly & annual reports.
Joe Stanhope, Gartner

Via: an interview, perhaps;
Gartner Group is an opinion vendor.

  • Too much hype, can be forgiven
  • Gartner runs the Hype Cycle brand
  • Claims: <quote>IBM does seem to be all-in with Watson.<quote> (be nice to hear that from IBM, not as a “hot-take” from a newshour pundit
DemandBase, Wakefield Research

A Report; attributed to “staff”; DemandBase and Wakefield Research

  • A survey,
    • “how do you feel?”
    • Do you “have plans-to …” in the next N months.
  • There are a lot of uncertainties

Uncertainties

Training Data
  • Just isn’t there.
  • And … computers can only give answers, it can’t give [pose] questions.
Does it [even] Work?
  • No one knows.
  • Many are nervous.
  • No one wants to be first to fail
    (& be fired for outsourcing their job function to The AI).

Competitors

  • Einstein, of Salesforce(.com)
  • Sensei, of Adobe
In-House
  • Buying operations, Xaxis of WPP
    the “AI” is a “co-pilot” to the trading desk operator; optimization recommendations towards CPM and viewability; North American operations only.
  • others?
    Surely everyone nowadays has some initiative that does “co-pilot”-level decision support to adops.
Research Efforts
  • Amazon
  • Facebook
  • Google
Venture Capital
  • Albert
  • Amenity Analytics
  • LiftIgniter
  • Persado
Amenity Analytics

An exemplar of the smaller-nimbler-smarter clones of the Watson genre.

  • A Watson-type experience, but cheaper
  • Does text mining of press releases
  • Reference customers:
    Pepsi
  • A spin-out from some hedge fund, <quote>origins in the hedge fund world</quote>
  • Nathaniel Storch, CEO, Amenity Analytics.
  • <zing!>“Think of it as ‘moneyball’ for media companies,”<zing!>, attributed to Nathaniel Storch.

Consumer

  • Siri, of Apple
  • Cortana, of Microsoft
  • Now, of Google

Who

  • Lou Aversano, U.S. CEO, Ogilvy & Mather (Ogilvy, O&M).
  • Jordan Bitterman, CMO, Watson (Business Unit), IBM.
    attributed in quoted material aso “earlier this year” (2017?); c.f. Michael Mendenhall
  • Kasha Cacy, U.S. CEO, UM
    UM is an agency.
  • Cameron Clayton,
    • General Manager, Content and IoT Platform, Watson (Business Unit), IBM..
    • ex-CEO, The Weather Company
  • Jacob Colker, “entrepreneur in residence,” The Allen Institute
    …quoted for color, background & verisimilitude.The Allen Institute is a tank for thinkers.
  • Jeremy Fain, CEO and co-founder, Cognitiv.
  • Chris Jacob, director of product marketing, Marketing Cloud, Salesforce(.com).
  • Eunice Kim, media planner, Toyota Motor North America (TMNA).
    …quoted for color, background & verisimilitude.
  • James Kisner, staff, Jeffries.
    …quoted for color, background & verisimilitude.
    Jeffries is an advice shop, like Gartner, but different.
  • Francesco Marconi,
    …quoted for color, background & verisimilitude.

    • strategy manager and AI co-lead, Associated Press
    • visitor, MIT Media Lab
  • Michael Mendenhall, CMO, Watson (BU), IBM.
    announced as CMO in prior press [Ad Week, Marty Swant, 2017-07-07].
  • Sara Robertson, VP of Product Engineering, Xaxis of WPP.
  • Joe Stanhope, staff, Forrester
    …quoted for color, background & verisimilitude.
  • Nathaniel Storch, CEO, Amenity Analytics.
  • Marty Wetherall, director of innovation, FallonFallon is the agency that certain campaign booked on Watson for H&R Block

Pantheon

  • Antoni Gaudi, architect (per civil engineering), citizen of Spain.

Previously

In archaeological order, within Advertising Week

Previously filled.

N4626 – Working Draft, C++ Extensions for Networking (2017)

N4626Working Draft, C++ Extensions for Networking, a.k.a. Networking Technical Specification, Networking TS, Jonathan Wakely, 2017-03-17.

Background

  • at cppreference.com
  • Section 4.2 <quote>The design of this specification is based, in part, on the Asio library written by Christopher Kohlhoff.</quote>
  • N4480C++ Extensions for Library Fundamentals, Version 2, 2015-11-25.

Composition

Physical

Everything
#include <experimental/net>

Buys everything.

In Phases && Slices
#include <experimental/netfwd>
#include <experimental/buffer>
#include <experimental/executor>
#include <experimental/internet>
#include <experimental/io_context>
#include <experimental/socket>
#include <experimental/timer>

Incorporates subcomponentry in stages.

Namespaces

std::net
Finally, once standardized, someday; after the year “202a.”
std::experimental::net
(inlined) std::experimental::net::v1
Currently, under draft, during trials, maybe now; prior to the year “202a.”
std::net::ip
a.k.a. std::experimental::net::v1::ip.
The Internet Protocol Subsystem

Components

As elaborated in <net>, a.k.a. <experimental/net>.
Using the "post-standardized" naming conventions:

std::net::associated_allocator
std::net::associated_executor
std::net::async_completion
std::net::async_result
std::net::bad_executor
std::net::basic_datagram_socket
std::net::basic_socket
std::net::basic_socket_acceptor
std::net::basic_socket_iostream
std::net::basic_socket_streambuf
std::net::basic_stream_socket
std::net::basic_waitable_timer
std::net::bind_executor
std::net::buffer_copy
std::net::buffer_size
std::net::const_buffer
std::net::defer
std::net::dispatch
std::net::dynamic_string_buffer
std::net::dynamic_vector_buffer
std::net::execution_context
std::net::execution_context;
std::net::execution_context::service
std::net::executor
std::net::executor_binder
std::net::executor_work_guard
std::net::get_associated_allocator
std::net::get_associated_executor
std::net::high_resolution_timer
std::net::io_context
std::net::io_context::executor_type
std::net::ip::address
std::net::ip::address_v4
std::net::ip::address_v4_iterator
std::net::ip::address_v4_range
std::net::ip::address_v6
std::net::ip::address_v6_iterator
std::net::ip::address_v6_range
std::net::ip::bad_address_cast
std::net::ip::basic_address_iterator
std::net::ip::basic_address_range
std::net::ip::basic_endpoint
std::net::ip::basic_resolver
std::net::ip::basic_resolver_entry
std::net::ip::basic_resolver_results
std::net::ip::network_v4
std::net::ip::network_v6
std::net::ip::resolver_base
std::net::ip::tcp
std::net::ip::udp
std::net::is_executor
std::net::make_work_guard
std::net::mutable_buffer
std::net::packaged_task
std::net::post
std::net::socket_base
std::net::steady_timer
std::net::strand
std::net::system_context
std::net::system_executor
std::net::system_timer
std::net::transfer_all
std::net::transfer_at_least
std::net::transfer_exactly
std::net::use_future_t
std::net::uses_executor
std::net::wait_traits

Referenced

Contents

  • Contents (this list)
  • List of Tables
  1. Scope
  2. Normative references
  3. Terms and definitions
  4. General Principles
    1. Conformance
    2. Acknowledgments
  5. Namespaces and headers
  6. Future plans (Informative)
  7. Feature test macros (Informative)
  8. Method of description (Informative)
    1. Structure of each clause
    2. Other conventions
  9. Error reporting
    1. Synchronous operations
    2. Asynchronous operations
    3. Error conditions
    4. Suppression of signals
  10. Library summary
  11. Convenience header
    • Header <experimental/net> synopsis
  12. Forward declarations
    • Header <experimental/netfwd> synopsis
  13. Asynchronous model
    • Header <experimental/executor> synopsis
    • Requirements
    • Class template async_result
    • Class template async_completion
    • Class template associated_allocator
    • Function get_associated_allocator
    • Class execution_context
    • Class execution_context::service
    • Class template is_executor
    • Executor argument tag
    • uses_executor
    • Class template associated_executor
    • Function get_associated_executor
    • Class template executor_binder
    • Function bind_executor
    • Class template executor_work_guard
    • Function make_work_guard
    • Class system_executor
    • Class system_context
    • Class bad_executor
    • Class executor
    • Function dispatch
    • Function post
    • Function defer
    • Class template strand
    • Class template use_future_t
    • Partial specialization of async_result for packaged_task
  14. I/O services
    • Header <experimental/io_context> synopsis
    • Class io_context
    • Class io_context::executor_type
  15. Timers
    • Header <experimental/timer> synopsis
    • Requirements
    • Class template wait_traits
    • Class template basic_waitable_timer
  16. Buffers
    • Header <experimental/buffer> synopsis
    • Requirements
    • Error codes
    • Class mutable_buffer
    • Class const_buffer
    • Buffer type traits
    • Buffer sequence access
    • Function buffer_size
    • Function buffer_copy
    • Buffer arithmetic
    • Buffer creation functions
    • Class template dynamic_vector_buffer
    • Class template dynamic_string_buffer
    • Dynamic buffer creation functions
  17. Buffer-oriented streams
    • Requirements
    • Class transfer_all
    • Class transfer_at_least
    • Class transfer_exactly
    • Synchronous read operations
    • Asynchronous read operations
    • Synchronous write operations
    • Asynchronous write operations
    • Synchronous delimited read operations
    • Asynchronous delimited read operations
  18. Sockets
    • Header <experimental/socket> synopsis
    • Requirements
    • Error codes
    • Class socket_base
    • Socket options
    • Class template basic_socket
    • Class template basic_datagram_socket
    • Class template basic_stream_socket
    • Class template basic_socket_acceptor
  19. Socket iostreams
    • Class template basic_socket_streambuf
    • Class template basic_socket_iostream
  20. Socket algorithms
    • Synchronous connect operations
    • Asynchronous connect operations
  21. Internet protocol
    • Header <experimental/internet> synopsis
    • Requirements
    • Error codes
    • Class ip::address
    • Class ip::address_v4
    • Class ip::address_v6
    • Class ip::bad_address_cast
    • Hash support
    • Class template ip::basic_address_iterator specializations
    • Class template ip::basic_address_range specializations
    • Class template ip::network_v4
    • Class template ip::network_v6
    • Class template ip::basic_endpoint
    • Class template ip::basic_resolver_entry
    • Class template ip::basic_resolver_results
    • Class ip::resolver_base
    • Class template ip::basic_resolver
    • Host name functions
    • Class ip::tcp
    • Class ip::udp
    • Internet socket options
  • Index
  • Index of library names
  • Index of implementation-defined behavior

Previously filled.

Resources for Getting Started with Distributed Systems | Caitie McCaffrey

Caitie McCaffrey (Microsoft); Resources for Getting Started with Distributed Systems; In Her Blog; 2017-09-07.

tl;dr → Distributed Sagas, within the .NET culture of Microsoft.

Mentions

  • Distributed SAGA
  • Simple API for Grid Applications (SAGA); In Jimi Wales’ Wiki.
  • Tao
  • Espresso
  • PNUTS
  • Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPPC, TPC)
  • Pre-materialized aggregates, a technique.

The Canon (A Canon)

Exemplars (Bloggists)

Post Mortems (After Action Reports)

Exemplars (NoSQL)

  • Bigtable, Google
  • Cassandra
  • CouchDB
  • Dynamo, Amazon
  • HBase of Apache
  • MongoDB
  • Neo4J
  • Redis
  • Riak
  • SimpleDB, Amazon

Exemplars (Full SQL)

  • MySQL
  • Oracle
  • … and so on.

Referenced

(transitively)

Argot

The Suitcase Words
  • 2-Phase Commit (2PC)
  • Available Continuous Impressive Dancing (ACID)
    Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, Durable (ACID)
  • Basically-Available, Slow Soft State, Eventually-Consistent (BASE, BASSEC)
    BASE (i.e., not ACID)
  • BLOOM, a programming language, the CALM programming language
  • Consistency As Logical Monotonicity (CALM)
  • Conflict-free Replicated Data Type (CRDT)
  • Consistency, Availability, Partition-Tolerance (CAP), (Folk-) Theorem
  • Fisher, Lynch, Patterson (FLP) Theorem
  • Liveness
  • Lots of Labor (LOL)
  • Safety
  • Serializability
  • Single System Image (SSI)
  • Read Atomic Multi-Partition (RAMP) Transactions

Previously filled.

On Constructed Culture and Technological Determinism as Self-Fulfillling Prophecies

Harro van Lente, Arie Rip; Expectations in Technological Developments: An Example of Prospective Structures to be Filled in by Agency; 28 pages; ; OAI:oai:doc.utwente.nl:34732; landing, (a photocopy of a paper article) academia.edu, landing as Chapter 7; In Cornelis Disco, Barend vander Meulen, Getting New Technologies Together: Studies in Making Sociotechnical Order; Walter de Gruyter; 1998; An earlier version of this paper was prepared, submitted, presented at the XXIth (21st?) World Congress of Sociology, ISA, Bielefield, DE, 1994-07-18; separately filled.

Mads Borup, Nik Brown, Kornelia Konrad, Harro Van Lente; The Sociology of Expectations in Science and Technology; an editorial; In Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Volume 18, Numbers 3/4, 285 –298, July – September, 2006-07; 14 pages; DOI:10.1080/09537320600777002; paywall; copy; separately noted.

Leonardo Bursztyn, Georgy Egorov, Stefano Fiorin; From Extreme to Mainstream: How Social Norms Unravel; Working Paper No. 23415; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); 2017-05; paywall; separately noted.
tl;dr →something about needing “just the right” amount of correlational clustering to allow ideas to spread appropriately.

Rand Waltzman; The Weaponization of Information; CT-473; Rand Corporation; 2017-04-27; 10 pages; landing.
Teaser: The Need for Cognitive Security

Testimony presented before the Senate Armed Services Committee, Subcommittee on Cybersecurity on 2017-04-27; separately filled..

Christopher Paul, Miriam Matthews; The Russian “Firehose of Falsehood” Propaganda Model; PE-108-OSD; Rand Corporation; 2016; 16 pages (landscape, like slideware); landing; separately noted.
Teaser: Why It Might Work and Options to Counter It

 

Syllabus for Solon Barocas @ Cornell | INFO 4270: Ethics and Policy in Data Science

INFO 4270 – Ethics and Policy in Data Science
Instructor: Solon Barocas
Venue: Cornell University

Syllabus

Solon Barocas

Readings

A Canon, The Canon

In order of appearance in the syllabus, without the course cadence markers…

  • Danah Boyd and Kate Crawford, Critical Questions for Big Data; In <paywalled>Information, Communication & Society,Volume 15, Issue 5 (A decade in Internet time: the dynamics of the Internet and society); 2012; DOI:10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878</paywalled>
    Subtitle: Provocations for a cultural, technological, and scholarly phenomenon
  • Tal Zarsky, The Trouble with Algorithmic Decisions; In Science, Technology & Human Values, Vol 41, Issue 1, 2016 (2015-10-14); ResearchGate.
    Subtitle: An Analytic Road Map to Examine Efficiency and Fairness in Automated and Opaque Decision Making
  • Cathy O’Neil, Weapons of Math Destruction; Broadway Books; 2016-09-06; 290 pages, ASIN:B019B6VCLO: Kindle: $12, paper: 10+SHT.
  • Frank Pasquale, The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information; Harvard University Press; 2016-08-29; 320 pages; ASIN:0674970845: Kindle: $10, paper: $13+SHT.
  • Executive Office of the President, President Barack Obama, Big Data: A Report on Algorithmic Systems, Opportunity, and Civil Rights; The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP); 2016-05; 29 pages; archives.
  • Lisa Gitelman (editor), “Raw Data” is an Oxymoron; Series: Infrastructures; The MIT Press; 2013-01-25; 192 pages; ASIN:B00HCW7H0A: Kindle: $20, paper: $18+SHT.
    Lisa Gitelman, Virginia Jackson; Introduction (6 pages)
  • Agre, “Surveillance and Capture: Two Models of Privacy”
  • Bowker and Star, Sorting Things Out
  • Auerbach, “The Stupidity of Computers”
  • Moor, “What is Computer Ethics?”
  • Hand, “Deconstructing Statistical Questions”
  • O’Neil, On Being a Data Skeptic
  • Domingos, “A Few Useful Things to Know About Machine Learning”
  • Luca, Kleinberg, and Mullainathan, “Algorithms Need Managers, Too”
  • Friedman and Nissenbaum, “Bias in Computer Systems”
  • Lerman, “Big Data and Its Exclusions”
  • Hand, “Classifier Technology and the Illusion of Progress” [Sections 3 and 4]
  • Pager and Shepherd, “The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets”
  • Goodman, “Economic Models of (Algorithmic) Discrimination”
  • Hardt, “How Big Data Is Unfair”
  • Barocas and Selbst, “Big Data’s Disparate Impact” [Parts I and II]
  • Gandy, “It’s Discrimination, Stupid”
  • Dwork and Mulligan, “It’s Not Privacy, and It’s Not Fair”
  • Sandvig, Hamilton, Karahalios, and Langbort, “Auditing Algorithms: Research Methods for Detecting Discrimination on Internet Platforms”
  • Diakopoulos, “Algorithmic Accountability: Journalistic Investigation of Computational Power Structures”
  • Lavergne and Mullainathan, “Are Emily and Greg more Employable than Lakisha and Jamal?”
  • Sweeney, “Discrimination in Online Ad Delivery”
  • Datta, Tschantz, and Datta, “Automated Experiments on Ad Privacy Settings”
  • Dwork, Hardt, Pitassi, Reingold, and Zemel, “Fairness Through Awareness”
  • Feldman, Friedler, Moeller, Scheidegger, and Venkatasubramanian, “Certifying and Removing Disparate Impact”
  • Žliobaitė and Custers, “Using Sensitive Personal Data May Be Necessary for Avoiding Discrimination in Data-Driven Decision Models”
  • Angwin, Larson, Mattu, and Kirchner, “Machine Bias”
  • Kleinberg, Mullainathan, and Raghavan, “Inherent Trade-Offs in the Fair Determination of Risk Scores”
  • Northpointe, COMPAS Risk Scales: Demonstrating Accuracy Equity and Predictive Parity
  • Chouldechova, “Fair Prediction with Disparate Impact”
  • Berk, Heidari, Jabbari, Kearns, and Roth, “Fairness in Criminal Justice Risk Assessments: The State of the Art”
  • Hardt, Price, and Srebro, “Equality of Opportunity in Supervised Learning”
  • Wattenberg, Viégas, and Hardt, “Attacking Discrimination with Smarter Machine Learning”
  • Friedler, Scheidegger, and Venkatasubramanian, “On the (Im)possibility of Fairness”
  • Tene and Polonetsky, “Taming the Golem: Challenges of Ethical Algorithmic Decision Making”
  • Lum and Isaac, “To Predict and Serve?”
  • Joseph, Kearns, Morgenstern, and Roth, “Fairness in Learning: Classic and Contextual Bandits”
  • Barocas, “Data Mining and the Discourse on Discrimination”
  • Grgić-Hlača, Zafar, Gummadi, and Weller, “The Case for Process Fairness in Learning: Feature Selection for Fair Decision Making”
  • Vedder, “KDD: The Challenge to Individualism”
  • Lippert-Rasmussen, “‘We Are All Different’: Statistical Discrimination and the Right to Be Treated as an Individual”
  • Schauer, Profiles, Probabilities, And Stereotypes
  • Caliskan, Bryson, and Narayanan, “Semantics Derived Automatically from Language Corpora Contain Human-like Biases”
  • Zhao, Wang, Yatskar, Ordonez, and Chang, “Men Also Like Shopping: Reducing Gender Bias Amplification using Corpus-level Constraints”
  • Bolukbasi, Chang, Zou, Saligrama, and Kalai, “Man Is to Computer Programmer as Woman Is to Homemaker?”
  • Citron and Pasquale, “The Scored Society: Due Process for Automated Predictions”
  • Ananny and Crawford, “Seeing without Knowing”
  • de Vries, “Privacy, Due Process and the Computational Turn”
  • Zarsky, “Transparent Predictions”
  • Crawford and Schultz, “Big Data and Due Process”
  • Kroll, Huey, Barocas, Felten, Reidenberg, Robinson, and Yu, “Accountable Algorithms”
  • Bornstein, “Is Artificial Intelligence Permanently Inscrutable?”
  • Burrell, “How the Machine ‘Thinks’”
  • Lipton, “The Mythos of Model Interpretability”
  • Doshi-Velez and Kim, “Towards a Rigorous Science of Interpretable Machine Learning”
  • Hall, Phan, and Ambati, “Ideas on Interpreting Machine Learning”
  • Grimmelmann and Westreich, “Incomprehensible Discrimination”
  • Selbst and Barocas, “Regulating Inscrutable Systems”
  • Jones, “The Right to a Human in the Loop”
  • Edwards and Veale, “Slave to the Algorithm? Why a ‘Right to Explanation’ is Probably Not the Remedy You are Looking for”
  • Duhigg, “How Companies Learn Your Secrets”
  • Kosinski, Stillwell, and Graepel, “Private Traits and Attributes Are Predictable from Digital Records of Human Behavior”
  • Barocas and Nissenbaum, “Big Data’s End Run around Procedural Privacy Protections”
  • Chen, Fraiberger, Moakler, and Provost, “Enhancing Transparency and Control when Drawing Data-Driven Inferences about Individuals”
  • Robinson and Yu, Knowing the Score
  • Hurley and Adebayo, “Credit Scoring in the Era of Big Data”
  • Valentino-Devries, Singer-Vine, and Soltani, “Websites Vary Prices, Deals Based on Users’ Information”
  • The Council of Economic Advisers, Big Data and Differential Pricing
  • Hannak, Soeller, Lazer, Mislove, and Wilson, “Measuring Price Discrimination and Steering on E-commerce Web Sites”
  • Kochelek, “Data Mining and Antitrust”
  • Helveston, “Consumer Protection in the Age of Big Data”
  • Kolata, “New Gene Tests Pose a Threat to Insurers”
  • Swedloff, “Risk Classification’s Big Data (R)evolution”
  • Cooper, “Separation, Pooling, and Big Data”
  • Simon, “The Ideological Effects of Actuarial Practices”
  • Tufekci, “Engineering the Public”
  • Calo, “Digital Market Manipulation”
  • Kaptein and Eckles, “Selecting Effective Means to Any End”
  • Pariser, “Beware Online ‘Filter Bubbles’”
  • Gillespie, “The Relevance of Algorithms”
  • Buolamwini, “Algorithms Aren’t Racist. Your Skin Is just too Dark”
  • Hassein, “Against Black Inclusion in Facial Recognition”
  • Agüera y Arcas, Mitchell, and Todorov, “Physiognomy’s New Clothes”
  • Garvie, Bedoya, and Frankle, The Perpetual Line-Up
  • Wu and Zhang, “Automated Inference on Criminality using Face Images”
  • Haggerty, “Methodology as a Knife Fight”
    <snide>A metaphorical usage. Let hyperbole be your guide</snide>

Previously filled.

A Product Management Framework for the Internet of Things | Daniel Elizalde

; A Product Management Framework for the Internet of Things; ; In His Blog; 2016 (circa, per copyright) .

Mentions

The 5×7 matrix of Technology (Stack layer) × Concern

Frameworks

Technology Stack

  1. Device Hardware
  2. Device Software
  3. Communications
  4. Cloud Platform
  5. Cloud Application

Decision Framework

  • UX
  • Data
  • Business
  • Technology
  • Security
  • Standards
  • Regulations

Theories

  • Gap Analysis
  • Lean
  • N-somethning P-something I-something (NPI)
    New Product Introduction (NPI)

Claims

  • All steps are order-dependent.
  • The process must be done “just right” or it won’t work.
  • Rinse, repeat.

Actualities

Previously

In His Blog

Overview of the Digital Object Architecture (DOA) | ISOC

Overview of the Digital Object Architecture (DOA); an Information Paper, The Internet Society; 2016-10-25; 8 pages; landing.
contributor credit: Chip Sharp, scrivener

Contents

  • Introduction
  • What is the Digital Object Architecture?
  • What is a Handle?
  • Handle Resolution
  • Who Runs the Global Handle System?
  • Examples of systems based on the Digital Object Architecture/Handle System
  • Standards and the Handle System
  • Policy Considerations
  • Trademarks and Service Marks
  • Resourcs

Introduction

<quote>The Digital Object Architecture (DOA) and associated Handle System® originated at the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) in the early 1990’s based on its work on digital libraries under contract for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).1 One of the original motivations for its design was the need to identify and retrieve information over long periods of time (on the order of tens or hundreds of years) so persistence was a critical design requirement. At the time it was developed, the Digital Object Architecture was an attempt to shift from a view of the Internet as organized around a set of hosts and the transport to reach them to a view in which the Internet was organized around the discovery and delivery of information in the form of digital objects.<quote>

Mentions

  • Digital Object Architecture (DOA)
  • associated Handle System®
    Yes, that’s a registration mark, ®.
  • Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
  • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
  • um, like “digital libraries”
  • DONA Foundation
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs)
  • Multi-Primary Administrators (MPAs), manage the partitions of the namespace of the root servers of the top level GHR.
  • Policy Development Process (PDP)

Architecture

Digital Objects
The records, blobs of bits.
Repositories
The containers of records objects.
Handles
The names are global contextually scoped, universal, persistent.
There is a Handle Protocol, in (at least) version v2.1.
Resolution System and Registries
Like DNS, but different; maps “names” to Handles.

  • Global Handle Registry (GHR), is the root server.
  • Local Handle Services (LHS), are the regional delegates.
Handles
The names are, e.g. GUIDs, UUIDs.
  • unique
  • persistent
  • location-agnostic
  • taxonomy-agnostic

Handle

Defined as a string:
prefix “/” identifier
where
prefix is a “like a” reversed FQDN.
identifier is “like a” filename on the FQDN so referenced.
Thus handles are

  • unique
  • persistent
  • location-agnostic
  • taxonomy-agnostic
Example

For the FQDN of the U.S. Library of Congress (LOC)
FQDN: ye-auguste-national-librarye.loc.gov
Handle: gov.loc.ye-auguste-national-librarye

Registrars>

  • Coalition for Handle Services (ETIRI, CDI and CHC)
  • Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC)
  • Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
  • Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung mbH Göttingen (GWDG)/ePIC
  • International DOI Foundation (IDF)

Participants

DOI® System
  • International DOI Foundation (IDF)
    UK, non-profit, 1998
  • Prefix 10
  • Handle semantics is idiosyncratic, known to themselves.
  • Examples
Persistent Identifier Consortium for eResearch (ePIC)
  • [for the benefit of the] European Research Community
  • Prefix 21

Standards

RFC 3650
S. Sun, L. Lannom, B. Boesch. Handle System Overview, RFC 3650, 2003-11.
RFC 3651
S. Sun, Reilly, L. Lannom. Handle System Namespace and Service Definition, RFC 3651, 2003-11.
RFC 3652
S. Sun, S. Reilly, L. Lannom, J. Petrone. Handle System Protocol (ver 2.1) Specification, RFC 3652, 2003-11.
RFC 4452
H. Van de Sompel, T. Hammond, E. Neylon, S. Weibel. The “info” URI Scheme for Information Assets with Identifiers in Public Namespaces, RFC 4452, 2006-04.
ISO 26324:2012
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), “ISO 26324:2012 Information and documentation — Digital object identifier system“, ISO Standard 26324, 2012-06.
ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2005 (R2010)
ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2005 (R2010) Syntax for the Digital Object Identifier. (revised 2010)
X.1255
ITU-T Recommendation X.1255, Framework for discovery of identity management information, ITU-T, 2014

Trademarks and Service Marks

International DOI Foundation, Inc.
DOI, DOI.ORG, “short DOI” are registered service marks of …
DONA Foundation
DONA, GLOBAL HANDLE REGISTRY, HANDLE SYSTEM are registered service marks of…
Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
HANDLE.NET, HDL, HDL.NET, CNRI are registered service marks of …
HDL, HDL.NET are registered trademarks of …
Internet Society
Internet Society is a registered service mark of the …

References

References

  • Documents at the DONA Foundation
  • open-stand.org
  • ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2005 (R2010) Syntax for the Digital Object Identifier. (revised 2010)
  • Corporation for National Research Initiatives, Overview of the Digital Object Architecture, July 28, 2012
  • DONA Foundation. DONA Foundation Statutes. Geneva. 2014.
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO), “ISO 26324:2012 Information and documentation — Digital object identifier system”, ISO Standard 26324, 2012-06.
  • ITU-T Recommendation X.1255, Framework for discovery of identity management information, ITU-T, 2014.
  • R. Kahn, R. Wilensky. “A Framework for Distributed Digital Object Services”, In International Journal of Digital Libraries (2006) 6: 115.
  • Norman, Paskin. The Digital Object Identifier: From Ad Hoc to National to International. In The Critical Component: Standards in the Information Exchange Environment, edited by Todd Carpenter, ALCTS, 2015.
  • Peter J. Denning & Robert E. Kahn, The Long Quest for Universal Information Access. In Communications of the ACM, Vol. 53 No. 12, Pages 34-36.
  • RFC 3650. S. Sun, L. Lannom, B. Boesch. Handle System Overview, IETF, RFC 3650, 2003-11.
  • RFC 3651. S. Sun, S. Reilly, L. Lannom. Handle System Namespace and Service Definition, IETF, RFC 3651, 2003-11.
  • RFC 3652. S. Sun, S. Reilly, L. Lannom. J. Petrone, Handle System Protocol (ver 2.1) Specification, IETF, RFC 3652, 2003-11.
  • RFC 4452. H. Van de Sompel, T. Hammond, E. Neylon, S. Weibel, The “info” URI Scheme for Information Assets with Identifiers in Public Namespaces, IETF, RFC 4452, 2006-04.

Previously filled.

A Tragedy of Manners | Angela Nagle

A Tragedy of Manners; Angela Nagle; In The Baffler; WHEN?
Teaser: Trump and the new age of anti-PC transgression

tl;dr → Manners are a contested space by which actions valorize the hegemonic power valences of the universalist tropes; they are a tussle among the grand ideologues. The author problematizes the domain and limns the transgressive dialogue towards a synthesis which ultimately resulting in the thesis of the conceptual conundrum while at the same time  preserving the original order, thus standing in opposition to itself with both metaphoric as well as rhetorical stances. The lede is buried. To wit:

<quote>The problem in our current, unacknowledged controversy over manners is that while both sides seem to implicitly accept [value] premise, they have directly opposing views of what our system of manners should be doing and what values it should be normalizing.</quote>

Book

Angela Nagle; Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan And Tumblr To Trump And The Alt-Right; Zero Books; 2017-06-30; 136 pages; Amazon:1785355430: Kindle: $10, paper: $16+SHT; previously filled.

Mentions

  • seismic shock, means “big”
  • Donald Trump
  • cultural anxiety, means racism, coded racism, encoded racism, latent racism.
  • ping-pong style search
  • British Burkean conservative Peter Hitchens
  • in Buckleyite fashion
  • Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, 1820.
  • Sittlichkeit
    • a German word (they have words for everythig)
    • an epithet a term of art
    • definition: the ethical life
  • progressives, the good people.
  • the outmoded, prissy-sounding language of manners
  • pride of place
  • the debased rhetoric plotting out
  • metaphorical usage.
  • <quote>the battle over “political correctness”</quote>, a metaporical usage
  • <quote>ongoing war over speech on college campuses</quote>, a metaporical usage
  • <quote>understood through the lens of</quote>, a metaporical usage
  • liberal free speech rights
  • strategic considerations
  • the free speech wars
  • rights under attack from the state
  • <quote>The same basic paradox assails all spheres of political and cultural confrontation</quote>,
    in which “a paradox” does “assail”
  • [They] abjure
    [They] instinctively abjure reckoning
  • The Decivilizing Process
  • gleefully presided over
  • a mass rejection, the mass rejection
  • a liberal sense of
  • political correctness
  • a renegotiation of propriety
  • a pluralist multi-ethnic modern society
  • accommodating
  • admiration
  • transgression
  • straight-talking style.
  • taboo-breaking
  • an unlicensed brand of
  • right-wing cultural subversion, right-wing cultural subversion
  • repressed snobs
  • pearl-clutchers
  • stereotyped view
  • elitist cultural authoritarians—the storm troopers of the liberal language police.
  • renegotiating
  • the very profound question of
  • magnum opus
  • uncomfortable
  • hardy coterie of academic defenders
  • interconnected collective socialization
  • transition into modernity
  • basic lessons
  • collectively negotiated network of self-constraints
  • socialized people into repudiating
  • the governance of public life
  • self-restraint
  • bodily functions
  • the repression of sexual and violent impulses
  • the very fabric of civilization
  • the liberationist ethos of
  • the sixties New Left
  • <quote>the movement spelled a</quote>, a metaphorical usage
  • <quote>a total breakdown of manners and self-restraint in a “permissive society”<quote>, is a hyperbolic usage
  • that critique gained force
    criticism has force, a metaphorical usage, to be sure.
  • wider declensionist narratives
  • neoconservative historian
  • Gertrude Himmelfarb
  • Victorian England
  • to contend that
  • the post-sixties West would be unable to withstand
  • the chaotic force of modernity
  • Western civilization
  • <quote>on the brink of nothing less than total “demoralization,”</quote>, a hyperbolic usage
  • polemicists, Neocon polemicists
  • few dour and cultured leftists, the few
  • Lewis Lapham
  • Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • the youthful adherents
  • Trumpian, the Trumpian right
  • an allied preoccupation
  • civilizational, civilizational collapse
  • the permissive society
  • quasi-Trumpian supporters
  • the anti-PC resistance
  • Camille Paglia
    • is neo-Freudian
    • Sexual Personae
      , a tome
    • is formidable
      she herself, for her own account
  • most ambivalent and qualified arguments
  • the left-leaning [arguments]
  • celebration of decadent culture
  • exponents, [civilization's] key exponents
  • Oscar Wilde
  • <quote>rescued aesthetic insights in the face of<quote>, a mixed metaphorical usage.
  • largely self-administered cultural collapse
  • a related critical register
  • degeneration theory (Degeneration Theory)
  • Max Nordau
  • Oswald Spengler
  • <quote>shape the tone and content of<quote>, a mixed metaphorical usage.
  • a whole new wave of
  • right-wing alternative media.
  • Part and parcel of
  • declensionist revival (on the right)
  • progress, the idea of progress, the very idea of progress.
  • urgency of [Trump’s] appeal
  • mounting conviction
  • the West
  • rapidly degenerating
  • the rubric of, under the rubric of
  • as administered and championed by
  • cultural liberals
  • Circa 2015
  • 4chan’s /pol/ ‘board
  • a meme, the phrase; the widely-shared meme.
  • the meme, the phrase: “Come on it’s (the current year)”
  • naïve progressives
  • John Oliver
  • questioned, [X] questioned, to question
  • the arbitrary insistence
  • <quote>moving forward in time<quote>, a metaphorical usage
  • superior values.
  • More recently [than circa 2015], which would be the twenty months of 2016 & 2017.
  • the meme, the phrase pair:
    • “$DATE1: $statement1” contra “$DATE2: $statement2”
      where $DATE1 + 30 < $DATE2 && value($statement1) > value($statement2)
    • e.g. “1970: ‘I can’t wait for flying cars/space colonies/a cure for cancer’” contra 2017, an image of a man who identifies as a dog or an adult baby.
  • contemporary identity politics, a representation of contemporary identity politics
  • the political message, the political message is clear
  • claim of dichotomy:
    • either progress itself is a myth
    • all of
      • [we have] stopped progressing
      • [we have] started regressing as a civilization
      • [we are] now intractably sinking into a decivilizing process.
  • Question: You Call That Art?
    Answer: what else could it be? The null hypothesis?
  • An audience
    • looser,
    • right-leaning,
    • online,
  • a meme, the critique-of-progress
    • e.g.Cathedral Gothic Art contra Contemporary Art
    • sarcastically caption: e.g. “progress” or “art then . . . art now.”
  • absurdist
  • <quote>knitting with wool from her vagina</quote>, activities attributed to Casey Jenkins
    which begs the question of how wool got in her vagina; would that be a used tampon?. Juvenile, if true.
  • vastly overrated modern art
  • long been a preoccupation
  • almost a cliché
  • the declension narratives
  • the declension narratives of the right (the third? usage).
  • Francis Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live?, 1976
    honorific: <quote>one of the founding texts of the American religious right<quote>
  • a polemic work, a polemic work of art history.
  • the right-leaning suspicion
  • contemporary art
  • the faux-populist refrain, some variant of the faux-populist refrain
  • “my three-year-old could do that”, an epithet.
  • Roger Scruton, an erudite conservative critic
  • “cult of ugliness”, attributed to Roger Scruton.
  • The young subcultural online right
  • <quote>mourns the death of the ideal of beauty as an extension of its critique of progress</quote>, a mixed metaphorical usage.
  • the hordes of online left-baiters
  • judgments of personal beauty, of women.
  • before-and-after cultural documentation; the transition, the purported transition
    • nice, well-adjusted-looking young women
    • and (or)
      • feminism
      • the ravages of studying the social sciences.
  • exemplar, a hated exemplar: Lena Dunham
  • modern cult of ugliness
  • <quote>channeling the latter avant-garde aesthetic sensibilities of shock and transgression.<quote>ongoing an action attributed to of the [members of the] modern cult of ugliness.
  • confrontationally corpulent nudity, an ongoing action attributed to Lena Dunham.
  • outsider art, contra insider art
  • <quote>[The Nazis] waged war on “degenerate art”<quote>, a metaphorical usage; to wit, National Socialist German Workers’ Party waged actual war as well, such war being one the second most famous policy-based activity for which they are known..
  • Weimar avant-garde, the vibrant Weimar avant-garde
    • a crusade
    • years of reactionary writing
    • modern art beiing
      • ugly
      • Jewish
      • destructive to European traditions
  • …affecting a transition from art to Nazi policy to Donald Trump’s stylistic fluorishes, we see what you did there.
  • Trump’s own famous style
  • fanatically mimicked
  • right-wing culture-jammers
  • a certain avant-gardish notoriety
  • <quote>images so stomach-churning and morally repugnant they “can’t be unseen.”<quote>, an epithet, a passive characterization.
  • The new youthful rightist movements
  • the modern aesthetics of shock and transgression
  • the alternation:
    • horrified critics
    • prolific producers
  • <quote>Trumpians [as a self-conscious class] their leader’s id-driven defiance of the harsh constraints imposed by strict liberal etiquette and sexual mores</quote>
  • [the] coarse “pussy grabbing” comments
  • <quote>the general conditions of cultural decline ushered in by the liberalism of the sixties<quote>
  • Trumpians are not rightist trolls; c.f. <quote>To them and to the rightist trolls</quote>
  • Wherein the shock of throwing X is a pushback against Y
  • <quote>the shock of throwing off liberal etiquette is a pushback against the civilizational decline brought on by those Baby Boomers who threw off their own set of constraints.</quote>
  • Baby Boomers
  • the culture of trolling
  • the culture of style-defining spaces
  • 4chan is
    • a culture of trolling
    • a culture of style-defining spaces
  • [such culture] [is only] a franchise of the far right
  • the fetishization of trolling as
    • “counter-hegemonic”
    • taboo-breaking
  • leftish writers; a characterization, an honorific, an epithet.
  • the sixties view
    • is that systems of personal constraints were the cause of society’s ills rather than the cure.
    • is anti-Freudian.
    • is descended from Rousseau.
  • confused, backswitching narratives of cultural decline
  • <quote>the legacy of Elias sheds an invaluable light</quote>, a mixed metaphorical usage.
  • a body of work about the “decivilizing process”
  • something different than
    • the declension narratives of the right
    • the declension narratives of the left
  • something similar to
    • a communitarian sense of society.
  • the definition [f decline]
    • shorter chains of social interdependence
    • a decrease in
      • in taming of aggressiveness
      • mutual identification
      • the gap between child and adult standards
    • a reliance on external constraints to curb
      • violent impulses
      • unruly impulses
    • an increase in
      • the free expression of aggressiveness
  • Cas Wouters
  • the post-sixties management of manners
  • a less morally constrained time
  • <quote>“a highly controlled decontrolling of emotional controls”<quote>, attributed to Cas Wouters [clearly he too, had no editorial supervision].
  • The Shock Doctrine
    as used here used conflates the argument of Naomi Klein with the critical theoretical implications of public and individual reactions to works of ironic performative criticism as “art.”
  • the memes, the memes of the right
    <quote>the irony-drenched “come on, it’s the current year!” memes of the right</quote>
  • the call to action
    the calls to reject modernity,
    <quote>the merely retrograde calls to reject modernity</quote>
  • Robert Hughes diagnosed
    • an active action
    • claimed: art culture lost 1890→1980
      • Ebullience
      • Idealism
      • Confidence
  • The Shock Doctrine is, and was
    • <quote>the trademark culture-seizing ebullience of modern Western art<quote>
    • the “shock of the new”
    • once heralded the future
  • <quote>[the shock doctrine] was <snip/>a central battleground<quote>, a mixed metaphorical usage.
  • thrashing out the meaning of progress
  • Robert Hughes mourned, an action on his part.
  • the modes, the modes of expression,
    <quote>the nasty, negative, and nihilistic modes of expression that today also paradoxically repulses and characterizes the aesthetic sensibilities of the youthful online right, depending on subtler distinctions of whose rules it is transgressing.</quote>
  • Establishment conservatism, as a self-conscious class.
  • the Trumpians, the Trumpians preside
  • a ghost-dance revival of the very recent past
  • “Make America Great Again”
    • a mission
    • a call to action
  • the legions of the alt-right
  • an imminent nightmarish future
  • <quote>a civilization already dropped off the cliff</quote>, a metaphorical usage.
  • “America is already great!”
    • The centrist insistence
    • The stupendously ineffectual rejoinder to Trump trademarked by the Clinton campaign
    • has an alternative
      • is anemic
      • is uninspiring
      • [is] <quote>a strange kind of end-of-history politics that holds GDP and the gradual liberalization of cultural attitudes as the incontrovertible measure of secular millennialism.</quote>
  • secular millennialism, as measured
    <quote>the incontrovertible measure of secular millennialism</quote>
  • generational living standards
  • the technological affluent future
  • claimed: alt-right memes will have [continued] appeal under the conditions specified.
  • …the rhetorical transition, abruptly, back to the subject of manners. We see what you did there.
  • something about manners
  • an extremely fraught renegotiation
  • …the  rhetorical transition, something about McDonald’s corporation and progress and Nazi Germany and Elias’ thought:
    • The corporate slogan
      of McDonalds, the golden arches of McDonalds
      “A modern and progressive burger company.”
    • Norbert Elias
      • a German
      • a Jew
      • fled Nazi Germany
      • mother died in Auschwitz
  • civilization
  • equals restraint
  • a delicate balance
  • atrophies
  • all is lost
  • <quote>We’re now in the midst of an extremely fraught renegotiation of the values expressed in our system of manners.</quote>
  • the controversy [teach the controversy],
    <quote>our current unacknowledged controversy over manners</quote>

Pantheon

  • Peter Hitchens, a British Burkean conservative.
  • James Burke, a theorist.
  • William Buckley, a theorist.
  • Lena Dunham, a performer; was born, lived in New York, her family members work as artists, work in the arts.
  • Norbert Elias, a scrivener; performed landmark research.
  • Sigmund Freud, a theorist.
  • Gertrude Himmelfarb, historicist, a neoconservative
  • Robert Hughes, a theorist, upon the domain of art
  • Casey Jenkins, a performer; (ahem, is female); has a vagina
  • Lewis Lapham, a leftist, by trade; is dour, is cultured.
  • William Gibbon, a scrivener
  • Max Nordau, a theorist; branded: Degeneration Theory.
  • John Oliver, a performer, of satire; is naive, is progressive (good).
  • Camille Paglia, a theorist; is formidable, she, herself.
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau, a theorist.
  • Francis Schaeffer, a theorist.
  • Roger Scruton, a theorist; is conservative, is erudite.
  • Oswald Spengler, a theorist; branded: Degeneration Theory.
  • Donald J. Trump, boffo, a data subject, the data subject.
  • Slavoj Žižek, a philosoph, a Marxist.
  • Oscar Wilde, a practitioner; is an exponent.
  • Cas Wouters, a theorist; following the theory of Norbert Elias.

Referenced

  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, 1820.
  • Norbert Elias, The Civilizing Process, 1939.
  • Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1776.
  • Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, 2007.
  • Camile Paglia, Sexual Personae, 1990.
    honorific: a tome.
  • Francis Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live?, 1976.
    honorific: <quote>one of the founding texts of the American religious right<quote>

Argot

The suitcase words
  • Avant-garde, The Avant-garde
  • Baby Boomers
  • Burkean
  • Buckleyite
  • Declenscionist Narrative
  • Decivilizing Process, The
  • Descent Theory
  • Freudian, neo-Freudian
  • Left
    • New Left
    • The Left
  • Right
    • Alt-Right
    • The Right
  • Sixties, The Sixties
  • Shock Doctrine, The
  • Trumpian
  • West, The West

Previously filled.

C++17 in details: Parallel Algorithms | Bartłomiej Filipek

Bartłomiej Filipek <noreply@blogger.com>; C++17 in details: Parallel Algorithms; In His Blog; 2017-08-17.

Contents

Mentioned

  • C++11
  • C++14
  • C++17
  • “map reduce” is “transform reduce” in C++17.
  • execution policy.

Scheme

std::algorithm_name(policy, arguments...);

Components

#include <execution>
namespace std::execution
std::execution::ExecutionPolicy

Configuration
Sequential
The algorithm may not be parallelized.

  • (type) std::execution::sequenced_policy
  • (constant) std::execution::seq
Parallel
The algorithm may be parallelized; each individual ith can be scheduled concurrently, but within a stripe, serialization occurs.

  • (type) std::execution::parallel_policy
  • (constant) std::execution::par
Unsequenced (Vectorizable)
The algorithm can be vectorized; the workload as a whole is to be considered.

  • (type) std::execution::parallel_unsequenced_policy
  • (constant) std::execution::par_unseq

Catalog

Via Experimental Parallel Algorithms, at cppreference.com.

Generally…

  • adjacent difference
  • adjacent find.
  • all_of
  • any_of
  • none_of
  • copy
  • count
  • equal
  • fill
  • find
  • generate
  • includes
  • inner product
  • in place merge
  • merge
  • is heap
  • is partitioned
  • is sorted
  • lexicographical_compare
  • min element
  • minmax element
  • mismatch
  • move
  • n-th element
  • partial sort
  • sort copy
  • partition
  • remove & variations
  • replace & variations
  • reverse
  • rotate
  • search
  • set difference
  • intersection
  • union
  • symmetric difference
  • sort
  • stable partition
  • swap ranges
  • transform
  • unique
More New…
  • for_each
  • for_each_n
  • reduce
  • exclusive_scan
  • inclusive_scan
  • std::partial_sum
The Map/Reduce Idom
  • transform_reduce – applies a functor, then reduces out of order
  • transform_exclusive_scan – applies a functor, then calculates exclusive scan
  • transform_inclusive_scan – applies a functor, then calculates inclusive scan

Filler

  • GPU
  • Vectorization (SIMD)
  • Packages
    • CUDA
    • OpenCL
    • OpenGL
    • SYCL
    • Intel TBB
    • “other” vectorized libraries
  • Amdahl’s law; In Jimi Wales’ Wiki

Referenced

There are many resources referenced

Papers

isocpp.org
  • N4659Draft, Standard for Programming Language C++, 2017-03-21.
  • P0024R2Parallelism
    a.k.a. “the original paper for the spec”
  • P0636r0Changes between C++14 and C++17 DIS
  • N3554PDF: A Parallel Algorithms Library, 2013.
    a.k.a. “the initial Parallelism TS”

Popularization

In Modern C++ (Magazine)‖

Books

  • Jacek Galowicz; C++17 STL Cookbook; amzn.to
  • Marius Bancila; Modern C++ Programming Cookbook; amzn.to

YouTube

  • Bryce Adelstein; A Talk; On YouTube; WHEN?
    tl;dr → something about the distinction between std::execution::par, and std::execution::par_unseq.
  • Bryce Lelbach: C++Now 2017: C++17 Features; On YouTube; 2017.
  • Sean Parent; A Talk; At code::dive (Conference), hosted on YouTube; 2016; same material(?) was the subject of a keynote address at CppNow 2012 <rly?>
  • Jason Turner: C++ Weekly channel; On YouTube.
    tl;dr → covers C++17 features in a linear read-the-news-at-you-over-visual-media type format.

Implementations

Previously

In His Blog

Series

  1. Fixes and deprecation
  2. Language clarification
  3. Templates
  4. Attributes
  5. Simplification
  6. Library changes – Filesystem
  7. Library changes – Parallel STL
  8. Library changes – Utils
  9. Wrap up, Bonus

Previously filled.

Defending Internet Freedom through Decentralization: Back to the Future? | Barabas, Narula, Zuckerman

Chelsea Barabas, Neha Narula, Ethan Zuckerman; Defending Internet Freedom through Decentralization: Back to the Future?;a book?; The Center for Civic Media & The Digital Currency Initiative; MIT Media Lab; 2017; 113 pages.

tl;dr → theoretical; witnessing.  You tell it, you tell the story!  Mentions Bitcoin on page 2; uses the word “hegemon” on page 14.  Offers a cook’s tour of the boosterist community and their projects: Freedom Box, Diaspora, Mastodon, Blockstack, Interplanetary File System (IPFS), Solid, Appcoins, Steemit.

Table of Contents

  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
    • The Rise of the Centralized Web
    • Risks Posed by the Centralized Web
    • Structural Interventions as a Possible Solution
  • Section II: Federation
    • Freedom Box
    • Diaspora
    • Mastodon
  • Section III: Open Protocols
    • Authentication
    • Blockstack
    • Interoperability
    • IPFS
    • Solid
  • Section IV: Appcoins
    • Steemit
  • Conclusion

Recommendations

  • Wait and see, only time will tell.
    <quote>A precondition for the success of these distributed
    platforms is a shift towards user-controlled data,</quote>
  • Fund the projects (the best-of-breed exemplars, below, and more)
    e.g. Let’s Encrypt.
  • The fascination, gee whiz!; it’s simply phenomenal!
    Use Appcoins

    • circumvent Venture Capital funding.
    • business model: unspecified, but definitely “not advertising”
  • A fool and his money are soon parted:
    • <quote>However, this space also has a lot of potential for scams, and it might be unreasonable to expect users to manage a financial stake in many different networks.</quote>

Mentions

  • Bitcoin
  • Facebook
  • Reddit
  • Let’s Encrypt
  • Appcoins
  • Digitial Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Gopher
  • Archie
  • Wide Area Information Server (WAIS)
  • John Perry Barlow
    A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace
  • Fred Turner
    ambiguous reference

  • World Wide Web (WWW)
  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • “lock the web open”, attributed to Brewster Kayle.
  • Peer-to-Peer
  • cypherpunk worldview
  • Diffie-Hellman key exchange
  • Bitcoin
  • ledger
  • accounts
  • Hyper-Text Transport Protocol (HTTP)
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • <quote>Distributed, peer-to-peer protocols like HTTP and SMTP</quote>
    um, what?
  • Millennials
  • Baby Boomers
  • Google competitors
    • Baidu,
    • Yahoo,
    • Microsoft,
    • Yandex.
    • hey … what about DuckDuckGo?
  • Twitter
  • Arab Spring
  • Tunisia
  • Baltimore
  • BitTorrent
  • YouTube
  • WhatsApp
  • software stack
  • surveillance
  • decryption keys
  • Thailand
  • Thai Royal Family
  • “lock

Exemplars

Good

  • Freedom Box
  • Diaspora
  • Mastodon
  • Blockstack
  • Interplanetary File System (IPFS)
  • Solid
  • Appcoins
  • Steemit

Bad

  • Facebook
  • Google
  • Reddit
  • Twitter
  • WhatsApp
  • YouTube

Concerns

  • User and developer adoption
  • Security
  • Monetization and incentives

Risks

Elaborated in the Introduction

  1. Top-down, Direct Censorship
  2. Something. Couldn’t identify what it was. His second point, and surely they had one…

Characterizations

Honorifics

  • decentralized
  • good old days of unmediated publishing
  • critical safeguard for user privacy
  • mainstream
  • “disrupt” this new class of power elites

Epithets

  • mega-platform
  • centralized
  • third-party intermediaries
  • marginalized voices
  • for-profit
  • today’s online hegemons.

Who

  • John Perry Barlow, theorist.
  • Philando Castile, executed by police, on live TV.
  • David Chaum, polymath.
  • Fred Turner, Harry and Norman Chandler Professor of Communication
    Department Chair, Stanford University.
  • Frederick Jackson Turner, Wisconsin, Harvard, 1861→1932.
  • Mark Zuckerbirg, CEO, Facebook

References

There are 201 references, presented inline, as footnotes, in the style of a legal tract.

They are <omitted/> herein.

Previously filled.

BUS 145 — Product Management for the Internet of Things

BUS 145 — Product Management for the Internet of Things

Instructor: Daniel Elizalde

Syllabus

Daniel Elizalde, Founder, TechProductManagement

Daniel Elizalde trains product managers to become successful at managing IoT products through his IoT Decision Framework. He has over fifteen years of experience managing the lifecycle of IoT products. He regularly speaks at conferences and publishes the IoT product management blog TechProductManagement.

From the Survey

Greatest Challenge

Longevity and continuity concepts in product design and business model operation for consumer IoT operation. By way of perspective, my home is 60 years old.  My truck is fifteen years old.  All of them still “work.”  However, in the time span that I have owned the house, I have installed and a whole generation of television technology (the cutover to HDTV and encrypted digital cable from terrestrial broadcast analog signal transmission) and I have installed and remaindered two separate generations of analog and hybrid copper telecom infrastructure.  Today I use a 2nd generation of VoIP (whereas AT&T committed to and abandoned their VoiP business line [CallVantage]).  The challenge for IoT is how to provide significant lifespan to the technologies underpinning the services being offered.  Product lifetimes are short, frequently being circumscribed to a single build plan or kickstarter initiative at all.  More frequently now one sees abandonment of whole products and even lines of business in toto within a single fiscal year; c.f. Intel’s recent repudiation of their IoT product lines.  By the time the class starts, the IoT SBC line, Edison, Curie, etc., will be in final-order EOL status.

What to Learn
The learning would be around business model development under ephemeral technology constraints and the tie-in to product design. One is very cognizant of the “How to Survive on a Diet of Poisoned Fruit” thinking.  My trade is in and around online entertainment experiences. These are today are primarily driven from the WinTel platform, but moving onto Apple/Google. They are funded by advertising. The business model for the experiences is oriented around aggregation of “eyeballs”  Success is measured in “unique user counts” or “gross rating points” or “daily active users.”  Monetization (how the money happens) occurs through the introduction of gently intrusive messaging (advertising) wherein sponsors insert reminders of their call to action within the media being created. Whereas “data is the new oil”, the great martech and adtech machinery amplifies the efficacy of the media delivery by allowing audience-based buying and selling of the media.  The current form of the media is “pages” or short-form linear media (video snippets).  None of this makes any sense for an IoT world.  It is unclear how IoT will fund itself.  Consumers will simply not put up with advertising prior to turning on their thermostats or prior to commanding their oven to ignite.  And having a $35-$100/month bill for a “connected light bulb fleet” doesn’t make any sense at all.  We already do this for cell phones and telecom value-added services. Of course one can comprehend that budget-heavy enterprise solutions for predictive maintenance amortization will be useful, that too does not make sense in a consumer or household type setting.

How To Use a Futurist | Leading Thought (Liz Alexander)

How To Use a Futurist, promotional literature; Leading Thought; undated
25 ways futurists help organizations of all sizes and types discover, influence and experience preferred futures
Leading Thought is a training boutique.

tl;dr → demand generation for futurist work product. & interventions.  While anyone can do it, and it requires no real training, there is no actual barrier to entry in “the field”; yet there are branded methods. schemas and a lexicon to follow in the production of conforming output.

Author

Liz Alexander, Ph.D., Consulting Futurist & Co-founder, Leading Thought.
Leading Thought is a training boutique.

Table of Contents

  1. INTRODUCTION: Why Hire a Futurist?
  2. PART ONE: OVERVIEW
  3. What can a futurist do for you?
    Nine futurists representing Australia, Canada, Malaysia, Pakistan, U.K. and the United States outline how they help their clients achieve impact.
  4. PART TWO: TOOLS
  5. How do futurists arrive at alternatives?
    “Big Time,” Implications Wheel®, and Three Horizons are just a few of the many tools and methodologies that futurists use.
  6. PART THREE: SYNERGIES7.
  7. What else do we bring to the table?
    In many respects futurists are like gardeners. We cultivate insights and ideas by drawing on a broad range of expertise, skills and talents. But we begin by cultivating ourselves!
  8. Resources and Extras
  9. How other futurists are making an impact.
  10. Are You Ready to Claim YOUR Future?
Book

Craig Badings, Liz Alexander; # THOUGHT LEADERSHIP tweet Book01: 140 Prompts for Designing and Executing an Effective Thought Leadership Campaign (yes, that’s really the title, you can do that when you self-publish); THINKaha; 2012-10-06; 161 pages; ISBN:1616990929; Amazon:B009VJOZLQ: Kindle: $10, paper: $5+SHT.

Mentioned

  • Causal Layered Analysis (CLA)
    claim: links metaphor to strategy
  • Metafuture, a consultancy, training services.
  • Volatile, Uncertain, Complex Ambiguous (VUCA)
  • Scenarios, a.k.a. “alternative futures”
    definition: set of fictional narratives reflecting plausible future worlds
  • Kerr Smith, a design shop.
  • Generic Alternative Futures
    of the Manoa School.
  • Industry 4.0
  • Millennials
  • Generation Z.
  • Udacity
  • Knowledge Works
  • YouTube
  • Visioning
  • Roadmapping
    something about Systems Thinking
  • Future of Cities
  • Thought Leaders
  • Arup Foresight
  • Preferred Futures
  • Big History Project
    • Big Time
    • Big Space
  • Implications Wheel®
  • Futures Wheel
  • Futures Triangle
  • The Six Pillars Method
  • Futures
    • Negative Futures
    • Positive Futures
  • <aphorism>futurists are like gardeners</aphorism>
  • Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • a pedagogical theory
    • Benjamin Bloom
    • 1956
  • Anticipatory Action Learning (AAL)
  • Multiple Selves Theory
    perhaps David Lester
  • Visioning
  • Backcasting (contra Forecasting)
  • Delphi Method
  • Anthropology
    • “tribes” of consumer classes
    • user research, consumer research
    • The Focus Group
    • e.g. self-employed, sole proprietors, journeymen, tradesmen.
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Triple Bottom Line (3BL)
    • Concept
      • Social
      • Environmental (also, ecological)
      • Financial
    • Jimi Wales’ Wiki
    • Contra
      • Double Bottom Line
        (Regular) Bottom Line.
  • Weak Signals
  • Megatrends
    • Social, Demographic, Technological, Economic, Environmental, Political (STEEP)
    • Probably other acronyms as well
  • burgeoning fields

Methods

Anticipatory Action Learning (AAL)

  • Sketch of the Concept: none
    Seems to be a group process facilitation method with guard precepts around “the triggers.”  Something about how AAL is better; gives more confidence in treated subjects and … the salubrious result obtains.
  • Definition
    • <quote>unique style of questioning the future</quote>
  • Non-Concepts
    • <quote>while critical, it does not accede to any particular tradition of
      critical theory (Continental or Indic, for example) but rather draws from the actors’ ownepistemological categories.</quote>
  • Steps: unknown
  • Goals
    • better alternative futures, better scenarios; less boosterism, gee whiz!
    • <quote cite=ref section=4>A crucial factor is seeing futures not only as forecasting but as creating confidence individuals’ and systems’ abilities to creatively adapt to new challenges. The anticipatory action learning dimension is decisive. <snip/> Organizational, social, environmental, cultural and spiritual innovation is one of the most important potential contributions of Futures Studies.</quote>
  • Separation of Concerns
    1. Sensitivity to the social norms
    2. Discomfort with the material (“the struggle”)
    3. Will can be “appropriatable by power” by “official futures” [is that good or bad?]
    4. Notional “resistance” is to be respected; negotiated with, not removed.
    5. The Other.
  • References

Causal Layered Analysis (CLA)

  • Sketch of the Concept, among the link chiclets of Tricia Lustig, at pearltrees.
  • Steps
    Recite & elaborate

    1. Litany, of operating assumptions
    2. Systems and Institutions
    3. Worldviews, the values and tacit knowledge of Systems and Institutions
    4. Myths & Metaphors, narratives, framing, language usage, etc. c.f. Lakoff; e.g. “war against” { drugs, cancer, poverty, terrorism, Christmas }.
  • References

Delphi Method

  • Sketch of the Concept: none
  • Steps
    • Interview many.
    • Blend
    • Synthesize a “consensus opinion.”
    • Report out.
  • References

Futures Wheel

  • Sketch of the Concept, among the link chiclets of Tricia Lustig, at pearltrees.
  • Steps
    • Pretend the change has already happened.
    • Elaborate.
    • Focus on unintended consequences.
  • References
    • Obvious

Generic Alternative Futures (GAF), of the Manoa School

  • Sketch of the Method
    • alternative futures, a.k.a. “scenarios”
    • futures visioning process (five futures)
    • generic alternative futures (four)
      1. continuation
      2. collapse
      3. discipline
      4. transformation
    • preferred alternative future (plus one)
      1. preferred
  • References

Mulitple Selves Theory

  • Concept
    just what it says
  • Genre
    • personality development
    • child development
    • etc.
  • References
    • David Lester; A Multiple Self Theory of Personality; Nova Science Publishers, 1st edition; 2010-03-30; 186 pages; ASIN:1608767833 kindle: no, paper: $70+SHT.

Roadmapping

Three Horizons

  • Sketch of the Method, among the link chiclets of Tricia Lustig, at pearltrees
  • Concepts (the plurals):
    • Horizons named as Horizon #0, Horizon #1, Horizon #2, Horizon #3.
    • Tomorrows named as “tomorrow++”, “tomorrow+”
  • Steps
    1. Identify Horizon #0 Recent enough past for context
    2. Identify Horizon #1, the present
    3. Imagine “tomorrow++”
      This is Horizon #3, the possible future of “30-years hence”
    4. Imagine “tomorrow +” as a blend between Horizon #1 & Horizon #3.
      This is Horizon #2, as the reasoned path-based narration from Horizon #1 & Horizon #3.
  • Reference

Six Pillars Method

  • Sketch of the Method
  • Concepts
  • Steps
    1. Mapping the Present and the Future
      Apply: futures triangle, futures landscape.
    2. Anticipating the Future
      Apply:  emerging issues analysis, futures wheel.
    3. Timing the Future
      Apply: macrohistory, macrofutures.
    4. Deepening the Future
      Apply: causal layered analysis, multiple selves theory.
    5. Creating Alternatives to the Present
      Apply: scenarios, nuts and bolts[?]
    6. Transforming the Present and Creating the Future
      Apply: visioning, backcasting, anticipatory action learning, the transcend conflict resolution method.
  • References

Visioning

  • Concept: envisioning, imagining.
  • References
    • Obvious

Pantheon

In order of appearance in the work product…

Liz Alexander
Ross Dawson
  • Ross Dawson
  • a promoter
  • founder or co-founder of six (6) companies
    • Rh7thm
    • Advanced Human Technologies
  • Basis: Sydney, Australia
Lynn Curry
Proprietor, CurryCorp
CurryCorp offers training services. <quote>optimizes organizational performance</quote>
Sohail Inayatullah
  • UNESCO Chair for Futures Studies at USIM, Malaysia.
  • Professor, Graduate Institute of Futures Studies at
    • Tamkang University
    • Melbourne Business School, the University of Melbourne;
    • University of the Sunshine Coast.
  • Elsewhere attributed as:
    • Professor of Futures Studies, International Management Centres
    • Professorial Research Fellow, Tamkang University, Taiwan
    • Visiting Academic at the Communication Center, Queensland University of Technology.
    • Associate editor of New Renaissance
    • Co-editor of the Journal of Futures Studies.
Robert Burke
  • instructor with Sohail Inayatullah, “Futures Thinking and Strategy Development at Melbourne Business School, the University of Melbourne.
  • offered taught a residential four-day Futures Thinking and Strategy Development Program on a twice-yearly cadence at Melbourne Business School for over 15 years.
  • a director of Futureware Consulting
  • associate of Melbourne Business School, the University of Melbourne.
  • Previously
    • CEO-title roles, various.
Sohail Inayatullah
has many appointments
Ira Wolfe
Ruben Nelson
  • Executive Director of Foresight Canada.
  • Vice Chair, the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science.
  • Honors (from)
    • Queen’s University
    • the Queen’s Calgary Alumni
    • Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science
    • The World Business Academy
    • The Meridian Institute on Leadership, Governance, Change and the Future
Rushdi Abdul Rahim
  • A Senior Vice President at MIGHT
    MIGHT is a policy shop supervised by the Prime Minister’s Department, Malaysia
  • The Director of myForesight® – the Malaysian Foresight Institute.
Kyle Brown
  • from Toronto, Canada
  • Senior Foresight Strategist, Idea Couture
    Idea Couture is an idea shop
  • ex-staff Copenhagen Institute for Futures Studies.
Mark Tuckwood
  • Leading Thought associate
  • founder and principal at Insight Gravity
    Insight Gravity is an idea shop
William Gibson
And which quote do you think they selected?
Victor Vahidi Motti
  • News Editor and Co-Chair of the Youth Council for the World Futures Studies Federation (WFSF)
  • Honors
    • WFSF President’s Outstanding Young Futurists Award in 2013
    • is internationally-renowned
Joel Barker
  • a really great guy
  • “first person to popularize” credit for the concept of the “paradigm shift”
Tom Cheesewright
  • English (UK)
  • a corporate trainer
Patricia Lustig
  • Also “Tricia” Lustig; c.f. tricialustig
  • CEO of LASA Insight Ltd.
  • UK-based
  • practitioner in the methods
  • “author” credit, Strategic Foresight: Learning from the Future; Triarchy Press; 2015-07-15; 186 pages; Amazon:190947066X: Kindle: $16, paper: $21+SHT.
Umar Sheraz Sheraz
  • Senior Research Officer, Center for Policy Studies at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Jonathan Peck
  • President, Institute for Alternative Futures (IAF)
  • President, Alternative Futures Associates (AFA), the for-profit subsidiary
  • Credits
    • “leader” credit in “aspirational futures”
      … which <quote>integrates vision into scenario development</quote>
    • the method has been used in billable practice.
Jörn Bühring
  • Dr. Jörn Bühring
  • Research Assistant Professor, School of Design, Hong Kong Polytechnic University of Technology
  • program leader of the [Design] School’s Ignite Innovation Program
  • Has performed billable work for industry
  • He likes design-inspired foresight, vision and fiction.
Anne Boysen
  • Founder of After the Millennials,
    After the Millennials is an idea shop.
  • Associate,Leading Thought
  • A practitioner.
  • A graduate of the Foresight Program of the University of Houston.
Andrew Staines
Lisa Galarneau
  • Dr. Lisa Galarneau
  • An anthropologist
    A socio-cultural anthropologist
  • Graduated 25 years ago.
  • Employment: Amazon
Jacques Barcia
  • Jacques Barcia
  • Brazilian citizenship
  • Trade: reporter.
  • Has won awards
  • is an award-winning
  • “responsible” credit Mind the Future program at Porto Digital
    Porto Digital is an idea shop.
  • Staff, Dream Machine Futures Studio
    Dream Machine Futures Studio is an idea shop
Alice Walker
is quoted
Radha Mistry
  • Radha Mistry
  • Employment
  • Applied Research and Consulting (Division), Steelcase
  • Previous
    • Arup Foresight, London
    • Arup Foresight, San Francisco.
Frank Spencer
Puruesh Chaudhary
  • Founder and President of AGAHI
    AGAHI, Foresight Lab is an idea shop
  • Pakistan.
  • member, the Global Shapers Community, World Economic Forum
Mazlan Othman
  • Dr. Mazlan Othman
  • Credits
    • “first astro-physicist of Malaysia”
Brian David Johnson

Practicum

Hosts

  • Burston Marsteller
  • Ford
  • OECD
  • SAP

Purveyors

Schools

  • Arizona State University
  • University of Houston
  • University of Hawaii, Manoa

Outreach

Inspiration

  • Drivers Of Change
Credits

Image: 123rf.com
Cover: Le Moal Olivier
Interior: everythingpossible

Promotions

Referenced

in arbitrary order…

Previously filled.

Reflections on the REST Architectural Style and “Principled Design of the Modern Web Architecture” | Fielding, Taylor, Erenkrantz, Gorlick, Whitehead, Khare, Oreizy

Roy T. Fielding, Richard N. Taylor, Justin Erenkrantz, Michael M. Gorlick, E. James Whitehead, Rohit Khare, Peyman Oreizy; Reflections on the REST Architectural Style and “Principled Design of the Modern Web Architecture; In Proceedings of the 2017 11th Joint Meeting on Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE 2017); 2017; pages 4-11 (8 pages); landing.

Performed

Reflections on REST; keynote address; performed at the 2017 11th Joint Meeting on Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE 2017); by one of Roy Fielding, Richard Taylor, Rohit Khare (expect: Rohit Khare); video; 0:47:41; slides (42 slides).

Abstract

Seventeen years after its initial publication at ICSE 2000, the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style continues to hold significance as both a guide for understanding how the World Wide Web is designed to work and an example of how principled design, through the application of architectural styles, can impact the development and understanding of large-scale software architecture. However, REST has also become an industry buzzword: frequently abused to suit a particular argument, confused with the general notion of using HTTP, and denigrated for not being more like a programming methodology or implementation framework. In this paper, we chart the history, evolution, and shortcomings of REST, as well as several related architectural styles that it inspired, from the perspective of a chain of doctoral dissertations produced by the University of California’s Institute for Software Research at UC Irvine. These successive theses share a common theme: extending the insights of REST to new domains and, in their own way, exploring the boundary of software engineering as it applies to decentralized software architectures and architectural design. We conclude with discussion of the circumstances, environment, and organizational characteristics that gave rise to this body of work.

Mentions

  • REpresentational State Transfer (REST)
  • Computational REpresentational State Transfer (CREST)
    Computational REST (CREST)
  • Capability Uniform Resource Locator (CURL)
    Capability URL (CURL)
  • COmputAtional State Transfer (COAST)
  • Computing Resource Exchange with Security (COAST)
  • ARRESTED
  • Application Programming Interface (API)
  • Distributed Hash Table (DHT)
  • SIENA (Scalable Internet Event Notification Architectures)
  • XML
  • DHT
  • HTTP
  • REST
  • bit.ly
  • Persistsent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL)
    Persistsent URL (PURL)
  • Notifications
    • e.g. on page transitions
    • HTML ping
    • DOM, onClick, onLoad, onAnything
    • M. Thomson, E. Damaggio, B Raymor. Generic Event Delivery Using HTTP Push. RFC 8030. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 2016.
  • Google Analytics
  • Google Docs
  • Google Sheets
  • AJAX
  • JavaScript
  • HTTP
    • LINK
    • UNLINK
  • Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
  • Decentralized Applications (DAPPs, dApps)
  • Client/Server
  • Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV, WEBDAV)
    • lock-based concurrency control
    • An RPC-based client-server centralized ile system with remote access “over HTTP”
  • Limitations of REST
    • one-shot
    • one-to-one
    • one-way
  • execution engine
  • binding environment
  • COAST
    • Capabilities
      • Services
      • Messaging
      • Interpretation
    • Claims
      • Secure remote code execution (RCE)
      • Live update
      • Novel
      • Monitoring & Traceability
      • Something about refactoring:
        Server abdication, client redelegation, server re-offering (fewer services), client reprogramming of the server.
      • Dynamic Reconfiguration
  • Group Consensus and Simultaneous Agreement (GCSA)
  • WebRTC,
  • Websockets
  • Webhooks
  • HTTP/2
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Content Distrubtion Network (CDN)
  • TrueTime
  • GlobalClock
  • Apache Kafka
  • Amazon Kinesis,
  • Google Cloud Pub/Sub
  • Amazon Lambda,
  • IFTTT
  • ‘assistants’, a natural language conversational product concept, within the buzzy AI business culture. Think: Eliza, that you built in high school.
  • Cassandra
  • NoSQL
  • Federated Learning
  • Merkle Hash Trees (not MHT)
  • Bitcoin
  • <buzz>blockchain</buzz>
  • Git
    • is a decentralized in concept.
    • is not decentrlaized in practice, c.f. GitHub
  • Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
  • Computational REpresentational State Transfer (CREST)
  • Aura
  • Nikander
  • Trickles
  • network continuations
  • Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)
    • HTTP/1.1
    • HTTP/2
  • DARPA
  • NSF
  • ISR (Irvine Software Rationalization?)
  • Arcadia

Behavior, Asynchrony, State, Execution (BASE)

Concept

Adapability requires the design-time  actions…

LP1
making the parts that are subject to change identifiable, discrete and manipulable.
LP2
providing mechanisms for controlling interactions between the parts subject to change.
LP3
providing techniques for managing state.

Elaborated

  • Peyman Oreizy, Nenad Medvidovic, Richard N. Taylor. Runtime Software Adaptation: Framework, Approaches, and Styles. In Companion of 30th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE Companion). 2008. ACM. pages 899–910.
  • Richard N. Taylor, Nenad Medvidovic, Peyman Oreizy. Architectural Styles for Runtime Software Adaptation. In Proceedings of the Eighth Joint Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture and Third European Conference on Software Architecture. IEEE Computer Society, 171–180. 2009.

Exemplars

  • C2
  • CREST
  • MapReduce
  • Pipe-and-Filter
  • Event Notifications
  • “and others.”

Disambiguation

  1. within the transaction formalization of Database Theory
    • Basically Available, Soft state, Eventual consistency (BASE)
      not as used herein.
    • a consistency model wherein everything almost works
      riposte: “eventually we are all dead.”
    • Contra
      • Always Computing In Denial (ACID)
      • Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability (ACID)
  2. within the Dynamic Software Architectures Theory, page 9.
    • Behavior
    • Asynchrony
    • State
    • Execution
  3. within the ARRESTED Theory, page 10.
    the “mindset” of a node in a distributed network.
    Best-Effort
    Others are making their best effort, as are you.
    Approximate
    There is only approximate knowledge of the state of The Other; your theory of mind is limited & foggy, slacky-latent.
    Self-centered
    Others are self-centered, as are you.
    Efficient
    Make efficient use of the only global resource: communication bandwidth to others; i.e. time is the only finite resource.

Asynchronous, Routed, REpresentational State Transfer with Estimation & Delgation (A+R+REST+E+D, ARRESTED)

  • Polling (and its inverse Asynchrony)
  • Asynchrony (and its inverse Polling)
  • Routing
  • Delegation
  • Estimation

Concept

Theory
REST+P
REST with Polling.
REST+E
REST with Estimation.
A+REST
REST with Asynchrony (callbacks).
R+REST
REST with Routing (packets).
REST+D
REST with Delegation (proxies, gateways).
ARREST
Asynchronous, Routed, REST.
ARREST+E
Asynchronous, Routed, REST, with Estimation.
ARREST+D
Asynchronous, Routed, REST, with Delgation.
ARREST+D
Asynchronous, Routed, REST, with Estimation & Delgation.
ARRESTED
A synonym for slow, yes?
Topology

The metaphor.

Poles
North
Centralized Systems
East
Estimated Systems
South
Decentralized Systems
West
Distributed Systems
Boundaries
now horizon
  • Master-Slave Styles
  • Peer-to-Peer Styles
agency boundary
  • Consensus-Based Styles
  • Consensus-Free Styles

Elaborated

Techniques

  • Bitcoin
  • and other distributed ledger schemes.

Computational REpresentational State Transfer (CREST)

Is just like functional programming.

  • The Poetry
    • mashups of Web culture are “the same as” continuations in programming language theory & culture. c.f. Scheme & SML
    • 300-series redirects are continuations

Principles

CP1
The key abstraction of computation is a resource, named by an URL.
CP2
The representation of a resource is a program, a closure, a continuation, or a binding environment plus metadata to describe the program, closure, continuation, or binding environment.
CP3
All computations are context-free.
CP4
Only a few primitive operations are always available, but additional per-resource operations are also encouraged.
CP5
The presence of intermediaries is promoted.

Concept

  • Ship code+data as a package to evaluate off-box (over there, on their box).
  • Receive code+data as a package to evaluate on-box (here on our box).
  • What could go possibly wrong here? [over there?]

Elaborations

  • Justin R. Erenkrantz. Computational REST: A New Model for Decentralized, Internet-Scale Applications. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2009.
  • Justin R. Erenkrantz, Michael Gorlick, Girish Suryanarayana, Richard N. Taylor. Harmonizing Architectural Dissonance in REST-based Architectures. Technical Report UCI-ISR-06-18. Institute for Software Research, University of California, Irvine. 2006.
  • Justin R. Erenkrantz, Michael M. Gorlick, Girish Suryanarayana, Richard N. Taylor. From Representations to Computations: The Evolution of Web Architectures. In ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on The Foundations of Software Engineering (FSE). 2007. pages 255–264.
  • Roy T. Fielding. Maintaining distributed hypertext infostructures: Welcome to MOMspider’s Web. In Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 27, 2. 1994. pages 193–204. doi:10.1016/0169-7552(94)90133-3. Series title? Selected Papers of the First World-Wide Web Conference.

Techniques

  • web mashups
  • session management
  • cookies in client/server interactions
    <quote>, and the (misplaced) role of cookies in client/server interactions</quote>
  • time-dependent resources; e.g. weather forecasts.
  • time-series responses; e.g. stock tickers.

<editorial>Why aren’t cookies necessary again? They uniquely number the consumer base. They are used to develop Measurement, Targeting, Retargeting & Profiling which are the explicit and probably only renumerative use case of the (online) media business model. Oh, right, and paywalls. And, um, public televison-type “membership drive” tip jars.</editorial>

References

There are 59 references.

Abstracted

  • Roy T. Fielding, Richard N. Taylor. Principled Design of the Modern Web Architecture. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). 2000. pages 407–416. IEEE, Limerick, Ireland.

Dissertated

  • Justin R. Erenkrantz. Computational REST: A New Model for Decentralized, Internet-Scale Applications. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2009.
  • Roy T. Fielding. Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, California, USA. 2000.
  • Michael Martin Gorlick. Computational State Transfer: An Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. Technical Report UCI-ISR-16-3. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2016.
  • David Alan Halls. Applying Mobile Code to Distributed Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. 1997.
  • Michael Hicks. Dynamic Software Updating. Ph.D. Dissertation. Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 2001.
  • Rohit Khare. Extending the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, California, USA. 2003.
  • Mark Samuel Miller. Robust Composition: Towards a Unified Approach to Access Control and Concurrency Control. Ph.D. Dissertation. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2006.
  • Peyman Oreizy. Open architecture software: a flexible approach to decentralized software evolution. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.
  • Emmet James Whitehead, Jr. An Analysis of the Hypertext Versioning Domain. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2000.

Complete

  1. T. Aura, P. Niklander. Stateless Connections. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Security (Lecture Notes In Computer Science), Y. Han, T. Okamoto, S. Qing (editors), Vol. 1334. Springer-Verlag, 1997. pages 87–97.
  2. Tim Berners-Lee, Robert Cailliau, Ari Luotonen, Henrik Frystyk Nielsen, Arthur Secret. The World-Wide Web. In Communications of the ACM, 37, 8. 1994-08. pages 76–82. doi:10.1145/179606.179671.
  3. Tim Berners-Lee, Roy T. Fielding, Larry Masinter. Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC 3986. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 2005-01. doi:10.17487/RFC3986.
  4. Tim Berners-Lee, Roy T. Fielding, Henrik Frystyk Nielsen. Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.0. RFC 1945. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 1996-05. doi:10.17487/RFC1945.
  5. Tim Berners-Lee, Jean-Francois Groff. The World Wide Web (a.k.a. WWW). In SIGBIO Newsletter, 12, 3. 1992-09. pages 37–40. doi:10.1145/147126.147133.
  6. Keith Bonawitz, Vladimir Ivanov, Ben Kreuter, Antonio Marcedone, H. Brendan McMahan, Sarvar Patel, Daniel Ramage, Aaron Segal, Karn Seth. Practical Secure Aggregation for Federated Learning on User-Held Data. In Proceedings of the NIPS Workshop on Private Multi-Party Machine Learning. 2016. landing.
  7. Antonio Carzaniga, David S. Rosenblum, Alexander L. Wolf. Design and Evaluation of a Wide-Area Event Notification Service. In ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 19, 3. 2001-08. pages 332–383. paywall.
  8. James C. Corbett, Jeffrey Dean et. al. Spanner: Google’s Globally-distributed Database. In Proceedings of the 10th USENIX Conference on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI). 2012. pages 251–264. paywall, landing. slides: pptx, event: session.
  9. Chris Dixon. Crypto Tokens: A Breakthrough in Open Network Design. In His Blog, centrally hosted on Medium. 2017-06.
  10. L. Dusseault. HTTP Extensions for Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WEBDAV). RFC 4918. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 2007.
  11. Justin R. Erenkrantz. Computational REST: A New Model for Decentralized, Internet-Scale Applications. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2009.
  12. Justin R. Erenkrantz, Michael Gorlick, Girish Suryanarayana, Richard N. Taylor. Harmonizing Architectural Dissonance in REST-based Architectures. Technical Report UCI-ISR-06-18. Institute for Software Research, University of California, Irvine. 2006.
  13. Justin R. Erenkrantz, Michael M. Gorlick, Girish Suryanarayana, Richard N. Taylor. From Representations to Computations: The Evolution of Web Architectures. In ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on The Foundations of Software Engineering (FSE). 2007. pages 255–264.
  14. Roy T. Fielding. Maintaining distributed hypertext infostructures: Welcome to MOMspider’s Web. In Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 27, 2. 1994. pages 193–204. doi:10.1016/0169-7552(94)90133-3. Series title? Selected Papers of the First World-Wide Web Conference.
  15. Roy T. Fielding. Relative Uniform Resource Locators. RFC 1808. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 1995-06. doi:10.17487/RFC1808.
  16. Roy T. Fielding. Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, California, USA. 2000.
  17. Roy T. Fielding, Gail Kaiser. The Apache HTTP Server Project. In IEEE Internet Computing. 1, 4. 1997-07. pages 88–90. doi:10.1109/4236.612229
  18. Roy T. Fielding, Henrik Frystyk Nielsen, Jeffrey Mogul, Jim Gettys, Tim Berners-Lee. Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.1. RFC 2068. 1997-01. doi:10.17487/RFC2068
  19. Roy T. Fielding, Julian Reschke. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content. RFC 7231. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 2014-06. doi:10.17487/RFC7231.
  20. Roy T. Fielding, Richard N. Taylor. Principled Design of the Modern Web Architecture. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering. 2000. pages 407–416. IEEE, Limerick, Ireland.
  21. Roy T. Fielding, Richard N. Taylor. Principled Design of the Modern Web Architecture. In ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 2, 2. 2002-05. pages 115–150.
  22. Roy T. Fielding, E. James Whitehead, Jr., Kenneth M. Anderson, Gregory A. Bolcer, Peyman Oreizy, Richard N. Taylor. Web-Based Development of Complex Information Products. In Communications of the ACM, 41, 8. 1998-08. pages 84–92.
  23. Matias Giorgio, Richard N. Taylor. Accountability Through Architecture for Decentralized Systems: A Preliminary Assessment. Technical Report UCI-ISR-15-2. Institute for Software Research, University of California, Irvine. 2015.
  24. Cristiano Giuffrida, Anton Kuijsten, Andrew S. Tanenbaum. 2013. Safe and Automatic Live Update for Operating Systems. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS’13). ACM, New York City, New York, USA, 279–292.
  25. Y. Goland, E. Whitehead, A. Faizi, S. Carter, D. Jensen. HTTP Extensions for Distributed Authoring – WEBDAV. RFC 2518. Internet Engineering Task Force. 1999.
  26. Michael Martin Gorlick. Computational State Transfer: An Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. Technical Report UCI-ISR-16-3. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2016.
  27. Michael M. Gorlick, Kyle Strasser, Richard N. Taylor. COAST: An Architectural Style for Decentralized On-Demand Tailored Services. In Proceedings of 2012 Joint Working Conference on Software Architecture & 6th European Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA/ECSA). 2012. pages 71–80.
  28. David Alan Halls. Applying Mobile Code to Distributed Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. 1997.
  29. Michael Hicks. Dynamic Software Updating. Ph.D. Dissertation. Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 2001.
  30. Irvine Research Unit in Software (IRUS). The Workshop on Internet-Scale Technology (TWIST). A series, 1998-2000.
  31. R. Kadia. Issues Encountered in Building a Flexible Software Development Environment: Lessons from the Arcadia Project. In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Software Development Environments (SDE). 1992. ACM, New York, NY, USA. pages 169–180. doi:10.1145/142868.143768.
  32. Rohit Khare. Extending the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, California, USA. 2003.
  33. Rohit Khare, Richard N. Taylor. Extending the REpresentational State Transfer Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems. In Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). 2004. IEEE Computer Society, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pages 428–437.
  34. Avinash Lakshman, Prashant Malik. Cassandra: A Decentralized Structured Storage System. In SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, 44, 2. 2010-04. pages 35–40.
  35. David Mazieres. The stellar consensus protocol: A federated model for internet-level consensus. Stellar Development Foundation. 2015.
  36. Mark Samuel Miller. Robust Composition: Towards a Unified Approach to Access Control and Concurrency Control. Ph.D. Dissertation. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2006.
  37. Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. 2008.
  38. Peyman Oreizy. Open architecture software: a flexible approach to decentralized software evolution. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.
  39. Peyman Oreizy, Michael M. Gorlick, Richard N. Taylor, Dennis Heimbigner, Gregory Johnson, Nenad Medvidovic, Alex Quilici, David Rosenblum. An Architecture-based Approach to Self-Adaptive Software. In IEEE Intelligent Systems, 14, 3. 1999-05 (May-June). pages 54–62.
  40. Peyman Oreizy, Nenad Medvidovic, Richard N. Taylor. Architecture-Based Runtime Software Evolution. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). 1998. pages 177–186.
  41. Peyman Oreizy, Nenad Medvidovic, Richard N. Taylor. Runtime Software Adaptation: Framework, Approaches, and Styles. In Companion of 30th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE Companion). 2008. ACM. pages 899–910.
  42. Peyman Oreizy, Richard N. Taylor. 1998. On the role of software architectures in runtime system reconfiguration. In IEE Proceedings-Software, 145, 5. 1998. pages 137–145.
  43. Dewayne E. Perry, Alexander L. Wolf. 1992. Foundations for the Study of Software Architecture. In SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, 17, 4. 1992-10. pages 40–52. doi:10.1145/141874.141884.
  44. Sean Rhea, Brighten Godfrey, Brad Karp, John Kubiatowicz, Sylvia Ratnasamy, Scott Shenker, Ion Stoica, Harlan Yu. OpenDHT: A Public DHT Service and Its Uses. In SIGCOMM Computing Communication Review, 35, 4. 2005-08. pages 73–84.
  45. Alan Shieh, Andrew C. Myers, Emin G. Sirer. Trickles: A Stateless Network Stack for Improved Scalability, Resilience, and Flexibility. In Proceedings of Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation,/em> (NSDI), Vol. 2. USENIX Association. 2005. pages 175–188.
  46. Alan Shieh, Andrew C. Myers, Emin Gün Sirer. A Stateless Approach to Connection-Oriented Protocols. In ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 26, 3. 2008-09. pages 8:1–8:50.
  47. James W. Stamos, David K. Gifford. Implementing Remote Evaluation. In IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 16, 7. 1990-07. pages 710–722.
  48. James W. Stamos, David K. Gifford. Remote Evaluation. In ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), 12, 4. 1990-10. pages 537–564.
  49. Chengzheng Sun, Xiaohua Jia, Yanchun Zhang, Yun Yang, David Chen. Achieving Convergence, Causality Preservation, and Intention Preservation in Real-time Cooperative Editing Systems. In ACM Transactions on Complicating Human Interactions (HCI), 5, 1. 1998-03. pages 63–108.
  50. Richard N. Taylor, Nenad Medvidovic, et al. A Component- and Message- Based Architectural Style for GUI Software. In Transactions on Software Engineering. 1996-06. pages 390–406.
  51. Richard N. Taylor, Nenad Medvidovic, Eric M. Dashofy. Software Architecture: Foundations, Theory, and Practice. John Wiley & Sons. 2010. ASIN:B012AQ8M42: Kindle: no, paper: $151-$600.
  52. Richard N. Taylor, Nenad Medvidovic, Peyman Oreizy. Architectural Styles for Runtime Software Adaptation. In Proceedings of the Eighth Joint Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture and Third European Conference on Software Architecture. IEEE Computer Society, 171–180. 2009.
  53. R.D. Tennant. 1976. The Denotational Semantics of Programming Languages. In Communications of the ACM 19, 8. 1976-08. pages 437–453.
  54. M. Thomson, E. Damaggio, B Raymor. Generic Event Delivery Using HTTP Push. RFC 8030. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 2016.
  55. Emmet James Whitehead, Jr. An Analysis of the Hypertext Versioning Domain. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. 2000.
  56. Emmet James Whitehead, Jr., Yaron Goland. The WebDAV Property Design. In Software, Practice and Experience 34 2004, 135–161.
  57. Wikipedia. 2017. Representational state transfer,/a>. In Wikipedia. 2017.
  58. Scott Wolchok, J Alex Halderman. Crawling BitTorrent DHTs for Fun and Profit. In Proceedings of the Fourth USENIX Workshop on Offensive Technologies (WOOT10). 2010.
  59. Gavin Wood. 2014. Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger. Paper 151. Ethereum Project Yellow Papers 2014.

Previously filled.

Trip report: Summer ISO C++ standards meeting (Toronto) | Sutter’s Mill

Herb Sutter; Trip report: Summer ISO C++ standards meeting (Toronto); In His Blog entitled Sutter’s Mill; 2017-07-15.

Mentions

  • Concepts TS
    • “introducer syntax”
    • “terse/natural syntax”
  • Draft C++20
  • C++17
  • Modules TS
  • Coroutines TS
  • Networking TS
  • atomic_shared_ptr<T>
  • Latches
  • Barriers
  • Reflection
  • Library Evolution [Working Group]
  • SG1
  • CppCon

Something About…

  • several new containers
  • compile-time programming
  • metaclass programming

and…

  • modules
  • contracts

Definitions

“IS”
The “international standard” is core [of the] C++ standard.
a.k.a. “trunk.”
“TS”
The “technical specification” is a document separate from the main standard. Experimental features can start here before being put into the IS.
a.k.a. “beta branches.”
Current Status
See the actualities, below.

Who

  • Bjarne Stroustrup
  • Gabriel Dos Reis
  • Andrew Sutton

Referenced

Proposals
  • P0194compile-time reflection
  • P0244Unicode support
  • P0355date library
  • P0329Add designated initializers.
    e.g. struct A { int x; int y; int z; }; A b{.x = 1, .z = 2};
  • P0409Allow lambda capture [=, this].
  • P0428Allow template parameter lists on lambdas.
    e.g. auto f = []<typename T>(std::vector<T> vector) { /*…*/ };
Issues
  • BUG 311remove deprecated features

Previously

In His Blog

Actualities

Previously filled

A Comprehensive Look at Low Power, Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) | LinkLabs

A Comprehensive Look at Low Power, Wide Area Networks (LPWAN); a whitepaper; LinkLabs; 2017?; 16 pages (2 of content)
Teaser: For ‘Internet of Things’ Engineers and Decision Makers Important People Like You

Promotion

Mentions

  • Low Power, Wide Area Network (LPWAN)
  • Internet of things (IoT)
  • Machine to Machine (M2M)
  • Topologies
    • Mesh
    • Star
  • Energy per symbol
    • Shannon-Hartley Theorem
    • Information Theory
  • Regulations
    • FCC Part 15 (requrement)
    • ETSI (rules)
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
  • Radio Frequency (RF)
  • Code Division Multiplexing (CDMA)
  • Chirp Spread Sprectum (CSS)
  • Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
  • LoRaWAN
  • Groupe Speciale Mobile Association (GSMA)
  • Adaptive Data Rate
  • IoT Platform sector
  • Cellular IoT (CIoT) LPWAN.
  • Forking 4G with LTE-M.
  • LoRa, LoRaWAN
  • “clobbered,” a technical term.
  • Band
    • Europe (868 MHz)
      U.S. (915 MHz)
  • MAC
  • SATCOM
  • MTU
  • Ultra Narrowband (UNB) Radio
  • Random Phase Multiple Access (RPMA)
  • BPSK
Definition
  • long range
    10km
  • low power
    Aspirationally: half-a-generation, a decade, ten years.
  • low data rate
    metaphorical inverse of “blazing-fast”

Folklore

  • ZigBee has “trouble” in the 20-30m range; unusable beyond 30m.
  • Star topology is best.
  • LPWAN operate at 140-160 decibels (dB) of total path.
  • Receiver sensitivity
    • LPWAN  is more than -130 dBm
    • [some] other wireless is within -90 to -110 dBm.
  • The 915 MHz band is available only in ⅓ of the world.
    Therefore LPWAN is “not ready”
    There is no globally available band for LPWAN technologies like there is at the 2.4 GHz level (for Bluetooth and WiFi).

Standards

  • 802.11 of IEEE
    • 802.11ac
    • 802.11ad
    • 802.11n
    • 802.11a
    • 802.11g
    • 802.11b
  • 802.15 of IEEE
    • 802.15.4 ZigBee
    • 802.15.4 WPAN
    • 802.15.4k Nwave, Random Phase Multiple Access (RPMA)
    • 802.15.5 WBAN
  • The ‘G of The Telecom Sphere
    • 2G
    • 3G
    • 4G
    • 5G
    • you guessed it … “6G”
  • Bluetooth
    • Bluetooth (Classic)
    • Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
  • and
    • RFID
    • NFC

Products

  • Sigfox

    • What Is Sigfox
    • Proprietary
    • Concept
      12-byte packets, 300 baud, BPSK
      message repetition.
      15 byte messages, 10 messages/day up, 4 acknowledgements/day (down).
    • Something about: 2015, protocol upgrade, guaranteed message acknowledgment for up to four messages per day.
    • Scheme
      BPSK, 868 MHz,,915 MHz
  • Nwave
    • Proprietary
      • Capabilites unknown
      • Unpublished, undocumented
    • Scheme
      Ultra Narrowband (UNB) radio, sub-1 GHz ISM bands.
  • Ingenu
    • Proprietary
    • Founder, IEEE 802.15.4k task group
    • Something about: has a MAC concept.
    • Scheme
      Random Phase Multiple Access (RPMA); 2.4GHz
  • Weightless
    • Weightless Special Interests Group (SIG)
      unknown, unproven specifications & capabilities.
    • Concept
      10 year battery life
      2-way communication
    • Three sub-standards.
      • Weightless-W
    • Scheme
      sub-1GHz, unlicensed; in “unused TV spectrum”
  • LoRaWAN
    • LoRa Alliance
      • Specification, request
      • Intellectual Property
        • Semtech
        • with
          • IBM Research
          • Actility.
    • Concept
      Like Sigfox, but different
    • Dependencies
      • Any “code” must b be run off-box “in the cloud.”
      • Requires a “cloud vendor.”
      • Thus, heavy monthly fees for the compute.
        How much would you pay to have “smart light bulb?”
        With a monthly “subscription” and bill presentment?
    • Vendors
      • none
      • Aspiration
        • STMicroelectronics

Referenced

Actualities

Link Labs, 130 Holiday Court, Suite 100, Annapolis, MD 21401,

LinkLabs
130 Holiday Court, Suite 100
Annapolis, MD 21401,
http://www.nwave.io/

Previously filled.

Tech is Public Enemy #1. So Now What? | John Battelle

John Battelle; Tech Is Public Enemy #1. So Now What?; In His Blog, white-labeled as NewCo, centrally-hosted on Medium; 2017-09-10.
Teaser: If tech wants to reverse the crushing tide of negative public opinion, it must start creating public good commensurate with its extraction of private profit.

tl;dr → Agree, perhaps. But it’s not clear to what one is agreeing at all. Whereas the lede is buried; that being the promotion of Richard Florida’s book The New Urban Crisis.
and → Unto the hook of the title: For the sin, The Nostrum. To wit:

Nostrum
  • Enumerate.
  • Confess,
  • Repent,
  • Restitute, reparate.
  • Return.

Occasion

John Battelle interviewed Richard Florida towards a book promotion.

Book

Richard Florida The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class—and What We Can Do About It 1st Edition ; Basic Books; 2017-04-11; 336 pages; ASIN:0465079741: Kindle: $18, paper: $12+SHT.

Mentions

  • Where “tech” is Apple, Amazon, Facebook, Google, and maybe Netflix (rly?).
  • And JB foresaw it in a vision of 2017-01; fair. he also “saw” it in 2011-12, had Microsoft in the cohort, and pitched “The Internet Big Five” as a gushing chronicle-of-the-times, only-time-will-tell honorific of boosterist veneration. indeed though, it’s okay to change one’s mind upon further reflection.
  • Richard Florida is granted 191 words at the end to speak as a threat.
    Whereas Richard Florida has a direct line to Congress.
    Unless his demands are met … something will happen
  • Google Apple Facebook Amazon (GAFA),
    Google Amazon Facebook Apple (GAFA)
  • Facebook Amazon Netflix Google (FANG),
    Facebook Apple Netflix Google (FANG)
  • No Wintel.  The PC Revolution is over O.V.E.R.
    • No Microsoft?
    • No Intel?
Definition: the “tech” is an enumeration
  • Apple → fabless. Purveyors of phones & some laptops.
  • Amazon → Retail reseller. Cloud (billed as a service).
  • Facebook → Entertainment. laid against advertising.
  • Google → Fabless, phone designs. Cloud (billed as a service), Advertising marketplaces.  And 25 other hobbies as “Alphabet.”
  • Netflix → Licensed video entertainment. An Amazon cloud customer.
    …can’t really seriously belong in the class of the first four can it?

Epithets

  • Uber — a company that proved a perfect exemplar of tech’s most sociopathic characteristics*.
  • <quote>The bro culture long parodied in popular culture proved to be virulently on display at the world’s most valuable startup — misogyny, tone deaf management, winning at all costs, ignorance of social and political consequence.</quote>
  • Everything Store
  • <quote>rapacious and robotic approach to platform capitalism</quote>
  • Amazon’s purchase of Whole Foods
  • Big Tech
  • fake news
  • Russian information ops
  • <quote>They’re extracting — but giving nothing back.</quote>

Rebuttal

New bogies for new panics, not the old bogies from old panics…

Missing

Anyone that actually makes things out of actual atoms. No one is afraid of companies that fabricate things out of atoms.

  • Industry (even so called “light industry”)
  • Big Defense (denizens of ‘I’ in Military-Industrial Complex)
  • Big Oil
  • Big Food
  • Big Finance, a.k.a. “Wall Street”
  • Big Auto
  • Big Semiconductor
  • Big Telecom
  • Big Blue, a.k.a. IBM
  • Big Mining
  • Big Ads, a.k.a. “Madison Avenue”
  • Big Media, a.k.a. major market television
  • Big Music, a.k.a. “the Record Labels”
  • Big Hollywood, a.k.a. “The Movie Studios”
  • Big Newspaper
  • Big Cable
  • The Diamond Cartel, e.g. de Beers
  • Railroad Trusts
  • Anyone on the Conference Board.
    Remember the “interlocking directorate” research of ‘ago?
  • The QSR, as a self-conscious class.
  • Disney
  • Microsoft
  • Walmart
  • McDonald’s

And

  • No Japanese conglomerates. Remember MITI-managed organized markets?
  • No European national champions. Remember the ’90s?

Referenced

In archaeological order, newer outbursts on top, older opinements below…

Previously

In His Blog

Related

The publishing pile-on exponentially increasing across 2015, 2016, 2017. There are many more than are presented here. Everyone is sayin’ it, doin’ it; walkin’ the walk, talkin’ the talk. Yet presented here in archaeological order, newer outbursts on top, older opinements below…

Previously filled.

Out of Action: Do protests work? | The New Yorker

Out of Action: Do protests work?; Nathan Heller; In The New Yorker; 2017-08-14.
Teaser: Skeptics suggest that “folk politics”—marches, protests, and the like—are a distraction from the challenges of real change.

tl;dr → No.  Betteridge’s Law. folk politics as “leaderless” slactivism does not work; “leader”-based, top-down circa 1955-1965 did work; see Zeynep Tufekci.

Summary

<quote>Tufekci’s conclusions about the civil-rights movement are unsettling because of what they imply. People such as Kauffman portray direct democracy as a scrappy, passionate enterprise: the underrepresented, the oppressed, and the dissatisfied get together and, strengthened by numbers, force change. Tufekci suggests that the movements that succeed are actually proto-institutional: highly organized; strategically flexible, due to sinewy management structures; and chummy with the sorts of people we now call élites.</quote>

Mentions

  • “folk politics”
    • Attributed to Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams in Inventing the Future
    • Constitutes
      • authenticity-mongering
      • <quote>reasoning through individual stories [is] also a journalistic tic</quote>
      • <quote>a general inability to think systemically about change&lt/;quote>
    • “This is politics transmitted into pastime—politics-as-drug-experience, perhaps—rather than anything capable of transforming society”
    • <quote>Their objection to protest and direct action defies generations of radical zeal. “The people, united, will never be defeated!” the old street chant goes. These lefties say that, actually, they will.</quote>
    • <quote><snip/>the left, despite its pride in being progressive, is mired in nostalgia.
      “Petitions, occupations, strikes, vanguard parties, affinity groups, trade unions: all arose out of particular historical conditions,” they say. They think that modernizing these things for an internationalized, digitized world will free us from what they vividly call our “endless treadmill of misery.” Protest is fine for digging in your heels. But work for change needs to be pragmatic and up-to-date. </quote>
    • <quote>Inventing the Future may be the shrewdest, sanest pipe dream of a book published since the recession.</quote>
  • “the multitude”
    • Attributed to Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri; Assembly (Heretical Thought);
    • Constitutes
    • …some things…

Quotes

  • <quote><snip/>the killings of “more than” forty unarmed black people by law-enforcement officers. A majority of these officers were not indicted, however; of those that were, three were found guilty. To date, only one of the convicted has received a prison sentence.</quote>
  • …more…

Referenced

Previously

In The New Yorker

Datelined
Essays

Soup

  • New York
  • London
  • 2003
  • Occupy Wall Street
  • misdeeds of the finance industry
  • stranglehold of corporate power
  • predations of inequality.
  • Autumn 2011
  • Zuccotti Park
  • lower Manhattan.
  • 2014.
  • Black Lives Matter (B.L.M.)
  • demonstrators
  • Missouri
  • Women’s March
  • female empowerment
  • just-inaugurated President
  • boulevards in cities
  • New York
  • Washington
  • London
  • Los Angeles
  • First Amendment
  • “the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances”
  • Stamp Act boycotts of the seventeen-sixties
  • 1913 suffrage parade and the March on Washington
  • 1963
  • Tom Lehrer
  • Arab Spring
  • Macau
  • the feminism-and-rationalism-flaunting event known as Boobquake.
  • strident
  • Boobquake
  • Brainquake.
  • smartphones
  • social media
  • made organizing easier
  • social theatre
  • folk politics
  • authenticity-mongering
  • reasoning through individual stories [is] also a journalistic tic
  • channelling the righteous sentiments of those involved over the mechanisms of real progress.
  • pastime—politics-as-drug-experience
  • [not] wing nuts of the right
  • [not] stodgy suits
  • [not] quailing centrists.
  • Marx-infused leftists
  • “post-work,” open-bordered world.
  • “postcapitalist”
  • shorten the work week
  • a generous and global basic income
  • when robots take our jobs.

Previously filled.

Marketing Technology Landscape Supergraphic (2017): Martech 5000


(ChiefMarTec); Marketing Technology Landscape Supergraphic (2017): Martech 5000; In Their Blog; 2017-05-10.

Occasion

Martech 5000
Slide
copy, original
JPEG
copy, original
PDF
copy, original
Sheet

Licentious licentiate: <quote ref=”cite“>Feel free to cut-and-paste this data and use it as a starting point for your own research.</quote>

Mentions

  • Integration-Platform-as-a-Service(iPaaS, IPaaS)
    • are “distributed” platforms
    • perform <quote>[as] dynamically piping data between marketing applications and [a] data lake.</quote>
  • Content Management System (CMS)
    • are platforms, per se
    • are centralized
    • are repositories of data and services
    • Gartner staff renamed them digital marketing hub
  • Among: DMP, CDP, RTIM
    • is a subtle blending among them
    • The Spectrum
      • Data Management Platforms (DMP),
      • Customer Data Platform (CDP),
      • Real-Time Interaction Management (RTIM)

Exemplars

Content Management System (CMS)

  • Adobe
  • HubSpot
  • IBM
  • Marketo
  • Oracle
  • Salesforce
  • Sitecore

IPaaS, now with Microservices!

  • Boomi, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dell, a.k.a. Dell Boomi
  • Informatica
  • Jitterbit
  • Mulesoft
  • Segment
  • Zapier

The Spectrum Among: DMP, CDP, RTIM

Customer Data Platform (CDP)
  • AgilOne
  • Lytics
  • RedPoint
  • Tealium
  • Treasure Data
  • Usermind
Data Management Platform (DMP)
As a feature, not even Line of Business
  • Adobe
  • Oracle
  • Salesforce
Standalone
  • DataXu
  • MediaMath
  • Neustar
  • Rocketfuel, (sic) Rocket Fuel of Sizmek
Real-Time Importance Management (RTIM)
  • Experian
    but not Acxiom? EXPM contra ACXM …”the same, but different” aren’t they?
  • Infor
  • Pegasystems
  • SAS
  • Teradata

Credited

Iterations

Argot

  • Content Management System (CMS)
  • Customer Data Platform (CDP)
  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
  • Data Lake, an inelegant metaphor,
    a body corpora of water data facts in a controlled-but-unstructured format.
  • Data Management Platform (DMP)
  • Digital Marketing Hub (DMH)
    Gartner ‘lingo for the MarTech genre.
  • Enabler
    Doesn’t actually do the work, but still sends a bill for allowing it to occur.
    Usage: <quote>iPaaS and microservice platform enablers.</quote>
  • Integration-Platform-as-a-Service (iPaaS)
  • Long Tail
  • Marketing Automation Platform (MAP)
  • Microservices
  • Platform-as-a-Service (iPaaS)
  • Real-Time Interaction Management (RTIM)
  • Service-as-a-Service (SaaS)
  • Success-as-a-Service, a scheme.
    e.g. 2&20.

Referenced

Previously

In Their Blog

Actualities

Licentiate: ibidem.